U11 Ancient Greece

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U11 Ancient Greece

  1. 1. • TIME: 8th – 1st centuries BC. • PLACE: the territory known as “HELLAS” which occupies:  South of Balkan Peninsula  Western coast of Asia Minor  Islands in the Aegean and Ionian seas.
  2. 2. Activity 1: map of Hellas Draw a map of Hellas in your notebook. Then label the following geographical features: – – – – – – – – Aegean Sea Ionian Sea Asia Minor Balkan peninsula Peloponnesian peninsula Crete Athens Sparta
  3. 3. Activity 2: help yourself with this map to answer ex.2 of page 114 (…“which countries now occupy ancient Greek territories”) ALB. = Albania F.Y.R.O.M. = Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
  4. 4. TIME TO THINK!!!! LOOK AT THE PHYSICAL MAP OF HELLAS.... • What 2 physical characteristics call your attention the most? • How do you think these characteristics influenced the development of Ancient Greece?
  5. 5. • Decisive characteristics of Hellas’ location:  Being near to the sea  it enable them to develop a maritime commerce through the Mediterranean (with Egyptians, Mesopotamians…) & a maritime expansion.  Many mountains & islands  it made it difficult to unify the territory. That’s why Greeks were organized in “poleis” (independent city-states).
  6. 6. • Despite each poleis was independent, all Ancient Greece’s territories had some common characteristics :  Same geographical space (Hellas). It’s inhabitants called themselves Hellenics.  Same culture: same language (Greek), same religion…
  7. 7. Activity 3 a) When did Ancient Greek civilization developed? b) What is the name given to the territory where it developed? Through which areas did it extended? c) Explain how did the physical characteristics of Hellas influenced its development. d) P.114, exercise 3.
  8. 8. Activity 4: TIMELINE You are going to build a PROPORTIONAL TIMELINE of Prehellenic & Ancient Greece. STEPS: 1) Draw a 40-squares line in your notebook. 2) The first date in your timeline is 2,000 BC and the last one is 1 AD. 3) Divide the line in 4-square segments. There should be 10 segments in total, with a difference of 200 years between each segment: 2,000 BC / 1,800 BC / 1,600 BC / 1,400 BC … 4) Once the structure of the timeline is built, you have to mark on it the most important dates & periods… ARCHAIC PERIOD CLASSICAL PERIOD HELLENISTIC PERIOD 30 BC 800 BC (8th Century) DARK AGES 338 BC MYCENAEAN CIVILIZATION 1,200 BC 1,600 BC 2,000 BC CRETAN OR MINOAN CIVILIZATION ANCIENT GREECE 500 BC (end 6th Century) PREHELLENIC GREECE
  9. 9. a) PREHELLENIC GREECE  Cretan (or Minoan) civilisation  Mycenaean civilisation  Dark Ages
  10. 10. PREHELLENIC GREECE • Ancient Greek civilization had it’s origin in the Cretan & Mycenaean cultures. Mycenaean Culture Cretan (or Minoan) Culture
  11. 11. PREHELLENIC GREECE • 2,000 – 1,600 BC  a prosperous trade-based civilization developed in the island of Crete: Cretan (or Minoan) culture. Its name comes from its legendary king “Minos”. It’s most important city was Knossos. Historians think that a huge eruption of Thera volcano (1626 BC) provoked a crisis in the Cretan civilization, which allowed the Mycenaeans to conquer them easily. Legend of the minotaur: http://greece.mrdo nn.org/theseus.html
  12. 12. PREHELLENIC GREECE • 1,600 BC – 1200 BC in 1600 BC the Achaeans invaded Greece, and began to dominate the Cretans. The Achaeans settled in the Peloponnesian Peninsula, and their most important city was Mycenae. That’s why this culture was also known as Mycenaean culture. They had a Bronze Age lifestyle.
