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Game Researches

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  • 目前 MMOGs 的玩家越來越多,更產生了許多跨界共玩的現象,因此值得探討(可以引用 Why game studies now 的系列論文。) 目前有兩大趨勢使得資訊學門可以在不重新開發遊戲的狀態下,介入或探索遊戲世界 Flexible UI 的出現 玩家設計遊戲內容的趨勢(設計介面、設計情景 design game context 、設計遊戲內容 design game content – second life )是否可以用 GameAI 的四層談法來討論他? WoW 和以往遊戲的不同。 Second life 和以往遊戲的不同。
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ji-Lung Hsieh Advisor: Chuen-Tsai Sun
    • 2.
      • Virtual worlds
        • What is a “virtual world”?
        • Difficulties studying virtual worlds
      • Advantages of information science
      • Approaches
      • Current results
      • Future works
    • 3.
      • Users
        • Self-contained inhabitants—players
        • Virtual worlds are shared by multiple users
        • Interaction happens in real time
      • Environment
        • Implemented by a computer or network of computers that simulates an environment
        • Ongoing environment, and changing very fast
        • Usually game-based environment
      R. Bartle, Designing virtual worlds . Indianapolis: New Riders Publishing, 2004.
    • 4.
      • Definition of information science
        • Discipline which studying information’s properties and behaviors
        • Power to control information flow
        • Making information more usable and amiable
      • Virtual worlds hold large percentage of information and knowledge
        • Human behaviors in real world are hard to be recorded
      H. Borko, “Information Science: What is it? ” . American Documentation, 1968.
    • 5.
      • Properties of virtual worlds
        • Virtual worlds are ongoing and change very fast
        • Users interact from physically separated computer terminals
        • Ex. Guild combining and separating
      • Virtual world controlled by game companies
        • Difficult to obtain data – design and accessibility controlled by game companies
        • Difficult to design experiments
        • Ex. Player’s motivations and his/her avatar’s behaviors
      A. F. Seay, et al., "Project Massive: A study of online gaming communities," Proceedings of CHI 2004 , pp.1421-1424, 2004.
    • 6.
      • Qualitative: off-game and described by players
        • In-depth individual or group interviews
        • Online/offline surveys
        • Secondary data
      • Quantitative : in-game and observed by researchers
        • Digital video recorder for recording player’s behavior in real world
        • Computer monitor for recording in-game activities in virtual worlds
    • 7.
      • Lack of representability
        • Interview and survey samples can be biased
      • Lack of generality
        • Players hide behind physically separated computer terminals
      • Lack of consistency
        • Virtual worlds are ongoing in real time
      • Flow and Immersion
        • Gap between in-game motivations and off-game descriptions
      A. F. Seay, et al., "Project Massive: A study of online gaming communities," Proceedings of CHI 2004 , pp.1421-1424, 2004.
    • 8.
      • Virtual worlds
      • Advantages of information (computer and IT) science
        • Client-designed user interface(UI) trend
        • Player-designed game content trend
        • Available action (or query) log trend
      • Approaches
      • Current results
      • Future works
    • 9.
      • Origins
        • Web 2.0 and open source – sharing and peer-production
        • Blurring boundaries between content providers and consumers or game developers and players
      • Examples - Widgets, extensions, add-ons
        • Yahoo! Widget , iGoogle , Firefox extension ,
        • MSN Messenger API, World of Warcraft UI
      • Characteristics
        • Service providers create engines and APIs
        • Users can design their own tools and agents
        • Main agent function is grabbing online information
        • Data accessibility is still limited by service providers
    • 10. Calendar My ebay Clock New York Times Weather
    • 11. Gmail To-Do List RSS Feeding Google Map Traffic View
    • 12. 2 . Save and Print 1.Clip
    • 13.
      • Design game elements
        • Design game worlds: buildings, furniture, avatar actions, clothes, material, texture, …etc.
