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Periodic table of elements


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Periodic table of elements

  1. 1. The Periodic Table of Elements Red - Write it Blue - Highlight it
  2. 2. 1. History of the Periodic Table <ul><li>Early Civilizations knew of elements, such as iron, gold and silver. </li></ul><ul><li>1669: 1 st scientific discovery of an element: phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>1700: 12 elements were known and named. </li></ul><ul><li>1830: 55 different elements had been isolated and named. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 2. Dimitri Mendeleev <ul><li>Russian Chemist. </li></ul><ul><li>Father of the modern periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>1869: published the 1 st periodic table based on properties and mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern showed that elements with similar properties fell into the same groups. </li></ul><ul><li>30 years before 1 st sub-atomic particles were discovered. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2. Dimitri Mendeleev <ul><li>Even left space for elements he knew should exist (due to patterns he found) but not yet discovered. </li></ul><ul><li>Within 15 years, 3 elements he predicted (gallium, scandium, germanium), were found. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: The #s are mass , not protons. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the ? @ 45, 68, 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the columns as if they were rows – what do they resemble? </li></ul>*Europeans use commas as decimals
  5. 5. 3. Henry Moseley <ul><li>Worked under Rutherford. </li></ul><ul><li>1914: Redesigned Mendeleev’s table according to atomic number. </li></ul><ul><li>This redesign solved the discrepancies of Mendeleev’s table. </li></ul><ul><li>Left many spaces for missing (undiscovered) elements . </li></ul><ul><li>Killed in action during World War I. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 4. Periodic Table: Types of Elements <ul><li>Metals: elements that have luster, are malleable and ductile, and are good conductors of heat & electricity. (left, in blue) </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals: elements that are usually brittle solids or gases at room temperature and poor conductors. (right, in yellow) </li></ul><ul><li>Metalloids: elements that share some properties with metals and some with nonmetals. (stair-step, under gases, in green) </li></ul><ul><li>Representative elements: columns 1 & 2, 13 – 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Transition elements: columns 3 – 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Inner Transition elements: below the main table </li></ul>
  7. 7. 5. Alkali Metals: Group 1 (1a) <ul><li>Silvery solid; soft compared to other metals </li></ul><ul><li>Low density and low melting point </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely reactive; especially in water </li></ul><ul><li>1 valence electron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very easy to lose 1 electron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactivity INCREASES as you go down the family. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Francium is much more reactive than Lithium. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is not a metal but is grouped here because of its number of valence electrons. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 6. Alkaline Earth Metals: Group 2 (2a) <ul><li>Denser, harder, higher melting point than group 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts electricity well </li></ul><ul><li>Very reactive but not as much as group 1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to lose 2 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactivity INCREASES as you go down the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Radium is much more reactive than Beryllium. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 7. Boron Family: Group 13 (3a) <ul><li>Metals except for Boron, which is a metalloid </li></ul><ul><li>These elements are used in a variety of products </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive; Bonds with other elements by sharing electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>3 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to lose 3 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactivity INCREASES as you go down the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Thallium is more reactive than Boron. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 8. Carbon Family: Group 14 (4a) <ul><li>Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids </li></ul><ul><li>Bond with many elements by sharing electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon is a semiconductor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely abundant metalloid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in computer chip manufacturing – “Silicon Valley” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose 4 or gain 4; same difference </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 9. Nitrogen Family: Group 15 (5a) <ul><li>Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive: Bonds with other elements by sharing electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to living things in small amounts; deadly in large amounts </li></ul><ul><li>5 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to gain 3 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactivity DECREASES as you go down the family. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen is more reactive than Bismuth. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 10. Oxygen Family: Group 16 (6a) <ul><li>Nonmetals and Metalloids </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen & Sulfur are essential for life; Selenium conducts electricity when exposed to light </li></ul><ul><li>Very reactive </li></ul><ul><li>6 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to gain 2 electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactivity DECREASES as you go down the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is more reactive than Polonium. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 11. Halogens: Group 17 (7a) <ul><li>Nonmetals, except Astatine (radioactive metalloid) </li></ul><ul><li>Halogen means “salt-former” </li></ul><ul><li>Highly reactive </li></ul><ul><li>7 valence electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very easy to gain 1 electron to fill shell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactivity DECREASES as you go down the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorine is extremely reactive, whereas Iodine is the least reactive. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 12. Noble Gases: Group 18 (8a) <ul><li>Nonmetals </li></ul><ul><li>Inert; they do not react with other elements </li></ul><ul><li>Used in various types of lighting </li></ul><ul><li>8 valence electrons (orbital is full) </li></ul><ul><li>Helium is less dense than air and is used in all types of balloons. </li></ul><ul><li>Helium is safer than hydrogen, because Hydrogen catches fire. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 13. Transition Elements: Groups 3 – 12 <ul><li>All are metals; shiny, hard, lustrous </li></ul><ul><li>Most are found combined with other elements in ores </li></ul><ul><li>Most have higher melting pts than Representative E </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury is the only liquid at room temperature </li></ul>Transition Elements (in yellow) <ul><li>Special groups: (‘group’ does not refer to a column.) </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Triad : Iron, Cobalt, Nickel </li></ul><ul><li>Platinum Group : Ruthenium, Rhodium, Palladium, Osmium, Iridium, Platinum </li></ul>
  16. 16. 14. Inner Transition Elements <ul><li>Found below the main table. </li></ul><ul><li>Lanthanides: naturally occurring except Promethium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft metals; can be cut w/a knife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very similar; hard to separate when together as an ore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actinides: synthetic (except Thorium, Protactinium, Uranium) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable nuclei; decay to form other elements </li></ul></ul>