  13. 13. PREHELLENIC GREECE • 1,200 – 800 BC  In 1,200 BC the Dorians, who used iron weapons (Iron Age lifestyle), invaded Greece & defeated the Mycenaeans. Due to this invasion, many Mycenaeans moved to the western coasts of Asia Minor. Probably the famous mythological Trojan War was related to this invasion. With the Dorians a period of cultural recession began: THE DARK AGES. In the 8th Century BC Greece began to recover of this crisis. Legend of the Troyan Horse: http://greece.mrdonn.org/trojanwar.html
  14. 14. Activity 5: PREHELLENIC GREECE 1) Give the name & chronology of the three periods of Prehellenic Greece. 2) To which civilisation do the city of Knossos & the legend of the Minotaur relate to? 3) Why did the Cretan civilisation enter into a crisis that made it very easy to conquer around 1,600 BC? Who put an end to their civilisation? 4) During which period this the famous “Trojan War” took place?
  15. 15. b) ANCIENT GREECE  Archaic period  Classical period  Hellenistic period
  16. 16. 1. Archaic Period (800 – 500 BC) a) The poleis became organised. – A polis was an independent city-state. – There were more than 200 poleis. The most important ones were Athens & Sparta. – Each of them had its own government, laws, army and currency: they were independent.
  17. 17. – However, all the poleis had a common  Same language (Greek) culture:
  18. 18.  Same religion (Polytheistic)
  19. 19. – Poleis structure • Urban centre: – Acropolis (“upper city”)  where temples were. – Lower part  where houses, shops & public buildings were. It was organized around the agora (main square). • Surrounding farming land, forest and pastureland.
  20. 20. b) During this period, Greeks started the colonisation of the coasts of the Black & Mediterranean seas. • What is “COLONISATION”: colonisation occurs when people migrate away from their original territory (the “metropolis”) to a different territory where they establish a new settlement (the “colony”).
  21. 21. Which were the CAUSES of colonization: – Greek population increased. – Land was not well distributed. – There was not enough food for everybody.
  22. 22. • Which were the CONSECUENCES of colonization: – They founded Greek colonies all around the Mediterranean & the Black seas. COLONY = a city set up abroad by the citizens of a city-state. The original city-state is called the metropolis. Some Greek colonies in Spain were: Emporion (Ampurias), Hemeroskopeion (homework!), Mainake (homework!)... – Thanks to the colonies, Greek culture spread (use of iron, money, their alphabet, their art...)
  23. 23. Activity 6: ARCHAIC PERIOD 1) Define “Poleis” / “Acropolis” / “Agora” 2) Answer to the following questions about colonisation: a) Define “colonisation”, “metropolis” & “colony”. b) During which period did it happen? c) Which were its causes? And its consequences?
  24. 24. 2. The Classical period (500 - 338 BC) • This was the greatest period for the Greek poleis: democracy was invented & brilliant philosophers, dramatists & artists appeared. • However, there were also several conflicts...
  25. 25. a) The Greco-Persian Wars (or Median Wars) • They started when the Persians attacked Greek poleis in Asia Minor, continental Greece and in the islands. • In 499 BC Greeks rebelled against the Persians. • Greeks fought together, but the Athenian army was essential to win the war. That’s why Athens became the most powerful polis after these wars. • In 478 BC the Delian League was created: a military alliance between Greek poleis under the leadership of Athens to prevent Persian attacks.
  26. 26. Greco-Persian Wars  Persia VS Greek poleis (allied under the panhellenic league)
  27. 27. Delian League (under the leadership of Athens)
  28. 28. b) The Peloponnesian Wars • After the Greco-Persian Wars, Athens dominated the rest of the poleis (the poleis had to pay high taxes, Athens used the Delian League’s treasure in its own benefit...) • Sparta rebelled against Athens, and they fought against each other for the dominion over Greece. • Athens was defeated, and Sparta became the most powerful polis. However, Sparta’s oppressive dominion provoked revolts, internal struggles and division.
  29. 29. • Consequences of the Peloponnesian Wars:  King Phillip II of Macedon took advantage of the situation and organised a big army. Macedon was a kingdom to the north of Greece. Macedonians were considered barbarians by the Greeks.  By 338 BC he dominated all Greece, except for Sparta.
