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Chapter-1 
Introduction
Meaning of Research 
Research refers a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on 
a specific topic. 
According to the advanced learners dictionary of current English “Research a 
careful investigation or enquiry. Especially through search for new facts in any 
branch of knowledge.” 
According to Redman and Mory, “Research is a systemized effort to gain new 
knowledge.” 
According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining 
problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing 
and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last 
carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating 
hypothesis. 
In brief 'research' refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the 
problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the 
facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions(s) 
towards concerned problem or in certain generalizations for some theoretical 
formulation.
Objectives of Research 
 To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to 
achieve new insights into it. 
 To portray accurately the characteristics of a 
particular individual, situation or a group. 
 To determine the frequency with which 
something occurs or with which it is associated 
with something else. 
 To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship 
between variables (such studies are known as 
hypothesis-testing research studies).
Motivation of Research 
• Desire to get research degree along with 
its consequential benefit. 
• Desire to face the challenge in solving 
unsolved problem. 
• Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some 
creative work. 
• Desire to be of service to society. 
• Desire to get respectability.
Types of Research 
(i) Descriptive vs. Analytical 
(ii) Applied vs. Fundamental 
(iii) Quantitative vs. Qualitative 
(iv) Conceptual vs. Empirical
Significance of Research 
• Research inculcates scientific and inductive 
thinking and it promotes the development of 
logical habits of thinking and organization. 
• Research provides the basis for nearly all 
government policies in our economic system. 
• Research has its special significance in solving 
various operational and planning problems of 
business and industry. 
  Research is equally important for social 
scientists in studying social relationships and in 
seeking answers to various social problems.
Importance of Knowing How Research is done 
(i) The knowledge of methodology provides good training 
especially to the new research worker and enables him to do 
better research. It helps him to develop disciplined thinking or 
a 'bent of mind' to observe the field objectively. 
(ii) Knowledge of how to do research will inculcate the ability to 
evaluate and use research results with reasonable 
confidence. 
(iii) When one knows how research is done, then one may have 
the satisfaction of acquiring a new intellectual tool which can 
become a way of looking at the world and of judging every 
day experience. According, it enables use to make intelligent 
decisions concerning problems. 
(iv) The knowledge of methodology helps the consumer of 
research results evaluate them and enables him to take 
rational decisions.
Research Process 
RESEARCH PROCESS IN FLOW CHART 
Where = feed back (Helps in controlling the sub-system to which it is transmitted) 
= feed forward (Serves the vital function of providing criteria for evaluation) 
Define 
research 
problem 
Review concepts 
and theories 
Review previous 
research finding 
Formulate 
hypothesis 
Design research 
(including 
sample design 
Collect data 
(Execution) 
Analyze data 
(Test hypotheses 
if any) 
Interpret 
and report 
FF 
F 
F F 
FF 
i 
ii 
iii iv v vi vii 
F 
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Steps of the Research Process 
• 1. Formulating the research problem 
• 2. Extensive literature survey 
• 3. Development of working hypotheses 
• 4. Preparing the research design 
• 5. Determining sample design 
• 6. Collecting of data 
• 7. Execution of the project 
• 8. Analysis of data 
• 9. Hypothesis-testing 
• 10. Generalization and interpretation 
• 11. Preparation of the report or the thesis
Criteria of Good Research 
• The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common 
concepts be used. 
• The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to 
permit another researcher to repeat the research for further 
advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained. 
• The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to 
yield results that are as objective as possible. 
• The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in 
procedural design and estimate their effects upon the findings. 
• The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its 
significance and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate. 
The validity and reliability of the data should be cleared carefully. 
• Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the 
research and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate 
basis. 
• Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is 
experienced, has a good reputation in research and is a person of 
integrity.
Chapter-2 
DEFINING THE RESEARCH 
PROBLEM
What is a Research Problem? 
A research problem, in general, refers to some 
difficulty which a researcher experiences in the 
context of either a theoretical or practical 
situation and wants to obtain a solution for the 
same. 
