Struggle and Survival:
Thomas Peter lived in Nigeria at the age of 22 and
was a member of the Egba branch of the Yoruba
In 1760 he was captured by the African Slave
Traders. He was branded, sold and transported on
On this journey they were treated brutally by being
whipped and had coal put on their lips; many people
He started his own revolution in French Louisiana
because he was deprived of his right.
At the end of the war Peter, his wife and kids were
evacuated and sent to New York by the British.
Three thousand others were relocated too.
In 1783 he was moved again to Nova Scotia where
they were not accepted.
Thomas Peter lived 45 years and 32 years he
struggled for freedom and survival.
He was born in Buenos Aires in the 18th Century
when the city was a major beneficiary to Spain.
Eventually he opened his shop in Calle Santo
Domingo. He struggled greatly to get the rich clients.
He became a member of the guild because he
thought the members were incompetent.
The draft in 1789 allowed nonwhites to participate.
He was looked up to by the other nonwhite workers because he
back wealthy by working hard.
In March 14, 1791 there was full access to the guild. And in
June 1792, Romeo, a man that helped Francisco, won
presidency and Francisco became an officer.
December 1792 they lost their positions.
They fought to organize a Negro and racial mixed master to be
separated from the white control. They were denied because it
would create more competition.
In 1803, Francisco Baquero left the public life. It is believed
that he died in 1810.
In May 1607, 105 Englishmen invaded in marshy lowlands of
After four decades that 105 men turned into 15,000 people.
One of the first successful British American colonies was by the
Algonquian Indians, which are known as the Powhatans.
Opechancanough was trained from boyhood to be the leader of
the Powhatans in war and peace.
In 1607, the Powhatan people ruled the largest unified
chiefdom in Virginia called Tsenacommacan. It consisted of
12,000 people and one of the tribe leaders was
In both 1608 and 1612, Opechancanough was
extremely humiliated when Pipscole stole his wife.
The ten year war began on March 22, 1622 when
330 Englishmen were killed. Its highest point of the
war was in 1624.
Both sides found it was very hard to dominate the
others and in 1632 the war ended with
Opechancanough on top.
There was a peace agreement set up in 1632.
Opechancanough was captured and murdered in
1646 by the English.
Juan de Morga and Gertrudis
Juan de Morga and Gertrudis de
Escodar where both young mulatto
slaves who were living in Mexico during
the middle years of the 17th century.
They worked their lives in the colonial
Juan de Morga’s was born a slave but
unlike many other slaves, Juan
learned how to read and write.
Juan de Morga and Gertrudis
Gertrudis de Escobar was born around 1644. Both of her parents died
when she was a child leaving her and her 5 brothers and sisters
She was put to work in the convent of Mexico City as a servant. She
got beaten many times by the nuns for misbehaving.
She denied believing in god and was punished for blasphemy. As
her punishment she was sent to work on the sugar plantations by the
priest, which she later found out that she was sold to the owner.
On the sugar Plantation she was whipped for not making her quota
and then put to work all night. Gertrudis made many attempts to
escape but was returned. She ran away for 3 days and later returned
herself. She was punished with chains and 300 lashes.
Gertrudis was remembered as being drunken, violent, insolent women.
Both these people were gifted individuals. They were both employed
by the colonial society and never broken down. They struggled
through the beatings and were patient and determined to be free.
In 1518 and 1519, Montezuma ordered to have
people imprisoned or executed.
Of these men was Ocelotl. He was one of the
people there were imprisoned but was able to avoid
Ocelotl was born in 1496 and was raised as a young
prodigy. He came from a important priest and came
into control of land from great Tlatoani.
Ocelotl was one of nine people who were sent by the
lord of the village to tell Montezuma about signs they
saw in 1519. On this journey he was imprisoned for
a year and twelve days.
There were rumors that Ocelotl was immortal and
that he could predict the future. He denied this.
In 1533 he predicted that a drought was come in four
years because of past events. He was put on trial
for being a wizard at this point.