  30. 30. Activity 8: CLASSICAL PERIOD 1) Why do we say that the Classical Period is the greatest period of Ancient Greek’s history? 2) Greco-Persian wars: a) What other name do they receive? b) Why did they started? c) Who fought? d) Who won? 3) What’s the “Delian League”? Explain why & when was it formed, who led it, and its consequences. 4) Peloponnesian Wars: a) Why did they started? b) Who fought? c) Who won? d) What were its consequences?
  31. 31. 3. Hellenistic Period (338-30 BC) • Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), the son of Philip II, continued his expansion. • He unified Greece to confront the Persian Empire. • When he defeated the Persians, he created a great empire that ranged from the Mediterranean to India. • The poleis became part of a great empire, governed by one emperor.
  32. 32. • When Alexander died, his generals divided the empire into several kingdoms: the Hellenistic monarchies: – They were ruled by monarchs (kings) who had absolute power. – They spread Greek culture through the East. This process is called Hellenism. – They were finally conquered by the Romans, and they became a province of the Roman Empire.
  33. 33. Activity 9: HELLENISTIC PERIOD 1) Who was Alexander the Great? Why is he famous for? 2) What happened to Alexander’s empire when he died? 3) What is “Hellenism”? 4) By 30 BC, who conquered the former territories of the Greek empire?
  34. 34. Open your notebook, and in a new page write the title “Social organisation” and draw 2 pyramids. Social organisation Athens Sparta
  35. 35. CITIZENS Free · Born from Athenian parents. · Only men (not women!) over 18 had political rights ·Obligation to serve as warriors for the polis, but also had other jobs. METICS Not Free ·Foreigners that lived in Athens. ·Free, but no political rights. They also had to pay more taxes. ·Worked as traders or craftsmen. SLAVES ·They were property of the state or of free families. ·No freedom and no political rights. ·Worked in agriculture & farming.
  36. 36. SOCIAL GROUPS IN ATHENS CITIZENS NON CITIZENS Women Metics Had political rights Didn’t have political rights Slaves
  37. 37. SPARTANS (the “Equals”) · Born from Spartan parents. · Men over 30 had Free political rights (women didn’t). · Exclusively worked as warriors for the polis (since they were 7, they were educated by the polis with a military discipline) PERIOICOI · Foreigners that lived in Sparta. · Free, but no political rights. · Worked as traders or craftsmen. Not Free HELOTS (kind of serf) ·They were owned by the state. The state lend them to the Spartans to cultivate their lands. ·No freedom and no political rights. ·Worked in agriculture & farming. Spartan hoplite (citizen-soldier) Scene from the movie “300”: https://www.yout ube.com/watch? v=gI6sARmxEuc
  38. 38. Political organisation Classical period OLIGARCHY Hellenistic period In Sparta  OLIGARCHY ABSOLUTE MONARCHIES In Athens  DEMOCRACY Sparta Athens EPHORS GEROUSIA (2 kings + 28 elders) APPELA MAGISTRATES ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY (9 archons & 10 strategoi) SPARTAN OLIGARCHY BOULE DEMOCRACY: type of government in which the power is held by the people, who vote to chose their laws or their representatives. It comes from the Greek words “dêmos” (people) and “kratos” (power): “the power of the people”. (Council of 500) OLIGARCHY: type of government in which the power is held by a small group of privileged men called the “arisoti” (which means “the best”). ECCLESIA At the end of the class your page should look like this one… Archaic period (Citizens’ assembly. 30,000) Open your notebook, and in a new page write the title “Political organisation”. REMEMBER: Ancient Greece was organised in independent poleis, which had their own government, laws, etc., so each polis had a different political organisation.
  39. 39. REMEMBER: Ancient Greece was organised in independent poleis, which had their own government, laws, etc., so each poleis had a different political organisation. Archaic period OLIGARCHY Classical period In Sparta  OLIGARCHY In Athens  DEMOCRACY Hellenistic period ABSOLUTE MONARCHIES: kings governed with absolute power.