Thus, a research problem is one which requires a 
researcher to find out the best solution for the 
given problem, i.e., to fine out by which course 
of action the objective can be attained optimally 
in the context of a given environment.
Components of Research problem 
• There must be an individual or a group which 
has some problems. 
• There must be some objectives to be attained 
at. 
• There must be alternative means of obtaining 
these objectives. 
• There must be some doubt in mind in selecting 
an alternative means. 
• There must be an environment to which these 
problems pertain.
Technique Involved in Defining a Problem 
• Statement of the problem in a general way. 
(a) Initially a tentative Statement of the problem is made for 
Searching. 
(b) This tentative Statement will be finalize later on. 
• Understanding the nature of the problem 
a) A researcher has to Understand the nature of the problem 
b) He has to understand the volume of work 
c) He has to understand the requirement of fund 
d) He has to understand the requirement of expert 
e) He has to understand the requirement of time. 
• Surveying the available literature 
(a) On the basis of tentative Statement of the problem a researcher has 
to review the related literature 
• Developing the ideas through discussions 
• Rephrasing the research problem
Chapter-3 
RESEARCH DESIGN
Meaning of Research Design 
"A research design is the arrangement of 
conditions for collection and analysis of 
data in a manner that aims to combine 
relevance to the research purpose with 
economy in procedure." More explicitly, 
the design decisions happen to be in 
respect of:
Research Design satisfy the following questions 
(i) What is the study about? 
(ii) Why is the study being made? 
(iii) Where will the study be carried out? 
(iv) What type of data is required? 
(v) Where can the required data be found? 
(vi) What periods of time will the study include? 
(vii) What will be the sample design? 
(viii) What techniques of data collection will be used? 
(ix) How will the data be analyzed? 
(x) In what style will the report be prepared?
Features of a Good Design 
A good design is often characterized by adjectives like flexible, 
appropriate, efficient, economical and so on. Generally, the design 
which minimizes bias and maximizes the reliability of the data 
collected and analyzed is considered a good design. 
• Flexible: It is a design which can be modified at any time. 
• Appropriate 
– The means of obtaining information; 
– The availability and skills of the researcher and his staff, if any; 
– The objective of the problem to be studied; 
– The nature of the problem to be studied; and 
– The availability of time and money for the research work. 
• Efficient: A design which serves the purpose of the objectives 
properly. 
• Economical: It is a design which can fulfill the objectives of the 
research within limited time and fund.
Important Concepts Relating to Research Design 
1. Dependent and independent variables: If one variable depends upon or is a 
consequence of the other variable, it is termed as a dependent variable, and 
the variable that is antecedent to the dependent variable is termed as an 
independent variable. 
2. Extraneous variable: Independent variables that are not related to the 
purpose of the study, but may affect the dependent variable are termed as 
extraneous variables. 
3. Control: The technical term 'control' is used when we design the study 
minimizing the effects of extraneous independent variables. 
4. Confounded relationship 
5. Research hypothesis 
6. Experimental and non-experimental hypothesis-testing research 
7. Experimental and control groups 
8. Treatments 
9. Experiment 
10.Experimental unit(s)
Different Research Design 
1. Research design in case of exploratory research studies: The main purpose 
of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise 
investigation or of developing the working hypotheses from an operational 
point of view. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of 
ideas and insights. 
2. Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies: The 
design in such studies must be rigid and not flexible and must focus 
attention on the following: 
(a) Formulating the objective of the study 
(b) Designing the methods of data collection 
(c) Selecting the sample 
(d) Collecting the data 
(e) Processing and analyzing the data 
(f) Reporting the findings 
3. Research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies: Hypothesis-testing 
research studies (generally known as experimental studies) are 
those where the researcher tests the hypotheses of causal relationships 
between variables.
Basic Principles of Experimental Design 
(1) The Principle of Replication: 
Repetition of treatment to remove random 
error. 
