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Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
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Mesopotamia

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  • 1. MESOPOTAMIA The land between rivers.
  • 2. What was Mesopotamia? It was the 1st civilization in History. The word “MESOPOTAMIA” has a Greek origin, and it means the land between rivers. Those rivers were Tigris and Euphrates. Today in this area we can find the countries of Iraq and Syria, and a little part of Iran and Turkey.
  • 3. The beginning of History It is in Mesopotamia where the first written remains have been found. They were CUNEIFORM texts on clay tablets. The most ancient tablets date back to 3,300 BC. Thanks to these tablets we know about the periods that you are about to discover…!!
  • 4. Activity 1  Why is Mesopotamia considered the first civilisation in history?  What does “MESOPOTAMIA” means?  What modern countries can be found today in the area where the Mesopotamian civilisation developed?
  • 5. Political evolution of Mesopotamia Every spring the rivers Tigris & Euphrates overflowed fertilising the sourrounding land. The richness of the soil brought different people to the area who argued over the land for centuries. Therefore, Mesopotamia was the land for many different political entities (from a city-states based civilization to some of the most powerful empires). The history of Mesopotamia can be subdiveded into 5 3,500 BC 2,330 BC 1,800 BC 1,300 BC periods: 625 BC 539 BC
  • 6. CHRONOLOGY SUMERIAN AKKADIAN BABYLONIAN ASSYRIAN NEOBABYLONIAN CHARACTERISTICS 3,500 – 2,350 BC • Developed in Sumer (South Mesopotamia). • Organized in independent city-states (Ur, Uruk, Lagash). • Shared language and culture (same civilization), but they were not part of an empire 2,330 – 2130 BC • 3rd millennium BC: new settlement in central Mesopotamia : Akkad. • 2,330 BC: Akkadian king Sargon I conquered Sumer. Akkadian Empire: a single leader for all the territory. • 2,130 BC: Akkadian Empire destroyed and Mesopotamia lost its unity. 1,800 – 1500 BC • 1,800 BC: Babylonian king Hammurabi unified Mesopotamia again (he ruled over the rest). He created the 1st law code in history. • 1,500 BC: Babylonian Empire destroyed and Mesopotamia lost its unity again. 1,300 – 625 BC 625 – 539 BC • 1,300 BC: Assyrians (inhabitants of North Mesopotamia) unified Mesopotamia again: Assyrian Empire ruled over a huge territory (from Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea). They were very fierce & cruel. • 625 BC: Babylon got independence from Assyria: Neo-Babylonian empire. They allied with the Persian empire and together they destroyed the Assyrian Empire. • 539 BC: Persians conquered the Neo-Babylonian Empire. End of historical independence of Mesopotamia, which became a province of the Persian empire.
  • 7. Sumer (3,500- 2,350 BC) Sumerians settled in Sumer, the southern part of Mesopotamia. They founded a group of city-states  they were independent, and each one ruled over its surrounding lands. The most important of these cities were Uruk, Ur and Lagash. They shared language and culture (they were part of the same civilization), but they were not part of an empire.
  • 8. Akkadian Empire (2,330 - 2,130 BC) In the 3rd millennium BC new people settled in Mesopotamia among the Sumerians, such as the Akkadians, which settled in the city of Akkad in central Mesopotamia. In 2,330 BC, the Akkadian king Sargon I, conquered Sumer and established the Akkadian Empire. From that city of Akkad he controlled all Mesopotamia. It was the first time this land was ruled by the same leader. In 2,130 BC the Akkadian Empire was destroyed (due to the invasions of the Gutians, a tribe from the Zagros Mts.). Mesopotamia lost its unity. Sargon’s mask
  • 9. Babylonian Empire (1,800 – 1,500 BC) In 1,800 BC, king Hammurabi from the city of Babylon (located between Akkad and Sumer) began to dominate over the rest of the territory, and unified Mesopotamia again. Hammurabi became very famous because of his law code (Code of Hammurabi): it was the first in History!!! In 1,500 BC the Babylonian Empire was destroyed (conquered by the Hittites & the Kassites). Mesopotamia lost its unity again.
  • 10. Assyrian Empire (1,300 - 625 BC) Around 1,300 BC the Assyrians, the inhabitants of the northern part of Mesopotamia, created a great empire. They ruled over a very large territory that went from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. They were famous because of their ferocity and cruelty. But the Mesopotamian civilization was reaching its end…
  • 11. Neo-Babylonian Empire (625-539 BC) In 625 BC, Babylon got independence from Assyria (which so far had been dominating South Mesopotamia), and created the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Then the Neo-Babylonian allied with the Persians and together they conquered the Assyrian empire. In 539 BC the Persians conquered the Neo-Babylonian Empire. This meant the end of historical independence of Mesopotamia, that became a satrapy (province) of the Persian empire.
  • 12. Mesopotamian political organization WHO GOVERNED/RULED THE TERRITORY?? SUMMERIAN PERIOD (independent citystates) • Each city-state was governed by a priest (patesi). EMPIRES • Military chiefs took political (Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian control, and became kings and Neo-Babylonian) of vast empires.