  40. 40. OLIGARCHY: type of government in which the power is held by a small group of privileged men called the “arisoti” (which means “the best”).
  41. 41. SPARTAN OLIGARCHY The Spartan Oligarchy was supported by 3 institutions. 5 EPHORS GEROUSIA (2 kings + 28 elders) APELLA
  42. 42. APELLA (Assembly of the Equals) •Formed by all Spartans/Equals (9.000) •They vote on the laws that the Gerousia has prepared before. However, the Gerousia could always overturn a decision made by the Apella!!! Elect GEROUSIA (Council of elders) •Formed by: 2 kings (from different families) & 28 elder aristocrats (over 60 years old) that held their position for life. •They prepared the laws. •Kings inherited their position (weren’t elected), and the had military and religious functions. Elect EPHORS (Magistrates) •Formed by 5 members elected annually. •They controlled the actions of the kings and the army.
  43. 43. DEMOCRACY: type of government in which the power is held by the people, who vote to chose their laws or their representatives. It comes from the Greek words “dêmos” (people) and “kratos” (power): “the power of the people”.
  44. 44. Athens’ democracy wasn’t perfect, but it established the roots of democracy. We owe Athenians a lot!!!
  45. 45. The Athenian Democracy was supported by 3 institutions. (9 archons & 10 strategoi) MAGISTRATES (Council of 500) BOULE (Citizens’ assembly. 30,000) ECCLESIA ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY
  46. 46. ECCLESIA (or Citizens’ Assembly) •Formed by all Athenian citizens (30.000). •They took all the important decisions. - Voted on the laws that the Boule has prepared before. - Took decisions about war & peace. - Elected the public representatives (magistrates). By lot (sorteo) BOULE (or Council of 500) •Formed by 500 citizens chosen annually by lot. •They prepared the laws. Elect MAGISTRATES They carried out the Assembly’s decisions: •9 ARCHONS  carried out the civil & religious issues (leaders of justice tribunals, religious ceremonies…) •10 STRATEGOIS  carried out the military issues (leaders of the army).
  47. 47. Economic organization TRADE Manufactured and agricultural products AGRICULTURE “Mediterranean triad” (vines, olives & cereals) CRAFTWORK Pottery, glass, high quality textiles FARMING Goats & sheep
  48. 48. CULTURE The Greeks created a brilliant culture that still remains nowadays. Greek culture is considered the foundation of Western Culture: • SCIENCE:  Math  PITAGORAS  Physics  ARCHIMEDES  Medicine  HYPOCRATES He was the 1st person to believe that diseases were caused naturally, not because of superstition and gods!!!
  49. 49. • HUMANITIES:  History  HERODOTUS  Philosophy*  SOCRATES, PLATO & ARISTOTLE.  Literature  HOMER (Homero). His most known epic poems** are “The Iliad” & “The Odyssey”.  Theatre: was the greatest literary creation of the Greeks. It had an entertaining & educational function. There were 2 main genres:  Tragedy: AESCHYLUS, SOPHOCLES…  Comedy: ARISTOPHANES  Fables***  AESOP (Ésopo) * PHILOSOPHY = Tries to explain the universe and nature from a logic point of view, using reason instead of religion. ** EPIC POEM = Long poem containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation *** FABLE = A short fictional story in which animals, mythical creatures, plants, objects, forces of nature, etc., have human qualities. They lead to an interpretation of a moral lesson (“moraleja”).
  50. 50. AESOP FABLE: “THE ANT AND THE DOVE” http://www.kidcrosswords.com/kidreader/aesops_fables/aesops_fables9.htm A thirsty ant went to the bank of a river for a drink, but just at that moment the current swelled and the ant was carried away. A dove sitting on a tree overhanging the river saw that the ant was in trouble, broke off a twig, and threw it into the water. The ant climbed onto the twig and floated safely onto dry land. Later that day, a hunter appeared with some twigs smeared with birdlime (sticky substance that is smeared on branches or twigs to capture small birds ) and started to set them in position to catch the dove. When the ant saw this, she bit the man sharply on the foot. In pain, the hunter dropped the sticks, grabbed his foot and yelled. The dove, frightened by the noise, flew off to safety.