(2) The Principle of Randomization: To 
remove the biasness of the experimenter. 
(3) Principle of Local Control: To maintain 
the homogeneity of the experimental plots.
Important Experimental Designs 
(a) Informal experimental designs: 
(i) Before-and-after without control design 
(ii) After only with control design 
(iii) Before-and-after with control design 
(b) Formal experimental designs: 
(i) Completely randomized design (C.R. Design) 
(ii) Randomized block design (R.B. Design) 
(iii) Latin square design (L.S. Design) 
(iv) Factorial designs.
Chapter-4 
SAMPLING DESIGN
Sampling Design 
Sampling Design: At the time of taking decision about the 
population characteristics representative part of the 
population is undertaken. The process of undertaking 
the representative part of the population is called 
sampling design. 
Census: It is a complete enumeration of all the items of the 
population. 
Sampling: It is a survey of representative part of the 
population.
Concepts used in Sample Design 
While developing sampling design, the 
researcher must pay attention to the 
following points: 
(i) Type of Universe (population) 
(ii) Sampling unit 
(iii) Source list 
(iv) Size of sample 
(v) Parameters of interest 
(vi) Budgetary constraint 
(vii) Sampling procedure
Characteristics of a Good Sample Design 
We can list down the characteristics of a good 
sample design as under: 
• Sample design must result in a truly representative sample. 
• Sample design must be such which results in small 
sampling error. 
• Sample design must be viable in the context of funds 
available for the research study. 
• Sample design must be such so that systematic bias can be 
controlled in a better way. 
• Sample should be such that the results of the sample study 
can be applied, in general, for the universe with a 
reasonable level of confidence.
Different Types of Sample Designs 
Non-probability sampling: Non-probability 
sampling is that sampling procedure which does 
not afford any basis for estimating the probability 
that each item in the population has of being 
included in the sample. 
Probability sampling: Probability sampling is also 
known as 'random sampling' or 'chance 
sampling'. Under this sampling design, every 
item of the universe has an equal chance of 
inclusion in the sample.
Different Types of Sample Designs 
(cont.) 
Two Types of sampling Design: 
i) Probability sampling Design 
ii) Purposive sampling Design 
The probability sampling are of two types 
(i) Simple Random Sampling 
(ii) Complex Random Sampling 
Complex Random Sampling are of seven types 
(i) Systematic sampling 
(ii) Stratified sampling 
(iii) Cluster sampling 
(iv) Area sampling 
(v) Multi-stage sampling 
(vi) Sampling with probability proportional to size 
(vii) Sequential sampling
Chapter-6 
Methods of Data Collection
Types of Data 
There are two types of data: 
(i) Primary Data 
The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first 
time, and thus happened to be original in character. 
(i) Secondary Data 
The secondary data are those which have already been collected by 
someone else and which have already been passed through the 
statistical process.
Method of Collection of Primary Data 
There are four methods of collection of 
primary data: 
(i) Observation Method 
(ii) Interview Method 
(iii) Questionnaire Method 
(iv) Schedule Method
Observation Method 
• It is an attempt to observe a person or a 
phenomenon minutely and report it to the 
proper authority. 
• It is a laborious and time consuming 
method.
Interview Method 
• It is a conversation between an interviewer 
and an interviewee. 
• It is a face to face question answering. 
• It will also include the telephonic question 
answering. 
• It is quick method and an interviewer can 
interview several persons in a day 
depending on the size questions
Questionnaire Method 
• Keeping in view of the objectives of a research a 
series of questions are drafted 
• Final questionnaire is prepared after pre- testing 
it. 
• Questionnaires are sent to the interviewee with a 
request letter describing its importance and 
confidentiality. 
• A stamped envelop is also sent for return mail. 
• An interviewee will fill the questionnaire up and 
send it to the office of the project director in time.
Schedule Method 
• It is a combination interview and questionnaire method. 
• Initially a questionnaire is prepared with pre-testing it. 
• Interviewer will visit the interviewee with the 
questionnaire in his leisure time. 
