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Newtons laws

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  • When slide show runs, the car in animated, showing it hitting the wall and the person flying out because no stopping force was applied to the person.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Newton’s Laws of Motion Red - Write it Teks: 8.6a- Demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the speed or direction of an object in motion 8.6b- differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration Blue - Highlight it
    • 2. 1. Motion: A change in Position
      • A. Distance vs. Displacement
      • 1. Distance: the entire path of travel OR how far you went.
      2. Displacement: the straight line measurement (distance) between starting & ending points (including direction).
    • 3. 2. Speed vs. Velocity
      • Speed: distance traveled divided by the time needed to travel.
      • Velocity: displacement (although distance is usually used) divided by time including direction of travel.
      • Formula: s = d/t
      • Mathematically, Speed and Velocity are the SAME; Velocity adds a direction
    • 4. 3.Graphing Speed: distance over time
      • Constant Speed (top)
        • As the time changes, the distance changes.
        • The steeper the slope, the faster the speed (more distance in less time).
        • The shallower the slope, the slower the speed (more time to cover less distance).
      • Object at rest (bottom)
        • As the time changes, the distance remains unchanged.
    • 5. 4. Acceleration
      • Acceleration: change in velocity divided by the time needed for the change.
      • Since acceleration is a change in velocity ,
      • If you change direction, even without changing speed, you are accelerating!
      • Slowing down is also considered acceleration! It is called negative acceleration .
      • Formula: (final velocity – initial velocity)
      • time
    • 6. 5. Graphing Acceleration: velocity over time
      • Section A: acceleration
      • Section B: no acceleration; constant velocity
      • Section C: negative acceleration
    • 7. 6. Newton’s Laws of Motion
      • To understand Newton’s Laws:
      • Force: a push or pull with a size and direction.
        • Balanced forces: 2 forces that are equal but in opposite directions, canceling each other out.
        • Unbalanced forces: when one force is greater than another, causing a change in motion.
      • Measured in newtons, N .
    • 8. 7. 1 st Law of Motion
      • Objects resist changes in motion!
        • If an object is at rest, it will stay at rest*
        • If an object is in motion, it will stay in motion*
          • *Unless acted on by a force!
      • Also known as: The Law of Inertia
        • More mass = more inertia
    • 9. 8. 2 nd Law of Motion
      • An object acted on by an unbalanced force will accelerate in the direction of the force.
        • Mass (m) & Acceleration (a) affect force (F).
        • Formula: F = ma
        • When falling, acceleration is due to gravity and is a constant: 9.8 m/s 2
    • 10. 9. 3 rd Law of Motion
      • For every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction.
        • When a force is exerted on an object, the object exerts the same amount of force.
    • 11. 10. Force of Gravity: Mass V. Weight
      • B. Mass
        • The amount of matter an object has, regardless of any outside force being applied.
        • On the Moon, your mass would remain the same, but your weight would change.
      • C. Weight
        • The force of gravity multiplied by mass.
        • An object’s weight can change, depending on the pull of gravity.
        • On Earth, it’s calculated as mass X 9.8 m/s 2
        • Measured in Newtons.
      • Gravity: the force of attraction that exists between any two objects that have mass.
    • 12. 11. Friction: A. a force that resists motion & is always present between 2 moving surfaces
      • Rolling friction: friction between a surface and a wheel as the wheel rolls.
      • Sliding friction: friction that occurs when 2 surfaces slide past each other, slowing down the moving object.
      • Static friction: Friction that hinders a stationary object from moving on a surface when a force is applied.
    • 13. 12. Air Resistance: A special form of Friction
      • Why does the feather fall more slowly than the elephant?
        • Acceleration due to gravity is constant at 9.8 m/s 2 ; therefore, the elephant should hit with a stronger force, but not faster.
        • The action of air molecules ‘catch’ on the surface area of an object and slow it down.
        • According to Galileo, without air resistance, both objects would hit the ground at the same time!
    • 14. B. Galileo proved right!
        • While on the Moon, the Apollo astronauts proved Galileo correct.
        • Although they dropped a hammer, not an elephant, the two objects landed at the same time.
      • C. Acceleration due to gravity is a constant – 9.8 m/s 2
      • Acceleration is not affected by the mass of the object!
      • (but slowing down is effected by air resistance)
    • 15. Special note:
      • Answer to number 6 on page 22:postiive

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