  51. 51. AESOP FABLE: “THE ANT AND THE DOVE” The Moral of the story is...? a) Doves and ants make good friends b) Ants should stay away from the water c) Hunters should be afraid of ants d) If you do something nice for someone, they will do something nice for you. And the correct answer is…………: d) If you do something nice for someone, they will do something nice for you!!!!!!
  52. 52. ART • ARCHITECTURE:  Materials: stone or marble  Buildings were designed to a human scale: their scale was based on human proportions (they weren’t as monumental as Egyptian temples!!!)  Greek architecture was lintelled (“adintelada”): building system that consists in horizontal structures supported on vertical columns/pillars. They didn’t use the arch & the dome. Two pillars support a lintel or architrave PILLAR PILLAR ARCHITRAVE / LINTEL
  53. 53.  Their buildings had a double-sloped roof.  They also used columns. Greeks invented 3 orders (styles, types) of columns: • Doric • Ionic • Corinthian The function of columns was to support the buildings, but Greeks’ ideal beauty was based on proportion (they thought that beauty depended on symmetry and in the harmony of proportions) so they adjusted the columns in size, angle, distance from each other, etc., so that from a distance the columns looked perfectly symmetrical & proportional.
  54. 54. “Aurea proportion” or “Golden ratio” in Greek temples The aurea rectangle is considered to have harmonic proportions.
  55. 55.  Most important buildings:  Temples:  Function: The house of the god. A statue of the god was kept inside the temple.  Characteristics: 2 parts: - Naos (cella): inner chamber of the temple, where they kept the statue of the god. - Peristyle: rows of columns surrounding the temple.  Examples: - Parthenon - Athena Nike - Erechteum PERISTYLE NAOS (OR CELLA)
  56. 56. PEDIMENT ENTABLATURE TYMPANUM CORNICE FRIEZE ARCHITRAVE / LINTEL CAPITAL COLUMN ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS OF GREEK TEMPLES (in English) SHAFT BASE
  57. 57. FRONTÓN TÍMPANO ENTABLAMENTO CORNISA FRISO ARQUITRAVE / DINTEL CAPITEL COLUMNA ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS OF GREEK TEMPLES (in Spanish) FUSTE BASA
  58. 58. PARTHENON WHAT ORDER IS IT…? DORIC ATHENA NIKE WHAT ORDER IS IT…? IONIC
  59. 59. ERECHTHEUM It’s a special temple because instead of columns they used CARYATIDS. CARYATIDS: sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head
  60. 60.  Theatres:  Function: performance of theatre plays.  Characteristics: built to take advantage of mountain slopes. They had a perfect acoustic and visibility.  Examples: - Theatre of Delphi - Theatre of Epidaurus
  61. 61. ART • SCULPTURE:  Aimed to achieve idealized beauty (perfect proportions).  3 different periods:  Archaic  Classical  Hellenistic
  62. 62.  Archaic:  Rigid figures.  Nude males (Kouroi) and dressed females (Kourai).
  63. 63.  Classical:  Figures in movement. More realistic, though idealized.  Famous sculptors:  Myron  Phidias  Praxiteles Athena (Phidias) The Discobolus (Myron) Hermes and the infant Dionysus (Praxiteles)
  64. 64. This is another famous Greek sculpture of the classical period…. Do you know its name??!!
  65. 65.  Hellenistic:  Figures in movement and expressing feelings in face and body. They no longer aimed to represent ideal beauty, they now aim to represent nature as it is (happy, painful, beautiful, ugly, tragic…).  Examples: Laocoön and his sons; Winged Victory of Samothrace.
  66. 66. • PAINTING & POTTERY: ART  Remains of Greek paintings can be found in pottery decorations.  They represented: mythological episodes and sports competitions.  Colors used: red over black or black over red.

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