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  1. 1. Bhuwan Shrivastava5 LearningChapter Objective: After reading this chapter a reader should be able to: • Understand the basic concept of Learning • Differentiate the learning with other terminology used in normal course • Understand the development of learning as a field of study • Realise the importance of different theories and experiment conducted for learning • Understand the usage of different elements used in learning in order to generate the desired results • Understand the defining characteristics of learning • Understand the development of further psychological concepts based on learning Content of this chapter: Introduction, Concept, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Characteristics, Process of Learning, Organisational Behaviour and LearningIntroduction:Learning is the concept, which is being very less, understood over the years or we can say thatthis concept has been taken for granted for many years. This is so, because the misunderstandingof the concept has been so deeply rooted that we tend to give an excuse rather thanunderstanding the same. To many of us learning is still an activity, which we use to performwhen we were in the school or in the colleges. But does that in reality signifies the meaning ofthe concept of Learning or in the other words does that give the actual understanding of theconcept of Learning? The answer can be or in more specific words the answer is NO, aswhatever the understanding these words are trying to come out is not the actual description of thelearning, they are rather the outcomes of the process of learning.The words or the line, which we generally use to describe the process of learning, is notcomplete in real sense. Actually the search for the answer to this question has enticed manyauthors and researchers to get into the real meaning of the concept. In this regard the work ofSaljo is worth mentioning, who, in the year 1979 took the study to identify the deep-rootedmeaning of the concept learning by involving number of adult students and asking what theymean by the term “Learning”; the answer then was summarized in five main categories: 1)Learning is increase in knowledge, 2) Learning is memorizing, acquiring facts, skills, andmethods, 3) Learning is extracting the meaning, 4) Learning is interpreting and understandingreality in a different way. The given references to the definition of the learning suggest the needto understand the concept of Learning as whatever the theme given out by the students of Saljo isnothing but the effect the cause of which is something else. - 41 -
  2. 2. Bhuwan ShrivastavaIn the same way other researchers are also devoting their considerable time in searching the realsoul of the same. Some of them have succeeded and some of them have not. In the furtherparagraphs of this chapter we will be trying to clearly interpretate with the concept of learning ingreat detail. As this concept invites more attention towards the realizing the importance of same,since it can be termed as the mother of all behaviour in the organization and thus it is rightly saidthat if the learning is correct then rest assure that the outcome in the form of behaviour will bethe correct one and appropriate according to the situation.Learning: The ConceptAs said above the concept of learning has stimulated many researcher and academicians over theyears. Their effort form the very beginning was directed towards getting the actual meaning ofthe term Learning so that once identified it can be addressed to the correct direction and anyorganization can utilize this concept to the fullest of its extent. But this was possible only whenonce the actual concept has been understood. In this line, work of Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinnerare considered as the milestone and are taken as the reference to have the better understanding ofthe concept of learning. The thought as given by these two great scientists is generally groupedinto two broad heads. With these two broad categories it will be easier for us to understand thedevelopment of the concept. The two heads are Classical Conditioning & Operant Conditioning.Classical Conditioning:This model of learning takes in to account two important terms i.e. conditioned Stimuli andUnconditioned stimuli. The work in this regard is a result of the work of Russian Scientist IvanPavlov. Pavlov, while studying the function related to the digestive system went further to studythe reason behind the secretion of saliva. For which he conducted many experiments, theexperiment, which came out, as the solution, for the riddle for the secretion of saliva, was theexperiment he conducted with his dog.He used to feed his pet. He conducted the experiment by ringing the bell first and then after thebell has rung he use to serve the pet with the meal. He repeated this process many a times. Butafter the several repetitions of the same he manipulated the offering. He did the same thing i.e.ringing the bell before serving the meal, but this time the food was absent after the ringing of thebell. What he saw was, every time whenever he use to serve the food after ringing the bell, therewas the secretion of saliva inside the mouth of the dog. This secretion of saliva was attached tothe ringing of the bell. Because when he repeated the same process of ringing the bell but notoffering the meal, the secretion of saliva was there but that was only for the limited number oftime. After certain attempts the secretion of saliva was stopped, as the process was repeatedmany number of times. The secretion of saliva was accompanied with a limited number ofringing of bell as after certain exercise the offering of food was stopped and thus the secretion ofsaliva was decreased and at the end it was stopped.This very experiment of Ivan Pavlov provided a fillip to the understanding of learning as aconcept. With this experiment two words aroused which went further to provide a solid base tothe concept of learning. These two words were conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. - 42 -
