Research deign final by rohit thakur


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  • The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”
  • (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies).(studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies).(studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies).(such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies).
  • A research design provides a road map for the entire project.A blueprint for the collection, measurement, analysis and interpretation of data.The first step is deciding upon a topic.How do you decide upon a research topic
  • , thereby making research as efficient as possible 5. , keeping in view the objective of the research and the availability of staff, time and money and Research design stands for advance planning of the methods to be adopted for collecting the relevant data and the techniques to be used in their analysis6. Such a design can even be given to others for their comments and critical evaluation.
  • Important Concepts Related To Research Design
  • 4. And to link knowledge and action in social transformation. 5. , uncover information needs and is A very flexible, open-ended process.
  • 6. Can be used for profiling, defining, segmentation, estimating, predicting, and examining associative relationships.7. . Most practical in marketing to talk about associations or impact of one variable on another.
  • 10. a.k.a.,
  • The effect of the treatment would be equal to the level of the phenomenon after the treatment minus the level of the phenomenon before the treatment.
  • Treatment impact is assessed by subtracting the value of the dependent variable in the control area from its value in the test area
  • The treatment effect is determined by subtracting the change in the dependent variable in the control area from the change in the dependent variable in test area.
  • experiments are useful for testing the results gained by a series of qualitative experiments, leading to a final answer, and a narrowing down of possible directions for follow up research to take.Quantitative research design also tends to generate only proved or unproven results, with there being very little room for grey areas and uncertainty. For the social sciences, education, anthropology and psychology, human nature is a lot more complex than just a simple yes or no response. 
  • Research deign final by rohit thakur

    1. 1. ResearchDesign Presented by Guided byMr.Thakur Rohit.G Dr.Aswar Urmila.M Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy, Narhe, Pune-414/16/2013 1
    2. 2.  Introduction  Research inclusions  Objectives of research  Research design  Goals of research design  Steps in designing research study  Important terms related to research design  Types of research  Types of Experimental design  Advantages and disadvantages  References4/16/2013 2
    3. 3.  Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. It is “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”4/16/2013 3
    4. 4.  Formulating Research problem. Extensive Literature Survey. Development of working hypothesis. Preparing research design. Determining sample design. Collection of data. Execution of project(performing). Analysis of data. Hypothesis testing. Preparation of report/thesis.4/16/2013 4
    5. 5. 1. To gain familiarity or to achieve new insights into. 2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. 3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs. 4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables. (Kothari C.R,1985)4/16/2013 5
    6. 6.  “ Research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.” Research design involves specifying your philosophical assumptions, research method, which data collection techniques you will use.4/16/2013 6
    7. 7.  Facilitates the smooth sailing. Yields maximal information with minimal expenditure. Serves as a blueprint. Research design stands for advance planning. Helps the researcher to organize his ideas. Avoids confusion and errors.4/16/2013 7
    8. 8.  Right issues Correct approach Methodology Experimental design Subject/Site/Task/Measures Reliability & validity of results Valid conclusions4/16/2013 8
    9. 9. Research questionHypothesesVariablesMethodologyData Collection Methods Who? How?Data Analysis Methods4/16/2013 9
    10. 10. Define the Information Needed Design the Exploratory, Descriptive, and/or Causal Phases of the Research Specify the Measurement and Scaling Procedures Construct a Questionnaire Specify the Sampling Process and the Sample Size4/16/2013 Develop a Plan of Data Analysis 10
    11. 11. Variable: A concept which can take on different quantitative values is called a variable. Dependent variable: If one variable depends upon or is a consequence of the other variable, is termed as dependent variable.4/16/2013 11
    12. 12. Extraneous variable: Independent variables that are not related to the purpose of the study, but may affect the dependent variable .Confounded Relationship: When dependent variable is influenced by the extraneous variables.4/16/2013 12
    13. 13. Research Hypothesis: When a prediction is to be tested by scientific methods it is termed as research hypothesis.Experimental Hypothesis testing research: Research in which independent variable is manipulated.Non-Experimental Hypothesis testing research: Research in which independent variable is not manipulated4/16/2013 13
    14. 14. Control Group: When a group is exposed to usual conditions, it is termed as control group.Experimental Group: When a group is exposed to some novel/special conditions, it is termed as experimental group.Treatments: The different conditions under which experimental and control groups are put are usually referred as treatments.4/16/2013 14
