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  • 目前 MMOGs 的玩家越來越多,更產生了許多跨界共玩的現象,因此值得探討(可以引用 Why game studies now 的系列論文。) 目前有兩大趨勢使得資訊學門可以在不重新開發遊戲的狀態下,介入或探索遊戲世界 Flexible UI 的出現 玩家設計遊戲內容的趨勢(設計介面、設計情景 design game context 、設計遊戲內容 design game content – second life )是否可以用 GameAI 的四層談法來討論他? WoW 和以往遊戲的不同。 Second life 和以往遊戲的不同。

Game Researches Game Researches Presentation Transcript

  • Ji-Lung Hsieh Advisor: Chuen-Tsai Sun
    • Virtual worlds
      • What is a “virtual world”?
      • Difficulties studying virtual worlds
    • Advantages of information science
    • Approaches
    • Current results
    • Future works
    • Users
      • Self-contained inhabitants—players
      • Virtual worlds are shared by multiple users
      • Interaction happens in real time
    • Environment
      • Implemented by a computer or network of computers that simulates an environment
      • Ongoing environment, and changing very fast
      • Usually game-based environment
    R. Bartle, Designing virtual worlds . Indianapolis: New Riders Publishing, 2004.
    • Definition of information science
      • Discipline which studying information’s properties and behaviors
      • Power to control information flow
      • Making information more usable and amiable
    • Virtual worlds hold large percentage of information and knowledge
      • Human behaviors in real world are hard to be recorded
    H. Borko, “Information Science: What is it? ” . American Documentation, 1968.
    • Properties of virtual worlds
      • Virtual worlds are ongoing and change very fast
      • Users interact from physically separated computer terminals
      • Ex. Guild combining and separating
    • Virtual world controlled by game companies
      • Difficult to obtain data – design and accessibility controlled by game companies
      • Difficult to design experiments
      • Ex. Player’s motivations and his/her avatar’s behaviors
    A. F. Seay, et al., "Project Massive: A study of online gaming communities," Proceedings of CHI 2004 , pp.1421-1424, 2004.
    • Qualitative: off-game and described by players
      • In-depth individual or group interviews
      • Online/offline surveys
      • Secondary data
    • Quantitative : in-game and observed by researchers
      • Digital video recorder for recording player’s behavior in real world
      • Computer monitor for recording in-game activities in virtual worlds
    • Lack of representability
      • Interview and survey samples can be biased
    • Lack of generality
      • Players hide behind physically separated computer terminals
    • Lack of consistency
      • Virtual worlds are ongoing in real time
    • Flow and Immersion
      • Gap between in-game motivations and off-game descriptions
    A. F. Seay, et al., "Project Massive: A study of online gaming communities," Proceedings of CHI 2004 , pp.1421-1424, 2004.
    • Virtual worlds
    • Advantages of information (computer and IT) science
      • Client-designed user interface(UI) trend
      • Player-designed game content trend
      • Available action (or query) log trend
    • Approaches
    • Current results
    • Future works
    • Origins
      • Web 2.0 and open source – sharing and peer-production
      • Blurring boundaries between content providers and consumers or game developers and players
    • Examples - Widgets, extensions, add-ons
      • Yahoo! Widget , iGoogle , Firefox extension ,
      • MSN Messenger API, World of Warcraft UI
    • Characteristics
      • Service providers create engines and APIs
      • Users can design their own tools and agents
      • Main agent function is grabbing online information
      • Data accessibility is still limited by service providers
  • Calendar My ebay Clock New York Times Weather
  • Gmail To-Do List RSS Feeding Google Map Traffic View
  • 2 . Save and Print 1.Clip
    • Design game elements
      • Design game worlds: buildings, furniture, avatar actions, clothes, material, texture, …etc.
      • e.g., Second life , Entropia Universe
    • Design game content
      • Player-designed “mods” (modification) and scenarios
      • Examples: Half-life Counter-Strike , Warcraft III
    • Design user interface(UI)
      • Conveniently for controlling avatars and grabbing in-game information
      • Example: World of Warcraft
    • Differences from other MMOGs
      • Allow players to own created objects
      • No rules, objectives, winners/losers, experience points
      • Virtual money can be exchanged for USD at a rate of 1:269
      • Players upload personal content to enrich game content and earn money
    • Game Design
      • Designed using LSL(Linden Scripting Language)
      • More than 30% of all players are designers
    • Game designer (Blizzard Entertainment) provides
      • Game Engine
      • Art
      • Scenario creator
    • Players design
      • Storytelling
      • Interaction rules
      • Agents’ skills (agents are player- and system-controlled)
    • Player-designed game categories
      • Solo tower defense
      • Two –camp combat
      • Role-playing with rich storyline
  • Tower Defense Map Editor
    • Status
    • Map
    • Skills & tools
    • Chatting
    • Channel
    • Status
    • Map
    • Skills & tools
    • Chatting
    • Channel
    • Website transaction log
      • e.g. Yahoo! Auction …etc.
    • Website query log
      • e.g. Google Image …etc.
    • Personal information data
      • e.g. Google Desktop …etc.
    • Game Replay
      • e.g. RTS games …etc.
    • MMOG action or server logs
      • e.g. World of Warcraft …etc.