  • 13. Mesopotamian social organization King & his family Priests & nobles Traders & clerks (the most important were the scribes) Farmers & craftsmen Slaves (prisoners of war, people that had not paid their debts…) Mesopotamian society was very HIERARCHICAL
  • 14. Activity 2: Mesopotamian hierarchical society To represent the HIERARCHICAL SOCIETY of Mesopotamia, you are going to… a) b) Draw a Ziggurat with 5 levels. Put the following Mesopotamian social groups in its corresponding level. – – – – – Priests & nobles Traders & clerks (the most important were the scribes) Slaves (prisoners of war, people that had not paid their debts…) King & his family Farmers & craftsmen
  • 15. Mesopotamian economic organization Money!! Trade (comercio) Craftwork (artesanía) Irrigated agriculture  cereal, vegetables, lentils, palm trees. Stock farming  sheep, goats, horses, oxen. Their economy was based on agriculture & farming. Agricultural prosperity (producing more than what they needed for themselves) enabled them to develop craftwork & trade. Trade led them to the invention of money.
  • 16. Mesopotamian religion & beliefs They were POLYTHEISTIC  believed in many gods. They believed in life after death.
  • 17. Mesopotamian cultural legacy  They invented writing. They used clay tablets on which they made inscriptions with a sharp object. They developed the CUNEIFORM script.
  • 18. Mesopotamian cultural legacy  CUNEIFORM script was…  1st  PICTOGRAPHIC: each symbol was a picture that represented a word which was quite similar to it.  2nd  IDEOGRAPHIC: the symbols & their combination represented concepts. Example: man + crown = king.  3rd  PHONETIC: each symbol corresponded to a sound or syllable.
  • 19. Evolution of pictographic symbols
  • 20. Ideographic symbols
  • 21. Evolution of the symbol that meant “king”
  • 22. Mesopotamian cultural legacy  Other discoveries:  Mathematics  enabled them to keep accounts.  Astronomy  enabled them to make a calendar. CALCULATION OF THE AREA OF A PLOT OF LAND
  • 23. Mesopotamian cultural legacy S  They developed the first Law Code in history (by Babylonian king Hammurabi). s
  • 24. Activity 3: Mesopotamian economy, religion & culture a) b) c) Explain the basis of the Mesopotamian economy. Mesopotamian religion was monotheistic or polytheistic? What does it mean? Answer true or false correct the mistakes: – – – – – Mesopotamian people trade using bartering. The most important Mesopotamian gods were Zeus & Aphrodite Mesopotamians first developed writing in Uruk in 3,300 BC. Writing was done on paper with a pencil. Mesopotamian script was called Hieroglyphics. It was first ideographic, then phonetic and then pictographic. Mesopotamians made discoveries in astrology & mathematics that enabled them to develop horoscopes, calendars and keep accounts.
  • 25. Mesopotamian artistic achievements  IN ARCHITECTURE:  Materials used: adobe bricks.  They invented: the arch (arco) & the dome (cúpula).  Most important buildings:  Palaces  Ziggurats: temple in the shape of a terraced pyramid with successively smaller levels; the last one was the sanctuary.
  • 26. MESOPOTAMIAN ARCH (The Ctesiphon arch)
  • 27. MESOPOTAMIAN DOMES
  • 28. ZIGGURAT IN THE CITY OF UR (IRAQ) ZIGGURATS: http://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/ca/books/b kf3/igraphics/AC_03_093_ziggurat/AC_03_093_ ziggurat.html
  • 29. Mesopotamian artistic achievements  IN SCULPTURE & POTTERY:  Statues of important people (e.g.: priests, kings)  Reliefs to decorate walls & doors of palaces.  Ceramic plates to cover the walls, in order to hide the basic building materials that they used. Main figures: lions, dragons, bulls…
  • 30. Mesopotamian artistic achievements CHARACTERISTICS: •They represented kings and priests. •They were represented in a praying attitude. •They didn’t respect human proportions, the head is bigger than the rest of the body. •They had big eyes and no expression on their faces. GUDEA, KING OF LAGASH MESOPOTAMIAN STATUES
  • 31. BAS-RELIEF OF SARGON I BAS-RELIEF OF A WAR SCENE IN THE PALACE OF THE CITY OF NINEVEH (ASSYRIAN PERIOD)
  • 32. ISHTAR GATE (ONE OF THE ENTRANCE DOORS OF THE CITY OF BABYLON). PÉRGAMO MUSEUM, BERLIN. REPLICA OF THE ISHTAR GATE IN BABYLON (AL HILLA), IRAQ. THE LION, A SYMBOL OF ISHTAR (GODDESS OF LOVE & WAR)
  • 33. BAS-RELIEF OF THE SNAKE-DRAGON, THE SYMBOL OF THE GOD MARDUK (GOD OF THE GODS, AND GOD OF BABYLON) BAS-RELIEF OF THE LION, THE SYMBOL OF THE GODDESS ISHTAR (GODDESS OF LOVE & WAR) ISHTAR GATE ISHTAR GATE

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