  3. 3. Bhuwan ShrivastavaStimuli, which was (or which is) considered as the starter for the learning process to initiate.Stimuli mean any information, object or language etc that can draw the attention of the person.Thus in this regard it was divided in to two subparts. Out of which unconditioned stimulus wasthe natural one, and the processed stimuli or the artificial one is the conditioned stimuli, whichcan be altered according to the situation and circumstances. In the experiment of Ivan Pavlov theprocess of secretion of saliva was the unconditioned stimulus. Since this was accompanied by theapplication of the conditioned stimulus (ringing of the bell and showing the meal). It was foundthat in order to get proper response from a person, he/she needs a proper stimulus. Or in otherwords, in order to get the conditioned response, a subject matter needs repeated application ofunconditioned as well as the conditioned stimuli. But this application of the same has to be dealtwith great precision, as the repeated application of the same can create the state of fatigueness ina subject matter (person) pertaining to the set of stimuli. After repeated affair, tendency of notresponding to the stimuli will occur which can prove the application of stimuli worthless. Thisoutcome if applied to the organization, can deliver many meanings. Once an incentive schemehas been launched in the organization, it has to be delivered to the winner other wise the saidscheme will not work as the unconditioned responses have ceased to come. For once it can be okbut if the process is repeated it can create the negative feelings about the organization. Also thisforces the company to ensure that once the incentive has been delivered, whether it has reachedthe actual winner or not. This can also raise the issue pertaining to the credibility of thecompany. Thus you can find, that every company asking for the acknowledgement of receipt ofany incentive or gift from the winner or the recipient.The concept of classical conditioning has a very limited extent. According to Skinner it treats thehuman behaviour as reflexive in nature. But this is not true, as human behaviour is voluntary andnot reflexive in nature. Here, by reflexive, Skinner meant to say that in order to have a certain setof response “some things” are to be done. Thus treating the behaviour as the reflexive. Toaddress this issue B.F. Skinner came up with the concept of Operant Conditioning, whichaccording to Skinner was the best explanation of the concept of the learning.Operant Conditioning:To put forward operant conditioning as the base to the understanding of the theory of learning,B.F. Skinner took the effort to prove his viewpoint as the one, which can describe the causesbehind the learning or behaviour. B.F. Skinner, a writer, psychologist and a teacher, chooses towork as a psychologist after giving up the idea of being a writer. He successfully designed thecommonly known Skinner box, which was developed to ascertain the effect of behaviour of theanimals in the lab.Operant conditioning was the term, which was coined by this great psychologist in describing theconsequences of the behaviour in the re- occurrence of the same behaviour. According to thistheory if given the positive reward to the response, the probability of occurring that response willmore as compared to the response for which there is no reward. The Skinnerian theory of operantconditioning was extension to the Thorndlike’s Law of Effect which says: “Of several responsesmade to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction tothe animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that, ifit recurs, then it will be more likely to recur; those which are accompanied or closely followed bydiscomfort to the animal will, other things being equal, have their connections with that situationweakened, so that, when it recurs, they will be less likely to re - occur. The greater the - 43 -
  4. 4. Bhuwan Shrivastavasatisfaction or discomfort, the greater the strengthening or weakening of the bond.”. In otherword, if the intention of a person is to have a particular set of activity again and again from theperson next to him, then that activity of the performer should be accompanied with the reward. Ifgiven the reward, probability of occurrence of the same will increase as compared to another onefor which there is no provision of any reward.According to the theory of Operant Conditioning, there are four ways by through which we canhave the desired results: Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, andExtinction.Positive Reinforcement: Positive reinforcement takes into consideration the use of reward as themotivational tool for the job to get done or to have the desired behaviour out of the person. If aperson is into certain kind of activity and that his activity is generating the positive result oractivity is into the desired activity criteria of the person, and if the organization demands thatactivity to be repeated again then that activity has to be given the due consideration or thatactivity has to be backed up by some kind of reward or the incentive. This is what the positivereinforcement is. For e.g. if a medical representative of Torrent Pharmaceuticals has achieved histarget and has performed well in his assigned area then that result or the performance of theMedical representative must be duly recognized with reward and the incentive, if the companywants that person to perform well again. But in order to have this system working well followingconditions must be satisfied on the high priority: a) that activity must accompany with the rewardat the same time when the result is there. The delay in the same can