• Interviewer will form proper rapport with the interviewee 
and will exchange greetings according to the cultural 
practice and convince him to the necessity of providing 
information of the questionnaire.. 
• He will also hand over the questionnaire to the 
interviewee and request him to give appointment in his 
leisure time. 
• The interviewer will attend the interviewee in his 
scheduled time and will fill up the questionnaire.
Sources of Secondary Data 
There are seven sources of secondary data: 
(i) Various publications of local and central government 
(ii) Various publications of foreign government or 
international bodies 
(iii) Technical and trade journal 
(iv) Books, magazine and news papers 
(v) Reports and publications of various association 
connected with business and industry, bank, stock 
exchange etc. 
(vi) Reports prepared by research scholars, universities, 
economist etc. 
(vii) Public report and statistics, historical documents and 
other published documents.
Guidelines for Constructing Questionnaire/Schedule 
1. The researcher must keep in view the problem he is to study for it provides the 
starting point for developing the Questionnaire/Schedule. He must be clear about 
the various aspects of his research problem to be dealt with in the course of his 
research project. 
2. Appropriate form of questions depends on the nature of information sought, the 
sampled respondents and the kind of analysis intended. The researcher must 
decide whether to use closed or open-ended question. Questions should be simple 
and must be constructed with a view to their forming a logical part of a well thought 
out tabulation plan. The units of enumeration should also be defined precisely so 
that they can ensure accurate and full information. 
3. Rough draft of the Questionnaire/Schedule be prepared, giving due thought to the 
appropriate sequence of putting questions. Questionnaires or schedules previously 
drafted (if available) may as well be looked into at this stage. 
4. Researcher must invariably re-examine, and in case of need may revise the rough 
draft for a better one. Technical defects must be minutely scrutinized and 
removed. 
5. Pilot study should be undertaken for pre-testing the questionnaire. The 
questionnaire may be edited in the light of the results of the pilot study. 
6. Questionnaire must contain simple but straight forward directions for the 
respondents so that they may not feel any difficulty in answering the questions.
Guideline for Successful Interviewing 
1. Interviewer must plan in advance and should fully know the problem under 
consideration. He must choose a suitable time and place so that the interviewee 
may be at ease during the interview period. For this purpose some knowledge of 
the daily routine of the interviewee is essential. 
2. Interviewer’s approach must be friendly and informal. Initially friendly greetings in 
accordance with the cultural pattern of the interviewee should be exchanged and 
then the purpose of the interview should be explained. 
3. All possible effort should be made to establish proper rapport with the interviewee; 
people are motivated to communicate when the atmosphere is favorable. 
4. Interviewer must know that ability to listen with understanding, respect and 
curiosity is the gateway to communication, and hence must act accordingly during 
the interview. For all this, the interviewer must be intelligent and must be a man 
with self-restraint and self-discipline. 
5. To the extent possible there should be a free-flowing interview and the questions 
must be well phrased in order to have full cooperation of the interviewee. But the 
interviewer must control the course of the interview in accordance with the 
objective of the study. 
6. In case of big enquiries, where the task of collecting information is to be 
accomplished by several interviewers, there should be an interview guide to be 
observed by all so as to ensure reasonable uniformity in respect of all salient 
points in the study.
The End

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Business research methods 1

  • 2. Meaning of Research Research refers a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. According to the advanced learners dictionary of current English “Research a careful investigation or enquiry. Especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.” According to Redman and Mory, “Research is a systemized effort to gain new knowledge.” According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. In brief 'research' refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions(s) towards concerned problem or in certain generalizations for some theoretical formulation.
  • 3. Objectives of Research  To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.  To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group.  To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else.  To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies).
  • 4. Motivation of Research • Desire to get research degree along with its consequential benefit. • Desire to face the challenge in solving unsolved problem. • Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work. • Desire to be of service to society. • Desire to get respectability.
