ICT supporting PBL -Phases in projectworkICTs to support project workThomas Rybergryberg@hum.aau.dkDepartment of Communication &PsychologyE-Learning Lab – center for user driveninnovation, learning and design
Program for today12.30–13.15 Introduction and lecture by Thomas Ryberg: “ICT supporting PBL, teaching and research practices” – introducing task to work with in smaller groups13.15–13.20 Short break – pick up coffee and cake for group work13.20–14.30 Group work – working in smaller groups on discussing how particular tools can be adopted to support supervision and collaboration with students during their Problem and Project Based learning14.30-14.45 Short break – preparing for presentations14.45–15.15 Presentations from the groups and discussion of the ideas15.15–15.30 Summing up and evaluation
Outline of presentation• Why ICT as part of group work? – And why should the supervisor be involved?• Phases in the project – And relevant ict-tools• Format – first presentation then small group work (and a bit hands-on) – Double learning goal • Intro to ict tools • Reflection on the use of technology as a supervisor
Why ICT in group work• Project work before ICT – why use ICTs?• Some strength – Storing and sharing – Storing and sharing between different actors (group+supervisor+cluster+semester) – Much group work is ‘backstage’ • Some advantages of gaining insight in the group processes e.g. Brainstorms • Coordination and communication with group e.g. Supervisor contract, minutes • Storing resources for future projects• General increase in use of ICT – preparation for students (competences)• Many students use tools but some also need support
Students’ use of time - lectures,courses and project work50 % Project work : a major assignment within a given subject-related framework determined for each semester (thematic framework).50 % Course work (some courses have separate assessment – some are relieved through the project)
Connection between courses and projects• Every semester is set within a ‘thematic framework’ e.g. ‘databases and embedded systems’, ‘regional tourism’, ‘ICT and learning for sustainable development’• Thematic frameworks are broad, but also helps sharpen the focus of the students’ projects• Courses are developed and taught with reference to the theme of the semester• Some courses are ‘Project Courses’ – meant to support project work• Others are ‘Study Courses’ with own assessment and exam (for general knowledge and skills)
Typical components of project work• The thematic framework of the semester is presented• Students brainstorm on ideas for projects and groups are formed• Students produce an early problem formulation and synopsis– a supervisor assigned to the group.• They scan for theories, methods, cases etc. that will help them solve or answer the problem they have – or help them to describe and analyse the problem domain.• E.g. ”How does the integration of computers into the classroom affect learning?” – This problem is a very open ended question, that can be investigated in many different ways.• The students will have to:
Typical components of project work• Find a problem and case, identify methods on how to investigate the problem (purely theoretical, through interviews, video-observation and analysis, questionnaires, ethnographic observation etc.)• They discuss their methods, and why they investigate their problem in a particular manner• They identify theories or theoretical concepts that will help them understand their problem• They (often) conduct empirical investigations, that are analysed• All this is done in collaboration with the supervisor, who helps the students to identify relevant methods, theories etc.
Assessment of the students• Some courses have individual examinations – oral or written – small assignment 15 pages.• Some courses are relieved through the ”project examination”• The written product of the project work is a project-report on app. 100 pages.• The students, teacher and censor critically discuss the project and the students are given an individual grade. An examination last app. 2-5 hours.• Now – unfortunately – the group work is assessed not as a group but as individual exams based on the group report...but not for long
Phases in project work• Project initiation• Problem analysis• Project delineation• Working with the problem• Conclusion• EvaluationSource: SLP-hand book: http://slp.plan.aau.dk/slpbog/ - good ressource for students and supervisors – but only in Danish
Phases of the Project (AUB)• 1. Project start (project initiation) – use the information you have• 2. Pre-focus exploration (problem analysis) – establish an overview by using easily accessible information• 3. Focusing (project delineation) – structure and combine your information• 4. Elaboration (Working with the problem) – support your focus with a number of detailed searches• 5. Putting your project into perspective (Conclusion, Evaluation) – search on the basis of the information you currently holdKilde: SWIM materialet: http://swiminfo.dk/pdf/pedagogy.pdfAUB-ressourcer: http://www.aub.aau.dk/hjaelp-inspiration/
Phases of the project – related to particular technologies • Group forming • Problem formulation • Task formulation • Data gathering • Analysis • Design • ReportingKhalid, M. S., Rongbutsri, N., & Buus, L. (2012). Facilitating Adoption of Web Tools for Problem and ProjectBased Learning Activities. In V. Hodgson, C. Jones, M. de Laat, D. McConnell, T. Ryberg, & P. Sloep (Eds.),Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Networked Learning 2012 (pp. 559–566).