nullify the significance of thesame, b) the reward or the incentive so declared should address the need of the receiver. If thesame is not addressing the need then it will not leave any impact on the receiver and thus theprobability of occurring the same will decrease with the time.Negative Reinforcement: It is that type of reinforcement, which addresses the fear stance of theperformer. Theoretically speaking removal or the fear of punishment to have the desiredconsequence is the negative reinforcement. For example, if a person is not performing in theorganization, and if a boss is coming out with the statement that if he is not going to perform thismonth then he may loose his job, or he may get demoted. This fear of getting layoff from theorganization might stimulate a person to perform this month. But the biggest problem whileapplying this type of reinforcement is that the perception of the person whom that was targeted.He may assume that thing to be on the negative note, since it is not necessary that every one havethe same sense of thinking.Punishment: It is way to control the unwanted behaviour form the employee’s side. This is theway, which is not targeted to align the performance, but this is the way, which is targeted toensure the right kind of behaviour. The most common way to make sure that the things move inthe right direction is the come up with the threat or punishment. For example: in order to ensurethat no one smokes inside the railway compartment Indian Railway has declared a monetarypunishment if being caught doing so. This will ensure the concerned organization that theconcerned act is getting performed.Extinction: This is a way to control the consequences through ignoring the unwanted behaviour.It has been found that once behaviour is ignored and it is ignored for the longer period of timethen that the likelihood of occurrence of that behaviour will minimized and the time will comewhen that behaviour will be vanished from the behaviour of the organization. For example: if ina branch of bank an employee reacts to the customer then the occurrence of the irritating - 44 -
  5. 5. Bhuwan Shrivastavabehaviour from the customer will be more as compared to the avoidance of the same from acustomer care executive.The theories as discussed above, considered cause and effect and the relationship betweenStimuli and response as the base for the learning to occur. But the concept of learning will beincomplete if we have not understood the importance of environment in the said context. Hereenvironment means the external and internal environment, which is there with respect to anindividual.To an individual, he is the collection of many subsystems, which in total summed to form abigger picture of system to which we commonly address as the Individual. How an individual issystem? For this, we need to brief ourselves with this term, as system is the concept where itincorporates in to itself the input and then process it within itself and products out that as theoutput from the system. The important point to note here is that, the system works in thecircumstances outer to itself which known as the external environment. It means the environmentin which that system is working is the external environment and the circumstance and thesituation that is helping this system to work is the internal environment. Internal environment toan individual is his value system, belief system, the norms, the philosophy of his life, of hisreligion etc. The environment external to the individual consists of any thing which is there inexternal environment viz. the society, the peer group, brothers, sisters, parents, politics,geography etc.Individual being a system operates in the external as well as the internal environment. Itprocesses the information received from the external environment with perspective to the internalenvironment and takes out that information in the form of output. - 45 -
  6. 6. Bhuwan Shrivastava Application Differences in behaviour and formation of learning This is a diagramatic representation of learning Input process in an individual. As given in the figure, External External an individual is confronted with numerous inputs Environment Environment and other information from the environment which is external to the individual (and that is Input Individual Input why this environment is called as external environment) and indiviudal, with the help of processed information already present and with the help of other elements of internal Input External External environment, will process this inputs which he Environment Environment got it from the external environment. Thus, apart from the information which is received by an individual from the external environment, the internal environment also plays a very vital role in the formation of learning of an individual. That is why, in many of the instances you must have noticed that to an individual, the meaning of some input may be different from another individual. This is very common phenomenon in the organisation that, once confronted with a difficult situation like, over burdening of target, two different individuals will behave differently. There is a probability that some of them may feel very dejected, as they cannot achieve this high target while at the same time some others may feel motivated to perform more so that he can be eligible to earn an incentive. This is so beacause, different individuals have analysed and processed the information in tow different ways and thus the two different behaviour and meaning pattern to the same.As once the individual is positioned in the external environment it receives the information fromthe variety of the elements present there. It stores the information and uses it when needed. Thisis what the learning is. More elaborately saying, individual is bombarded with tonnes and tonnesof information, and stimuli form the outer environment. Here the