  • 5. Types of Research (i) Descriptive vs. Analytical (ii) Applied vs. Fundamental (iii) Quantitative vs. Qualitative (iv) Conceptual vs. Empirical
  • 6. Significance of Research • Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. • Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. • Research has its special significance in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.   Research is equally important for social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.
  • 7. Importance of Knowing How Research is done (i) The knowledge of methodology provides good training especially to the new research worker and enables him to do better research. It helps him to develop disciplined thinking or a 'bent of mind' to observe the field objectively. (ii) Knowledge of how to do research will inculcate the ability to evaluate and use research results with reasonable confidence. (iii) When one knows how research is done, then one may have the satisfaction of acquiring a new intellectual tool which can become a way of looking at the world and of judging every day experience. According, it enables use to make intelligent decisions concerning problems. (iv) The knowledge of methodology helps the consumer of research results evaluate them and enables him to take rational decisions.
  • 8. Research Process RESEARCH PROCESS IN FLOW CHART Where = feed back (Helps in controlling the sub-system to which it is transmitted) = feed forward (Serves the vital function of providing criteria for evaluation) Define research problem Review concepts and theories Review previous research finding Formulate hypothesis Design research (including sample design Collect data (Execution) Analyze data (Test hypotheses if any) Interpret and report FF F F F FF i ii iii iv v vi vii F FF
  • 9. Steps of the Research Process • 1. Formulating the research problem • 2. Extensive literature survey • 3. Development of working hypotheses • 4. Preparing the research design • 5. Determining sample design • 6. Collecting of data • 7. Execution of the project • 8. Analysis of data • 9. Hypothesis-testing • 10. Generalization and interpretation • 11. Preparation of the report or the thesis
  • 10. Criteria of Good Research • The purpose of the research should be clearly defined and common concepts be used. • The research procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement, keeping the continuity of what has already been attained. • The procedural design of the research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible. • The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and estimate their effects upon the findings. • The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate. The validity and reliability of the data should be cleared carefully. • Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research and limited to those for which the data provide an adequate basis. • Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced, has a good reputation in research and is a person of integrity.
  • 11. Chapter-2 DEFINING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
  • 12. What is a Research Problem? A research problem, in general, refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same. Thus, a research problem is one which requires a researcher to find out the best solution for the given problem, i.e., to fine out by which course of action the objective can be attained optimally in the context of a given environment.
  • 13. Components of Research problem • There must be an individual or a group which has some problems. • There must be some objectives to be attained at. • There must be alternative means of obtaining these objectives. • There must be some doubt in mind in selecting an alternative means. • There must be an environment to which these problems pertain.
  • 14. Technique Involved in Defining a Problem • Statement of the problem in a general way. (a) Initially a tentative Statement of the problem is made for Searching. (b) This tentative Statement will be finalize later on. • Understanding the nature of the problem a) A researcher has to Understand the nature of the problem b) He has to understand the volume of work c) He has to understand the requirement of fund d) He has to understand the requirement of expert e) He has to understand the requirement of time. • Surveying the available literature (a) On the basis of tentative Statement of the problem a researcher has to review the related literature • Developing the ideas through discussions • Rephrasing the research problem
  • 16. Meaning of Research Design "A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure." More explicitly, the design decisions happen to be in respect of:
  • 17. Research Design satisfy the following questions (i) What is the study about? (ii) Why is the study being made? (iii) Where will the study be carried out? (iv) What type of data is required? (v) Where can the required data be found? (vi) What periods of time will the study include? (vii) What will be the sample design? (viii) What techniques of data collection will be used? (ix) How will the data be analyzed? (x) In what style will the report be prepared?
  • 18. Features of a Good Design A good design is often characterized by adjectives like flexible, appropriate, efficient, economical and so on. Generally, the design which minimizes bias and maximizes the reliability of the data collected and analyzed is considered a good design. • Flexible: It is a design which can be modified at any time. • Appropriate – The means of obtaining information; – The availability and skills of the researcher and his staff, if any; – The objective of the problem to be studied; – The nature of the problem to be studied; and – The availability of time and money for the research work. • Efficient: A design which serves the purpose of the objectives properly. • Economical: It is a design which can fulfill the objectives of the research within limited time and fund.