    • Virtual worlds
    • Advantages of information science
    • Approaches
      • WoW client-designed user interface feature
    • Current results
    • Future works
    • Help control avatars
      • Combinations of magic or skill
    • Creating guides and maps for solving missions
      • Influence on game play
    • Private communication channels
      • For communicating with friends on a “friend list” of guild members
    • Collecting in-game information
      • On avatar status
        • Race, occupation(class) , level , location , log-in time
      • On environment
      • On buying and selling behavior
    • Who should uses client-designed UI in MMOGs
      • Researcher
      • Game designer
    • Advantages
      • Quantitatively collecting in-game data
    • Drawbacks
      • Gap between players and their avatars
        • Avatar activities cannot be viewed as fully representative of player’s behaviors and motives
      • Limited accessibility to virtual worlds
        • Control by game company
    • Collecting avatar data at a rate of 200 avatars per minute
    Date Time Avatar ID Level Race Class Guild ID 02/10/2006 18:31 A1 55 Orc Warlock G1 02/10/2006 18:31 A2 57 Dwarf Hunter G2 … … … … … … … 02/11/2006 18:57 A1 56 Orc Warlock None 02/11/2006 18:57 A4 60 Human Mage G25 … 18:57 … … … … … 02/12/2006 18:57 A1 57 Orc Warlock G3 … … … … … … …
    • Communities
      • How guilds (well-structured formal organization) emerge and decline
      • How various communities co-evolve and influence each other
    • Player behavior
      • Player cooperation and coordination to solve difficult missions
      • Comparing player behaviors in different cultures
    • Game design
      • How game design affects game play, social network, and community dynamics
    • Virtual worlds
    • Advantages of information science
    • Approaches
    • Current results
      • Topic1: Guild dynamics
      • Topic2: Comparisons of different gaming cultures
    • Future works
    • In-game guild dynamics
      • Creation, decline, transformation, and separation of spontaneous player-organized communities
      • Chen, C.H., Hsieh, J.L., & Sun, C.T. (unpublished manuscript). “Player Guild Dynamics and Evolution in Massively Multiplayer Online Games.” Submitted to Cyberpsychology & Behavior (SSCI), March, 2007.
    • Cross-cultural comparisons
      • Comparing Taiwanese and American gaming culture
      • Sun, C.T ., Hsieh, J.L., & Chen, C.H. "Comparing Taiwanese and American WoW Player Cultures in Terms of Achievement," to be presented at the 2007 Digital Games Research Association Conference , Tokyo, Japan.
    • Motives
      • (Why and )how players join and leave guilds
      • Effects of game design on guild dynamics
    • Guild properties
      • Formal, permanent, and hierarchical organizations
      • Players can join and leave at will
        • Each avatar can join only one guild, hence avatars are viewed as guild resources
        • Players manages guilds by themselves
        • Game companies provide and support mechanisms for guild management
      • Chen, C.H., Hsieh, J.L., & Sun, C.T. (unpublished manuscript). “Player Guild Dynamics and Evolution in Massively Multiplayer Online Games.” Submitted to Cyberpsychology & Behavior (SSCI), March, 2007.
  • Informal: virtual worlds are lack of support for it Permanent: groups would continue to exist when all their members were logged off R. Bartle, Designing virtual worlds . Indianapolis: New Riders Publishing, 2004. Category Number of Players Formality Duration Structure Pairs 2~5 Informal Temporary Flat “ Pickup” groups 3~5 Formal Temporary Flat Friends <50 Formal Permanent Flat Groups for raiding 5, 10, 20, 40. Formal Temporary Hierarchy Guilds and ally groups 10~480 Formal Permanent Hierarchy Hybrid groups 40 Formal Temporary Hierarchy
  • Level First mission for “Pickup” group s formed by avatars with similar levels Data Updated 2006/2/15
  • Data ranges from 2006/02~2006/04
  • Data ranges from 2006/02~2006/04
    • Motive
      • Verify stories commonly heard in Taiwanese game communities
      • Do Taiwanese players emphasize achievement more than American players?
    • Experiments
      • Efficient player leveling
      • How players routinely attend guild schedule
    Sun, C.T., Hsieh, J.L., Chen, C.H. &quot; Comparing Taiwanese and American WoW Player Cultures in Terms of Achievement ,&quot; Accepted by the 2007 Digital Games Research Association Conference .
    • Average per day playing times are similar between American and Taiwanese WoW players
  • 30 40 50 20 60 N. Ducheneaut, Yee, N., Nickell, E., Moore, R. J. , &quot;&quot;Alone together?&quot;: exploring the social dynamics of massively multiplayer online games,&quot; in Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems , pp. Montréal, Québec, Canada2006 ACM Press.
  • Server Average level upgrading efficiency Average playing time per day (minutes) US 0.93 90.46 Taiwan 1.62 (Higher) 102.19 (Almost the same)
  • Guild channel and events Personal status Guild Member Leader’s message
  • People
      • In a well-organized guild, members follow regular schedule to play online.
  • People
      • Non-regular raiding schedule in another Guild
    • Taiwanese players routinely emphasize raiding activities
    • How users play together: in-game communities
    • How players cooperate in game communities
      • Playing together
      • Cooperation
      • Coordination during large and difficult missions
    • How game design affects game play
    • Communities on different types of server
      • Player vs. Player servers: avatars from different camps are allowed to engage in combat
      • Player vs. Environment servers
    • Analysis of player social networks
      • Membership relationships: friends joining the same guild
      • Co-play relationships: solving missions together
    • Chen, C.H., Hsieh, J.L., Sun, C.T. “ Player Guild Dynamics and Evolution in Massively Multiplayer Online Games, ” Submitted to Cyberpsychology & Behavior(SSCI), March, 2007.
    • Sun, C.T., Hsieh, J.L., Chen, C.H. &quot; Comparing Taiwanese and American WoW Player Cultures in Terms of Achievement, &quot; to be presented at the 2007 Digital Games Research Association Conference, Tokyo, Japan, September, 2007.
    • Csikszentmihalyi, M. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience . Harper Perennial, London, 1990.
    • Chen, J. Flow in Games (and Everything Else) . Communications of ACM , 2007.