individual demarcates theinformation so received form the outer/external environments, that which information to use justnow and which information should I keep for the further reference. Thus this process ofreceiving and storing the information from the external environment, in order to use it just nowor for the further reference, is known as Learning. There are two types of learning (thedifferentiation is based on the moment to use the information): 1) the information, which wehave to use just now for the current reference, and 2) the information, which is being stored inthe brain for the reference to be taken in the future. It is to be noted that, it is not in the control ofthe individual for the absorption of the stimuli from the outer environment i.e. that person cannotstop this process from happening. If it is going on then it is because of being out of the controlfor human beings to stop it. Whatever an individual watches around him in the surroundings or - 46 -
  7. 7. Bhuwan Shrivastavain the external environment, a sort of tape recorder, which works inside the brain of theindividual who records all the offerings from that context. Once recorded it is then depends onthe individuals to use it or keep it for the future reference. Once the information is stored insidethe brain, whether it is going to be used for now or for the future reference, this decision andusage in that instance is automatic. It means that an individual don’t have to ask to the brainexplicitly that I’m in the need of information kindly provide me, it comes automatically to theusage of the human being in the appropriate context and circumstances. That’s why it has beensaid that the more a person travels and more the person reads, the more a person becomeslearned. It is obvious that here learned fellow means the person having more number ofinformation stored inside his brain as due to traveling and due to the reading of books he hasexperienced many things which has served as the information to him and thus it was stored.Characteristics:From the above discussion it can be easily said that learning is the concept which possesfollowing characteristics: 1) Ceaseless Process: Learning is the continuous process. It is the process which goes on and on with the life of individual. Once a person is out in the environment his/her learning process starts then and there only. This process cannot be stopped at the will of the person. That is, a person cannot say “enough of learning, now I don’t want any learning”. It will continue even if a person is not ready to accept the things. Since the process of learning depends upon the external environment, and since the external environment is beyond the control of human being, he cannot control the process. Thus it is said that learning is the continuous process. 2) Two forms: Learning basically takes two shapes. The first of its kind works with the conscious mind of the person, and another forms works with unconscious mind of the individual. Basically when an individual is placed in the environment (internal and external), he/she is bombarded with loads of information and stimulant from the same condition. In this way he chooses automatically the type of information to carry on with and which one to store. This is the process, which goes on as an automatic process. The information so stored can be used in future whenever and wherever required. The use of this information is automatic and the person doesn’t have any control as which and when to use. It comes out automatically of its own. 3) Depends upon the External environment: Learning is the process which takes place spontaneously. The major of its content can be attributed to the external environment, in spite of the fact that the learning depends upon both of the environment (internal/external). The major share is attributed to the external one. This is so because with the external environment a person gets the opportunity to interact with other person as well and this interaction and the transaction between these two persons assist them to keep a share of information as information gathering from that source also. 4) Basis of personality of person: The concept of learning has acquired importance over the years because this is the base for the over all personality of the individual. This is so because the information so received from the environment acts as the stimulant for the - 47 -
  8. 8. Bhuwan Shrivastava person and thus provides him the experience; the experience so gained is stored in the minds of that person. This lays the foundation for the learning to occur. The learning so framed will further lead to the formation of the perception of the person. As learning forms the basis for perception. There after this perception will further lead to formation of the attitude and thus at the end formation of behaviour takes place. Thus whatever learning a person is going to have the same kind of behaviour that person is going to reflect. This process will be clearer in the following paragraphs.Learning: The ProcessConsider the diagramme given below: Stimulus Experience Experience Learning Learning Information Perception Perception Personality Personality Behaviour Behaviour Attitude Attitude Personality Development CycleAs shown in the diagramme above, the process of learning starts with the stimulus from theenvironment. The stimulus may contain varied form of information from the externalenvironment. This is not at all necessary that the information so collected has to be from theexternal environment; the stimulus can be from the internal environment as well. Here internalenvironment refers to the meaning of a particular situation a person is deriving. Of course thisderivation of the situation depends on the earlier learning a person had, but this derivation of themeaning forms the base for further learning. The information or the stimulus so collected fromthe environment (internal/external) serves as the raw material for the process of learning to startas this information so collected is going to help the person to form an experience regarding thatsituation. Thus experience in much simpler term can be called as the sum total of all theinformation and the stimulus collected from the environment the composite form helps theindividual to have the learning regarding the situation. - 48 -