  • 19. Important Concepts Relating to Research Design 1. Dependent and independent variables: If one variable depends upon or is a consequence of the other variable, it is termed as a dependent variable, and the variable that is antecedent to the dependent variable is termed as an independent variable. 2. Extraneous variable: Independent variables that are not related to the purpose of the study, but may affect the dependent variable are termed as extraneous variables. 3. Control: The technical term 'control' is used when we design the study minimizing the effects of extraneous independent variables. 4. Confounded relationship 5. Research hypothesis 6. Experimental and non-experimental hypothesis-testing research 7. Experimental and control groups 8. Treatments 9. Experiment 10.Experimental unit(s)
  • 20. Different Research Design 1. Research design in case of exploratory research studies: The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypotheses from an operational point of view. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. 2. Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies: The design in such studies must be rigid and not flexible and must focus attention on the following: (a) Formulating the objective of the study (b) Designing the methods of data collection (c) Selecting the sample (d) Collecting the data (e) Processing and analyzing the data (f) Reporting the findings 3. Research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies: Hypothesis-testing research studies (generally known as experimental studies) are those where the researcher tests the hypotheses of causal relationships between variables.
  • 21. Basic Principles of Experimental Design (1) The Principle of Replication: Repetition of treatment to remove random error. (2) The Principle of Randomization: To remove the biasness of the experimenter. (3) Principle of Local Control: To maintain the homogeneity of the experimental plots.
  • 22. Important Experimental Designs (a) Informal experimental designs: (i) Before-and-after without control design (ii) After only with control design (iii) Before-and-after with control design (b) Formal experimental designs: (i) Completely randomized design (C.R. Design) (ii) Randomized block design (R.B. Design) (iii) Latin square design (L.S. Design) (iv) Factorial designs.
  • 24. Sampling Design Sampling Design: At the time of taking decision about the population characteristics representative part of the population is undertaken. The process of undertaking the representative part of the population is called sampling design. Census: It is a complete enumeration of all the items of the population. Sampling: It is a survey of representative part of the population.
  • 25. Concepts used in Sample Design While developing sampling design, the researcher must pay attention to the following points: (i) Type of Universe (population) (ii) Sampling unit (iii) Source list (iv) Size of sample (v) Parameters of interest (vi) Budgetary constraint (vii) Sampling procedure
  • 26. Characteristics of a Good Sample Design We can list down the characteristics of a good sample design as under: • Sample design must result in a truly representative sample. • Sample design must be such which results in small sampling error. • Sample design must be viable in the context of funds available for the research study. • Sample design must be such so that systematic bias can be controlled in a better way. • Sample should be such that the results of the sample study can be applied, in general, for the universe with a reasonable level of confidence.
  • 27. Different Types of Sample Designs Non-probability sampling: Non-probability sampling is that sampling procedure which does not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the population has of being included in the sample. Probability sampling: Probability sampling is also known as 'random sampling' or 'chance sampling'. Under this sampling design, every item of the universe has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample.
  • 28. Different Types of Sample Designs (cont.) Two Types of sampling Design: i) Probability sampling Design ii) Purposive sampling Design The probability sampling are of two types (i) Simple Random Sampling (ii) Complex Random Sampling Complex Random Sampling are of seven types (i) Systematic sampling (ii) Stratified sampling (iii) Cluster sampling (iv) Area sampling (v) Multi-stage sampling (vi) Sampling with probability proportional to size (vii) Sequential sampling
  • 29. Chapter-6 Methods of Data Collection
  • 30. Types of Data There are two types of data: (i) Primary Data The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happened to be original in character. (i) Secondary Data The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process.