The people on jury voted that he be banned and put
in jail. He was put on a ship to Spain and on this
journey; the ship mysteriously went missing at sea.
In 1509 or 1510 Isabel was born the daughter of
Moctezuma and Teotlalco.
Because she was the daughter of Moctezuma, she
was a symbol of great legal and sociological
importance of Mexico. As a wife of a prominent
conquistador, she would become a model of
Hispanicize Indian womanhood.
She was part of the new mixture of society. Isabel
remained married to Alonso de Grado for only 2
years until in 1528 when he showed up dead of
In 1532, as a very wealthy woman, Isabel was
married for the fifth time to Juan Cano de Saavedra
which lasted for 2 decades.
In the first ten years of marriage, Isabel gave birth to
five children with Juan. In 1550, Isabel drew up her
last will and testimony. In her will she gave all her
stuff to her daughters, not her husband.
She died shortly after in 1550. Most of her stuff
when to her elder to sons and the rest was divided
among the six younger children. In her will, she let
all her slaves free. Her body was buried in the
church in San Agustin in Mexico City.
Catarina de Monte Sinay
In 1758, Catarina laid on her death bed from old age and illness
in Bahia. In 1696, Catarina awaited her ceremony when she
would become a Madre.
She was looking forward to the day when she entered the
nunnery for a long time. After the ceremony she would vow to
God, the Virgin, Saint Francis, and Saint Clare that she would
forever honor them.
She had become the Bride of Christ. Catarina lived six years
as a pupil and secular for the nuns. Bahia was the leader of
sugar production and in the early 18th century, the Bahian
people hit some troubled times.
Catarina de Monte Sinay
In the 1670’s, with the depression in Bahia,
the price of sugar went down and they had a
period of hard times. There was a drought
and floods, people were leaving their homes.
Catarina believed that the presence of a
model of saintliness would help clear the
community of their sins.
Madre Victoria was a perfect figure and
Catarina looked up to her. Catarina had
often failed to live up to her creed but she
was very committed to her nun.
Miguel Hernandez was a free mulatto who was born in the 16th
century in Mexico city to Pedro Hernandez and Ana
He was married, raised a family, and became a community
figure. He created a rich and rewarding life in difficult times.
His signature was important because he made it different from
any other Miguel Hernandez, it helped us get an understanding
of the type of person he was.
Miguel chose to leave Mexico City and moved to Queretaro
which was a small agricultural and commercial town. When
Miguel arrived in Queretaro he became a leading mulatto
citizen because he was literate, free, and skilled.
By the end of the 1590’s, his business was booming.
He was able to pay off all his debts in a year.
In 1604 he expanded again and by this time he
owned 20 mules which totaled to the amount of a
Miguel is different for many others, even though he
didn’t reach the top of the social pyramid; he was still
very successful and earned enough to buy property
and slaves. Miguel died suddenly in 1604 leaving
his wife and children behind. He created a life of
meaning and respect for his family and friends.
Jacob’s business was the purchase of fun and animal hides
from the Indians. In 1675, a group of Virginia Militiamen went
into Maryland looking for the Doeg Indians who had raided a
Jacob became a trusted agent of Maryland’s new regime. In
1695 he was licensed to keep a public house and ferry on the
Susquehanna. By this time he was growing old and less
The funny thing about Jacob was he never helps a place in
power or wealth but still made history. He was just a survivor
and the Susquehanna valley would have been no where
without him. He helped with the combining of the Englishmen
and the Indians.
Jacob Young first appears in history as a Dutch
soldier named Jacob Claeson. He came to New
Netherland’s in the middle of the 17th century.
He set up trade with the nearby Indians. He created
a very good business. Throughout the time, he
changed his name multiple times. Jacob was
employed by Maryland’s Lord Baltimore as an
interpreter. He spent his time trading and creating a
new home on Delaware Bay.
The reason he changed from Jacob Claeson to
Jacob Young was because it was very clear that he
became an Englishman.