  9. 9. Bhuwan ShrivastavaActually whatever information a person is collecting from the outer as well as the inner world,the information so collected is going to be stored within the psyche of a person and further thisstored information helps a person to take decision regarding the situation. Thus we can say thatthe experience acts as the raw material for the learning.Now once the information has been received and the experience has been framed, the directionof the think radar of a person is going to be moved towards that direction where his experiencesabout the subject are asking him to do. This learning about the situation and circumstancesfacilitate a person to develop the thinking about that subject and the thinking developed about thesame helps to develop thinking towards the subject matter. This thinking towards the subjectmatter further facilitate the person to frame the attitude towards that same subject and thus withthis attitude which is more of inner thing the behaviour of the person takes the shape. The detailswill be going to be dealt in further chapters about attitude. The attitude which is coming out inthe form of behaviour from a person is the basic reason for the person to frame his/herpersonality, since personality is nothing but the sum cumulative of the attitude and behaviour aperson has towards the subject matter. In the other words it can be deduced that the behaviour ifperformed over the longer period of time and continued in the same way will lead to thepersonality of the person identified by his approach to think towards the subject. Thus it can besaid that a good learning is required to shape up the good personality. It is like the raw materialfor the personality to take the final face.Organisation behaviour and learning:Once we are ready with this background that learning is all what is required to shape up thebehaviour and in turn the personality of a person, the same principle if applied to theorganisation, can have the positive node. In any of the organisation this theory of learning can beused for the employee to generate the required behaviour which in turn helps to blend thepersonality required for the organisation in specific.From the discussion which we had in above paragraphs, it is clear that in order to have theappropriate behaviour an appropriate input in the form of learning is required. If the environmentis of the company or any of the organisations then the task assumes the importance because thebehaviour which is required by an employee or any member of the organisation should be inconsistent with the objective and the vision set by the organisation. Any inconsistency with thevision or the objective of the company can be fatal one for both organisation and the employee. - 49 -
  10. 10. Bhuwan Shrivastava Application Application of learning in generating customer walk-ins The concept of learning has different implications to different individuals. Because of this different implication to different individuals, learning has emerged as an important field to understand and study. One such use of this concept is to generate the desired responses from the individual. As discussed earlier, an individual when placed in an environment, encounters inputs and other form of informations. Thereafter the analysis of the same occurs. This analysis is given in the form of behaviour of a person. That is why the concept has been used to generate the desired response from individual. This applies to both types of customer, i.e. internal as well as external (the employee and customer). Now a days companies are concentrating on those inputs and information through which the desired response can be generated. The inputs are so designed, that output which an organisation is seeking can be generated. That is why, in order to tackle the intensive competition in the market and to lure more customer, companies provides cozy atmosphere and pleasant to feel environment, so that with this positive input desired positive response can be created. One such example is of ADLABS (now known as BIG Cinemas), which is having almost 200 screens across India, provides relaxed environment and soothing presence in the form of positive inputs so that high customer walk-ins can be generated.Thus it becomes the liability or the task of the organisation to communicate the member (i.e.employee) about the requirement in terms of the behaviour and the personality. On the otherhand it is also required from the organisation’s side to develop and maintain the required amountof inputs to the experience of the employee so that they come up with the behaviour so required.The inconsistency in the behaviour from any of the either side appears in such output like highabsenteeism or high turnover the employee. From other side consequences can be in the form oflow confidence in the employee and lack of trust for the employee. Once these all things are inthe organisation, the result will be as said above the “fatal” one. Thus companies are investinghuge so that such may not occur in their organisation. As in this competitive era it is highlyrequired to retain the employee. Once lost the same employee cannot be back as he was all set in - 50 -