  • 31. Method of Collection of Primary Data There are four methods of collection of primary data: (i) Observation Method (ii) Interview Method (iii) Questionnaire Method (iv) Schedule Method
  • 32. Observation Method • It is an attempt to observe a person or a phenomenon minutely and report it to the proper authority. • It is a laborious and time consuming method.
  • 33. Interview Method • It is a conversation between an interviewer and an interviewee. • It is a face to face question answering. • It will also include the telephonic question answering. • It is quick method and an interviewer can interview several persons in a day depending on the size questions
  • 34. Questionnaire Method • Keeping in view of the objectives of a research a series of questions are drafted • Final questionnaire is prepared after pre- testing it. • Questionnaires are sent to the interviewee with a request letter describing its importance and confidentiality. • A stamped envelop is also sent for return mail. • An interviewee will fill the questionnaire up and send it to the office of the project director in time.
  • 35. Schedule Method • It is a combination interview and questionnaire method. • Initially a questionnaire is prepared with pre-testing it. • Interviewer will visit the interviewee with the questionnaire in his leisure time. • Interviewer will form proper rapport with the interviewee and will exchange greetings according to the cultural practice and convince him to the necessity of providing information of the questionnaire.. • He will also hand over the questionnaire to the interviewee and request him to give appointment in his leisure time. • The interviewer will attend the interviewee in his scheduled time and will fill up the questionnaire.
  • 36. Sources of Secondary Data There are seven sources of secondary data: (i) Various publications of local and central government (ii) Various publications of foreign government or international bodies (iii) Technical and trade journal (iv) Books, magazine and news papers (v) Reports and publications of various association connected with business and industry, bank, stock exchange etc. (vi) Reports prepared by research scholars, universities, economist etc. (vii) Public report and statistics, historical documents and other published documents.
  • 37. Guidelines for Constructing Questionnaire/Schedule 1. The researcher must keep in view the problem he is to study for it provides the starting point for developing the Questionnaire/Schedule. He must be clear about the various aspects of his research problem to be dealt with in the course of his research project. 2. Appropriate form of questions depends on the nature of information sought, the sampled respondents and the kind of analysis intended. The researcher must decide whether to use closed or open-ended question. Questions should be simple and must be constructed with a view to their forming a logical part of a well thought out tabulation plan. The units of enumeration should also be defined precisely so that they can ensure accurate and full information. 3. Rough draft of the Questionnaire/Schedule be prepared, giving due thought to the appropriate sequence of putting questions. Questionnaires or schedules previously drafted (if available) may as well be looked into at this stage. 4. Researcher must invariably re-examine, and in case of need may revise the rough draft for a better one. Technical defects must be minutely scrutinized and removed. 5. Pilot study should be undertaken for pre-testing the questionnaire. The questionnaire may be edited in the light of the results of the pilot study. 6. Questionnaire must contain simple but straight forward directions for the respondents so that they may not feel any difficulty in answering the questions.
  • 38. Guideline for Successful Interviewing 1. Interviewer must plan in advance and should fully know the problem under consideration. He must choose a suitable time and place so that the interviewee may be at ease during the interview period. For this purpose some knowledge of the daily routine of the interviewee is essential. 2. Interviewer’s approach must be friendly and informal. Initially friendly greetings in accordance with the cultural pattern of the interviewee should be exchanged and then the purpose of the interview should be explained. 3. All possible effort should be made to establish proper rapport with the interviewee; people are motivated to communicate when the atmosphere is favorable. 4. Interviewer must know that ability to listen with understanding, respect and curiosity is the gateway to communication, and hence must act accordingly during the interview. For all this, the interviewer must be intelligent and must be a man with self-restraint and self-discipline. 5. To the extent possible there should be a free-flowing interview and the questions must be well phrased in order to have full cooperation of the interviewee. But the interviewer must control the course of the interview in accordance with the objective of the study. 6. In case of big enquiries, where the task of collecting information is to be accomplished by several interviewers, there should be an interview guide to be observed by all so as to ensure reasonable uniformity in respect of all salient points in the study.