    15. 15. 1. Basic Goal of research: To produce new knowledge including discovery of relationships; create capacity to predict, control, manipulate.2. Applied (policy-useful) Goal of the research: Produce the information necessary to help a policy-maker eliminate or alleviate a social problem3. Evaluation (assessment-appraisal) Goal of the Research: To provide an accurate account of the impact of a treatment program applied to a social problem.4/16/2013 15
    16. 16. 4. Action oriented (critical) Goal of the Research: To dig beneath the surface of historically specific social structures that reproduce oppression and other problems in society. 5. Exploratory Research Designed to generate basic knowledge, clarify relevant issues uncover variables associated with a problem, and/or define alternatives for addressing research objectives.4/16/2013 16
    17. 17. 6. Descriptive Research (who, what, where, how) Designed to provide further insight into the research problem by describing the variables of interest. 7. Causal Research (If-then) Designed to provide information on potential cause-and- effect relationships.4/16/2013 17
    18. 18. 8. Literature Search  Conceptual literature  Trade literature  Published statistics  Library homepage9. Analysis of Selected Cases  Intensive study of related cases or past activities  May be internal or external  Can help provide clues as to how other units or companies have dealt with similar issues4/16/2013 18
    19. 19. 10. Experience Surveys (depth interviews) Knowledgeable people with varying points of view Unstructured and informal interviews Respondent free to choose issues to be discussed 11. Focus Groups 8 to 10 people at one time Relatively homogeneous groups Multiple, heterogeneous groups Group dynamics Moderator is key Relies on general topical guide with plenty of time for interaction4/16/2013 19
    20. 20. 12. Hypothesis-testing research studies Researcher tests the hypotheses of causal relationships between variables Requires bias reducing, reliable procedures Procedure permitting drawing of inferences about causality4/16/2013 20
    21. 21. Informal experimental designs: (i) Before-and-after without control design. (ii) After-only with control design. (iii) Before-and-after with control design Formal experimental designs: (i) Completely randomized design (C.R. Design). (ii) Randomized block design (R.B. Design). (iii) Latin square design (L.S. Design). (iv) Factorial designs.4/16/2013 21
    22. 22. In such a design a single test group or area is selected and the dependent variable is measured before the introduction of the treatment. The treatment is then introduced and the dependent variable is measured again after the treatment has been introduced. The design can be represented thus:Test area:Level of phenomenon Treatment introduced Level of phenomenon before treatment (X) after treatment(Y)Treatment Effect = (Y)-(X)4/16/2013 22
    23. 23. In this design two groups or areas (test area and control area) are selected and the treatment is introduced into the test area only. The dependent variable is then measured in both the areas at the same time. This can be exhibited in the following form:Test area: Treatment introduced Level of phenomenon afterControl area treatment (Y) Level of phenomenon Without treatment (Z) Treatment Effect = (Y) – (Z)4/16/2013 23
    24. 24. In this design two areas are selected and the dependent variable is measured in both the areas for an identical time-period before the treatment. The treatment is then introduced into the test area only, and the dependent variable is measured in both for an identical time-period after the introduction of the treatment.4/16/2013 24
    25. 25. This design can be shown in this way: Time Period I Time Period II TreatmentTest Area: Level of phenomenon Level of phenomenon after before Treatment (X) introduced Treatment (Y)Control Area: Level of phenomenon Level of phenomenon without without Treatment (A) Treatment (Z)Treatment Effect = (Y – X) – (Z – A)4/16/2013 25
    26. 26. Randomly Randomly Population Sample selected assigned Experimental Control group group Treatment A Treatment BFig.1Two-group simple randomized experimentaldesign Independent variable 4/16/2013 26
    27. 27. Fig. 2Randomized Block Design 4/16/2013 27
    28. 28. Fig. 3 Latin Square Design4/16/2013 28
    29. 29. Fig. 4 Factorial 28/11/20114/16/2013 29
    30. 30.  Quantitative research design is an  Can be difficult and expensive excellent way of finalizing results and require a lot of time to and proving or disproving a perform. hypothesis.  Carefully planned to ensure that Leads to final answer by narrowing there is complete randomization down all possible directions and correct designation of control groups.  Require extensive statistical analysis, which can be difficult, due to most scientists not being statisticians.  Tends to generate only proved or unproven4/16/2013 30 {accessed 30/11/2011}
    31. 31.  Extremely useful when a subject is  Require a lot of careful thought too complex be answered by a simple and planning, yes or no hypothesis.  Qualitative data cannot be Useful when budgetary decisions mathematically analyzed in the have to be taken into account. same comprehensive way as Not as dependent upon sample sizes quantitative results, so can only as quantitative methods; a case study, give a guide to general trends.. for example, can generate meaningful  Lot more open to personal opinion results with a small sample group. and judgment, and so can only ever give observations rather than results and cannot be replicated. 4/16/2013 {accessed 30/11/2011} 31
    32. 32. 1. Best J.W, Kahn J.V, 1998. Research In Education, Ninth ed. Pearson Education, Inc, Dorling Kindersley Publishing Inc,pp.33-39. 2. Cook TD et al., 1979. Quasi-experimentation: Design & analysis issues for field settings. Houghton Mifflin Boston. 3. Kothari C.R,1985.Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques, Second ed. New Age International Publishers, New Delhi-110002.pp.31- 39.4/16/2013 32
    33. 33. 4. {accessed 22/11/11} 5. {accessed 27/11/11} 6. Prof. Hemant Kombrabail, Research Designs{accessed4/16/2013 31/11/11} 33
    34. 34. 4/16/2013 34