Phases• Idealised – but good point of departure – Often work more in spirals – jumping back and forth – Can also be negative to delineate the problem too early• From divergence to convergence – From messy ideas to problem – gradual delineation – Important to get many ideas in the beginning – but also to keep track of them – Help groups maintain focus when groups enter the phase of delineation and working with the problem• Pre-group establisment – A phase where supervisors can participate
Pre group establishment• Where students exchange ideas• How do you do it?• Some places supervisor far removed from the process• Forums in Moodle as a tool to discuss ideas for projects – Transparency between students and supervisors – Supervisor can pitch own ideas for projects
Project start and problem analysis• Brainstorms and diagrams• Different ways of doing brain storms• Supervisor contract• Pictures from SLP book
Some tools• (Online) mindmapping – Wisdomap – MindMeister• Post-it for several users – Wallwisher – Linoit.com
Initial phases• Find loads of inspiration and texts – but also keep track of and maintain overview of material – But this often become too tied to the individual project – resources will not be re-used – Students don’t get back to the resources• 2 tools for group work – or general academic use
Zotero.org• Bibliographic reference manager• Plugin for Firefox browser or stand alone – sync with Zotero-server• Easy-capture of references• Create closed groups or open bibliographies – e.g. student groups or research projects• Customised thematic bibliographies
Delicious.com eller Diigo.com• Online representation of bookmarks / favourites• Share, connect to and explore others’ bookmarks• Exploration phase – but also retaining and sharing• Easily monitor what your network bookmarks – or see what’s popular, or browse particular ‘tags’• Creating streams of potentially relevant material
Productive phases• From project delineation to project end – increasing need for textual production – for the project but also: – Minutes from supervision (ask students to produce minutes from meetings) – Agendas – Outlines of project• Shorter document that all in the group including supervisor has access to• This can be done in Google Docs
Google Docs• Web-based – collaborative writing• Synchronous writing (almost real- time...almost)• Online/offline repository for docs, spreadsheets, presentations (and other files)• Create “web-pages” (online pres, docs, forms)• Work on shared research articles, projects and comment on e.g. Students work (one version to rule them all)• Open documents which can be edited by everyone with the link
Productive phases• As text production increases – management becomes important• Complex system for version management and handling documents• An easy to use is dropbox - not advanced version control – but easy! – No synchronous editing – conflicting versions• Excellent tool for sharing with supervisor
Dropbox.com• Sync files between own computers (work, home)• Create group folders• Desktop-client and web-access• Research projects – students group projects• Flexible, easy to use, possible to invite outsiders
Project Work and Collaboration • Negotiation of meaning – Interplay between ‘participation’ (discussion) and ‘reification’ – continuous dialogue on goals, process, problem while also retaining and capturing these negotiations • Coordination – Pooled interdependence; meaning a shared understanding where the individual contributions are crucial, and where the whole has influence on the individual. – Sequential interdependence; where single contributions are needed for progression in the project, and finally – reciprocal interdependence; referring to the situation where result of the individual is input for the others and vice versa • Resource management – The task of organizing and sharing materials and tools – resources found or produced by students themselves or recourses made available for them by e.g. the supervisor. • Source:Tolsby, H., Nyvang, T., & Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L. (2002). A Survey of Technologies Supporting Virtual Project Based Learning. In S. Banks, P. Goodyear, V.Hodgson, & D. McConell (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Networked Learning - A research based conference on e-learning inHigher Education and Lifelong Learning (pp. 572–580). Lancaster: Lancaster University. Retrieved fromhttp://www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/past/nlc2002/proceedings/papers/40.htm
General project management• Synchronous Communication & Coordination – Skype, Google Hangouts, Adobe Connect, Chat• Asynchronous Communication & Coordination – Online groupware, discussion forums, group wall, mailing list• Resource management – Sharing files and resources (dropbox, diigo)• Project management and planning – Calendars, Project management tools (milestones)
Resources• Jane’s pick of the day: – http://www.c4lpt.co.uk/blog/• Jane’s list of tools: – http://c4lpt.co.uk/directory-of-learning-performance-tools/ – http://c4lpt.co.uk/directory-of-learning-performance-tools/collab (collaboration tools)• Social Software in Project Collaboration (Brian Møller - ELSA) – http://www.hum.aau.dk/~brianms/pbl/
Small task to be done in groups• 1. Start by presenting your own use of ICTs for: Research, Teaching, Group supervision (use or fill out the online document)• https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UF8IGux5tvz3Tme0p9Gra0• 2. Collectively discuss use of ICTs in relation to supervision and the different phases in project work• 3. Collectively pick particular phase(s) of the group work and choose particular technology/ies• 4. Prepare a short presentation on the selected tool(s) and describe how you believe these could be used in your supervision practice(s)
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