Grammer translation method1


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Grammer translation method1

  1. 1. Grammar translation method Classical method/ prussian method A . Theory of language There is no linguistic theory supporting GTM. B . Theory of learning GTM follows faculty psychology. C .The goal of GTM The learners be able to read literature written in the target language D. Designs  The mother tongue is the medium of instruction
  2. 2.  Deductive grammar  Accuracy is emphasized  There is little or no attention on speaking or listening.  Memorization of bilingual word lists  Reading of difficult classical text is begun early. E. CRTICAL OVERVIEWS of GTM 1. It is theoryless.(Richards &Rogers) 2. It does nothing to enhance a student communicative ability in language(Brown) 3. Use of disconnected sentences.
  3. 3. The direct method It was developed by Berlitz . simulating the natural way in which children learn the first language. A . The goal of direct method 1. The students should be able to think in the target language. The students should be able to communicate in the target language. B .theories of language and language learning There is no theory that support this method. B . Designs  Target language is a medium of instruction.  Every day vocabulary and sentences were taught.  Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.  Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.  Concrete vocabulary was taught by demonstration ,objects , pictures.(teacher demonstrates not translate)
  4. 4. Concrete vocabulary was taught by demonstration ,objects , pictures.(teacher demonstrates not translate) C . Critical overview of direct method 1. It was difficult to implement in public education because of high prices , small class and native teacher 2. It lacked a rigorous basis in applied linguistic theory , for this reason it was criticized by the proponents of Reform Movement. 3. It required teacher who were native speaker or native like fluency in TL.(Brown believes its success may have been more a factor of the skill or personality of the teacher than of the methodology itself.
  5. 5. Oral approach or situational approach A . Theory of language A British version of structuralism which argues for a close relationship between language structure and the context in which it is used, they believe that speech is the basis of language. B. Theory of language learning Behaviorism or habit learning theory (there are many similarities between Situational Language Teaching & Audiolingualism) C. The goal of oral approach The objective is to provide the learner with a practical command of four language skills along with accuracy in grammar
  6. 6. C. designs • Inductive grammar • PPP(presentation,practice,practice,production) • Errors are avoided • Accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar • Automatic control of basic structures and sentence patterns • Structural syllabus & a word list • The medium of instruction is the TL • Language teaching begins with the spoken language. • Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple forms should be taught before complex ones.
  7. 7. Critical overview 1. Chomsky had demonstrated that the structural theories of language wee incapable of accounting for the basic characteristic of language the creativity , the uniqueness of individual sentences. 2. British applied linguistic emphasized the need to focus in language teaching on communicative proficiency rather than on mere mastery of structures.
  8. 8. The Audiolingual method Army method/mim - mem method /michigan method A. Theory of language Structural linguistics B. Theory of learning Behaviorism : they cited learning forgin language is a verbal behavior. e.g skinner said “w have no reason to assume that verbal behavior differs in any fundamental respect from non verbal behavior. c. Design 1.Goal of ALM
  9. 9. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Grammar is taught inductively rather than deductively. New material is presented in dialogue form. Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis. Successful responses are reinforced. Very little use of MT by teachers is permitted. Vocabulary is limited and learned in context . The main focus is on the pronunciation. Use of different drills
  10. 10. Critical overview 1.It failed to teach long term communicative proficiency. 2.The theoretical foundations of ALM were attacked by chomsky’s theory of transformational grammar . He rejected the structuralist approach and said language is not a habit structure.
  11. 11. The community language learning A . Theory of language and learning Humanistic psychology .they believe language is a social process . It engage the students as whole person both cognitive and affective diamon. B. Counseling learning theory ; it combined the course of language learning with the dynamics & principles of counselin C. Goal of CLL d. Designs 1. The students are considered as “learner_clients” 2. A relationship of trust & support is essential to the learning process 3. CLL does not use a conventional language syllabus.
  12. 12. 4. 5. 6.     Grammar & vocabulary are taught inductively. Students apply the TL independently & without translation when they feel confident enough. SAARD Security Attention& aggression Retention Discrimination Critical overview 1. It lacked a syllabus which make objectives unclear & evaluation difficult to accomplish. 2. The focus on fluency rather than accuracy which may lead to inadequate control of rammatical system of TL. 3. The teacher could become more non directive.
  13. 13. 4. CLL has inductive strategy of learning. It is well accepted that deductive learning is a viable strategy of learning & the adults can benefit from deductive as well as inductive. 5. The success of CLL depends on the translation expertise of the counselor. 6. It can not be used for large class with different native speakers & background.