  11. 11. Bhuwan Shrivastavathe organisation, he was well aware with the values, belief and philosophy of the organisation. Ifany new employee is inducted in the organisation then the whole process will be required to berepeated again.Thus the learning has come as the best way to retain and increase the productivity of theemployee and at the end of the whole organisation. It does not involve any huge amount to beinvested in the process. What is required is nothing but the alertness from the top managementside to make things happen. Companies like Bhilai Steel Plant adding huge amount to theirinvestment pattern on this aspect. Because they understand if the employee is happy and satisfiedthey will work more productively and in more efficient manner. Making working environmentsoothing and more conducive is on the priority for every company in today’s competitivescenario. Introducing the concept of PCs in each and every employee’s desk is a commonphenomenon now a day. Providing free mobile phones, engaging the employees for outing orcelebrations like birthday or marriage anniversary are some of the best example of providing thequality input to the employee so that they can have the required behaviour apt for theorganisation to grow productively.It is not necessary at all that for the learning to take place in the organisation the class room isneeded. The people working there in the organisation are the best teachers for new joinee. Theperson newly inducted in the organisation doesn’t need any so called professional trainer to havethe first hand experience about the atmosphere and the environment inside the organisation.Companies are implementing programmes like employee orientation programme or theemployee induction programme. These training programmes are basically intended to give thefirst hand experience to the employee, but what is going to be the ultimate behaviour ofemployee in particular employee will be automatically decided by employee looking at thecircumstances then and there. This process is automatic rather than a conscious one. Anemployee doesn’t decides that this information he wants to receive and this information he donot wants to receive. Every information which an employee is getting bombarded with, isdefinitely going to be accepted. Thus the information so bombarded is going to be floated insidethe employee and will come out as the behaviour of that employee.Here it is required that to have the appropriate input made to the member of the organisationeffort has been made. Because if showered with negative or not so appropriate input then thiseffort of creating the positive impact on the employee will be futile and employee will feel as if itwas, the decision which has forced him to such a situation in which he don’t find himself wellconversant with. Thus this will create a negative impact in psyche of the employee and he/shewill start looking out for the negative points in the organisation as the fire has been ignited inhim of the negative feeling in the organisation due to the carelessness of the top management inthis regard. With this it will be the top management only who is going to face the consequencesfor the not so responsible behaviour.Thus it becomes mandatory to have the conscious effort from the companies point of view or thefrom the top management perspective that they should come up with or they should float suchtype of input in the atmosphere of the company that everyone finds it soothing and conduciveenough to let them grow and nurture in the environment. Thus we can say that the concept oflearning is so important that it ultimately leads to the formation of the environment and theclimate of the company. - 51 -
  12. 12. Bhuwan Shrivastava Application Application of learning in generating customer walk-ins As discussed above, the concept of learning is now widely used to generate the positive and desired response from the customers. Therefore, McDonalds has taken a very different route to get the customer’s expectation on the maximum scale. With more than 31,000 restaurants in 119 countries Mc Donald’s has served different customer with different needs. In India, which is a land of diversity, Mc Donald’s has completed more than 12 years of its operation. India is the first country where Mc Donald’s does not offer any beef or pork. With the respect to the local culture and values the chain has developed menu that will suit to Indian tongue. In order to maintain the highest degree of freshness and hygienic offering Mc Donald’s procure raw – material from local manufactures and cultivators only. It has developed its own Cold Supply chain system, in order to ensure fast and quickest way to transport the material procured from the producer to restaurant. Therefore with all these efforts, Mc Donald’s is making the things confirmed that proper positive inputs should be reached to customers and at the end which can be converted into desired business.This was with regard to the internal customer of the organisation. The same principle if appliedto the external customer can again lead to the encouraging result. As the behavioral aspect of theorganisation also includes the behaviour shown by the external customer (the customer incommon language). Thus it may be found anywhere in the market scenario the effort of thecompanies towards the customer has been changed with the advent of the customer. Everycompany is fighting of the space in the market to grab a pie in the market share. The best wayout is to provide the customer with that input which can lead to the positive response towards thecompany. This can be done by proving them with that experience which has helped a customerto create a positive attitude towards the company and companies’ product. Even companies whoare engaged in the business of petroleum are also changing the way they handle the customerinitially and the way they handle it now. Now every petroleum outlet is full with such input likesoothing lighting, music, extra service like car wash thereby creating an experience towards thatproduct and thus whenever in future customer thinks of that same class of product, automatically - 52 -