        • e.g., Second life , Entropia Universe
      • Design game content
        • Player-designed “mods” (modification) and scenarios
        • Examples: Half-life Counter-Strike , Warcraft III
      • Design user interface(UI)
        • Conveniently for controlling avatars and grabbing in-game information
        • Example: World of Warcraft
    • 14.
      • Differences from other MMOGs
        • Allow players to own created objects
        • No rules, objectives, winners/losers, experience points
        • Virtual money can be exchanged for USD at a rate of 1:269
        • Players upload personal content to enrich game content and earn money
      • Game Design
        • Designed using LSL(Linden Scripting Language)
        • More than 30% of all players are designers
    • 15.
    • 16.
      • Game designer (Blizzard Entertainment) provides
        • Game Engine
        • Art
        • Scenario creator
      • Players design
        • Storytelling
        • Interaction rules
        • Agents’ skills (agents are player- and system-controlled)
      • Player-designed game categories
        • Solo tower defense
        • Two –camp combat
        • Role-playing with rich storyline
    • 17. Tower Defense Map Editor
    • 18.
      • Status
      • Map
      • Skills & tools
      • Chatting
      • Channel
    • 19.
      • Status
      • Map
      • Skills & tools
      • Chatting
      • Channel
    • 20.
      • Website transaction log
        • e.g. Yahoo! Auction …etc.
      • Website query log
        • e.g. Google Image …etc.
      • Personal information data
        • e.g. Google Desktop …etc.
      • Game Replay
        • e.g. RTS games …etc.
      • MMOG action or server logs
        • e.g. World of Warcraft …etc.
    • 21.
      • Virtual worlds
      • Advantages of information science
      • Approaches
        • WoW client-designed user interface feature
      • Current results
      • Future works
    • 22.
      • Help control avatars
        • Combinations of magic or skill
      • Creating guides and maps for solving missions
        • Influence on game play
      • Private communication channels
        • For communicating with friends on a “friend list” of guild members
      • Collecting in-game information
        • On avatar status
          • Race, occupation(class) , level , location , log-in time
        • On environment
        • On buying and selling behavior
    • 23.
      • Who should uses client-designed UI in MMOGs
        • Researcher
        • Game designer
      • Advantages
        • Quantitatively collecting in-game data
      • Drawbacks
        • Gap between players and their avatars
          • Avatar activities cannot be viewed as fully representative of player’s behaviors and motives
        • Limited accessibility to virtual worlds
          • Control by game company
    • 24.
      • Collecting avatar data at a rate of 200 avatars per minute
      Date Time Avatar ID Level Race Class Guild ID 02/10/2006 18:31 A1 55 Orc Warlock G1 02/10/2006 18:31 A2 57 Dwarf Hunter G2 … … … … … … … 02/11/2006 18:57 A1 56 Orc Warlock None 02/11/2006 18:57 A4 60 Human Mage G25 … 18:57 … … … … … 02/12/2006 18:57 A1 57 Orc Warlock G3 … … … … … … …
    • 25.
      • Communities
        • How guilds (well-structured formal organization) emerge and decline
        • How various communities co-evolve and influence each other
      • Player behavior
        • Player cooperation and coordination to solve difficult missions
        • Comparing player behaviors in different cultures
      • Game design
        • How game design affects game play, social network, and community dynamics
    • 26.
      • Virtual worlds
      • Advantages of information science
      • Approaches
      • Current results
        • Topic1: Guild dynamics
        • Topic2: Comparisons of different gaming cultures
      • Future works
    • 27.
      • In-game guild dynamics
        • Creation, decline, transformation, and separation of spontaneous player-organized communities
        • Chen, C.H., Hsieh, J.L., & Sun, C.T. (unpublished manuscript). “Player Guild Dynamics and Evolution in Massively Multiplayer Online Games.” Submitted to Cyberpsychology & Behavior (SSCI), March, 2007.
      • Cross-cultural comparisons
        • Comparing Taiwanese and American gaming culture
        • Sun, C.T ., Hsieh, J.L., & Chen, C.H. "Comparing Taiwanese and American WoW Player Cultures in Terms of Achievement," to be presented at the 2007 Digital Games Research Association Conference , Tokyo, Japan.