  13. 13. Bhuwan Shrivastavahis/her experience will ask him to think on that brand only as initially he had the experiencewhich was highly acclaimed in this regard and thus the attitude was framed accordingly andoutcome was in the form of positive behaviour towards the brand.It is required from the companies end that they should be having the proper stand in that regardand should considerable time so that the failure to make a not may not results in negative result. ++++ Questions 1) Explain the concept of learning? 2) Discuss the different school of thoughts over the concept of learning? 3) How does the experiment conducted by Ivan Pavlov will help managers in shaping there organisation towards the growth path? 4) What significance does B.F. Skinner thinking holds over the concept of learning? 5) Differentiate negative reinforcement with punishment? Which is most appropriate in all circumstances, negative reinforcement or punishment? 6) Is extinction is really required in organisation to frame a decision? 7) How learning is helping different field of concern in there decision making process? 8) Discuss the usage of learning in consumer buyer behaviour? 9) Discuss the usage of concept of learning in managing the attrition level in industries? 10) How learning can be useful in increasing the retention rate in the organisations? Group TaskConduct a research to determine the basic reason for hesitation by an individual to join theacademics from the industry. Your objective is to determine the key determinants which shapethe decision of the individual with respect to staying away from academics. Suggest ways to theorganisation in the said field to attract more and more people from the industry to the academics. Individual Task1) Visit any mall or any multiplex and conduct the research there to determine, the factors whichinfluence the walk-in of customers inside the malls or the multiplex.2) Conduct a research to determine the cause behind the high attrition rate in Indian Insuranceindustry. Suggest the measures to overcome this problem. DiscussionA 1) Discuss the importance of external inputs to the individual in an organisation? How does it effects the productivity and efficiency of an individual in the organisation 2) How does the learning shapes the decision making process of an individual? 3) Can you relate the high attrition rate in IT or BPOs to the process of learning? If yes, discuss with example, in what manner does it effects the retention of an individual in the organisation? What are the measures that can be taken in order to reduce the same? - 53 -
  14. 14. Bhuwan ShrivastavaB Anil was working with ABC financial services limited in a very reputed designation. But being a very different personality from his counterparts he had to join the brand management firm whereby he can display his actual skills to the fullest, according to him, even though he was in much comfortable position in the present organisation. In the meantime he met Mukesh he was thinking to start a brand management firm. He was hunting the heads that can work for him and can help in realizing the vision. And for that he opted to go with Anil because the person he met till this time was not capable according to Mukesh’s standard. Mukesh briefed Anil about his vision, being Anil was looking for this kind of opportunity, Anil decided to go for it. To start with Mukesh offered very less salary to Anil. Being Anil married there was lot many responsibility lying on his shoulder on the personal front. But in the meantime Mukesh also briefed that is Anil remain well committed to the organisation then he will reward him, but for that he has to show his commitment in the twelve months to come. Anil took it as a challenge and decided to accept it on the ground that he will prove his worth. Anil displayed his capabitly to the fullest. He was giving his best. Whatever the task given to him he was the person who was achieving the task. He worked for more than 8-9 hours a day (which was much more than the counterpart in the present organisation), so that when he will request to Mukesh to increase his salary there should not be any point left where he can raise his finger. During his tenure he lost the contact with all his friends and relatives which was more of intentional effort, as according to his viewpoint he is not in well respected position as far as salary is concerned; he decided to rejuvenate that once he received the desired salary, for which he was confident because he has proved his worth. Now it was the turn of Mukesh to show his commitment as it was the 12th month of Anil’s service for which Anil was waiting with much eagerness. Accordingly Anil planned his financial requirements as he was going to receive the remuneration of his expectation. Then one day he got the news that he has received the increment. When he went into the details he was surprised to see that actual amount was much lower than expectation; Mukesh, in accordance with his friendly nature, told him that whatever he has got is much maximum according to the industrial standard. Going much above it can create feeling of disappointment to the other members of organisation as they are better and better trained then Anil. There was no option left for Anil but to accept the remuneration as again changing the job would effect his financial standing. Anil decided to alter his strategy and will work the way others are working in the organisation. Of course this was something which created a gap between Anil and Mukesh as Anil was not the same old fellow he used to be. Mukesh was aware of the situation and was worried over Anil’s act.Q Discuss the situation in the light of the concept of learning. What can be done to this situationso that both of them can have a positive result at the end? - 54 -
  15. 15. Bhuwan ShrivastavaQ What implication, by the act of Mukesh, can bring to the organisation in terms of retention andattrition? - 55 -