    • 28.
      • Motives
        • (Why and )how players join and leave guilds
        • Effects of game design on guild dynamics
      • Guild properties
        • Formal, permanent, and hierarchical organizations
        • Players can join and leave at will
          • Each avatar can join only one guild, hence avatars are viewed as guild resources
          • Players manages guilds by themselves
          • Game companies provide and support mechanisms for guild management
        • Chen, C.H., Hsieh, J.L., & Sun, C.T. (unpublished manuscript). “Player Guild Dynamics and Evolution in Massively Multiplayer Online Games.” Submitted to Cyberpsychology & Behavior (SSCI), March, 2007.
    • 29. Informal: virtual worlds are lack of support for it Permanent: groups would continue to exist when all their members were logged off R. Bartle, Designing virtual worlds . Indianapolis: New Riders Publishing, 2004. Category Number of Players Formality Duration Structure Pairs 2~5 Informal Temporary Flat “ Pickup” groups 3~5 Formal Temporary Flat Friends <50 Formal Permanent Flat Groups for raiding 5, 10, 20, 40. Formal Temporary Hierarchy Guilds and ally groups 10~480 Formal Permanent Hierarchy Hybrid groups 40 Formal Temporary Hierarchy
    • 30.
    • 31. Level First mission for “Pickup” group s formed by avatars with similar levels Data Updated 2006/2/15
    • 32. Data ranges from 2006/02~2006/04
    • 33. Data ranges from 2006/02~2006/04
    • 34.
      • Motive
        • Verify stories commonly heard in Taiwanese game communities
        • Do Taiwanese players emphasize achievement more than American players?
      • Experiments
        • Efficient player leveling
        • How players routinely attend guild schedule
      Sun, C.T., Hsieh, J.L., Chen, C.H. &quot; Comparing Taiwanese and American WoW Player Cultures in Terms of Achievement ,&quot; Accepted by the 2007 Digital Games Research Association Conference .
    • 35.
      • Average per day playing times are similar between American and Taiwanese WoW players
    • 36. 30 40 50 20 60 N. Ducheneaut, Yee, N., Nickell, E., Moore, R. J. , &quot;&quot;Alone together?&quot;: exploring the social dynamics of massively multiplayer online games,&quot; in Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems , pp. Montréal, Québec, Canada2006 ACM Press.
    • 37. Server Average level upgrading efficiency Average playing time per day (minutes) US 0.93 90.46 Taiwan 1.62 (Higher) 102.19 (Almost the same)
    • 38. Guild channel and events Personal status Guild Member Leader’s message
    • 39. People
        • In a well-organized guild, members follow regular schedule to play online.
    • 40. People
        • Non-regular raiding schedule in another Guild
    • 41.
      • Taiwanese players routinely emphasize raiding activities
    • 42.
      • How users play together: in-game communities
      • How players cooperate in game communities
        • Playing together
        • Cooperation
        • Coordination during large and difficult missions
      • How game design affects game play
    • 43.
      • Communities on different types of server
        • Player vs. Player servers: avatars from different camps are allowed to engage in combat
        • Player vs. Environment servers
      • Analysis of player social networks
        • Membership relationships: friends joining the same guild
        • Co-play relationships: solving missions together
    • 44.
      • Chen, C.H., Hsieh, J.L., Sun, C.T. “ Player Guild Dynamics and Evolution in Massively Multiplayer Online Games, ” Submitted to Cyberpsychology & Behavior(SSCI), March, 2007.
      • Sun, C.T., Hsieh, J.L., Chen, C.H. &quot; Comparing Taiwanese and American WoW Player Cultures in Terms of Achievement, &quot; to be presented at the 2007 Digital Games Research Association Conference, Tokyo, Japan, September, 2007.
    • 45.
    • 46.
    • 47.
      • Csikszentmihalyi, M. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience . Harper Perennial, London, 1990.
    • 48.
      • Chen, J. Flow in Games (and Everything Else) . Communications of ACM , 2007.