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Alcohol Primer
 

Alcohol Primer

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Dr. Brian Primack introduces the health issues around alcohol issue and the role of media literacy education in substance abuse prevention.

Dr. Brian Primack introduces the health issues around alcohol issue and the role of media literacy education in substance abuse prevention.

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  • And during this time, adolescents are exposed to over 8 and a half hours of media exposure each day.

Alcohol Primer Alcohol Primer Presentation Transcript

  • Alcohol Primer: Four Questions about Alcohol Brian A. Primack, MD, EdM, MS March 2010 Drug Free Pennsylvania
  •  
  • 1. How Does It Work?
  • Phineas Gage
  •  
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  • Some Neurotransmitters “ Gas” + Aspartate “ Gas” + Glutamate “ Brakes” - Glycine “ Brakes” - GABA Reward, pleasure + Dopamine Mood, sleep + Serotonin (5HT) Fight, flight + NE Memory + Acetylcholine
  • Some Neurotransmitters “ Gas” + Aspartate “ Gas” + Glutamate “ Brakes” - Glycine “ Brakes” - GABA Reward, pleasure + Dopamine Mood, sleep + Serotonin (5HT) Fight, flight + NE Memory + Acetylcholine
  • GABA and Chloride
  • GABA, Chloride, and Alcohol
  • Effect of Alcohol
    • Depress brain activity in general
    • Decrease reflexes
    • Depress brain’s control of body
    • Depress speech
    • Depress respiratory and cardiac centers
    • Decrease normal social inhibition
    • Decrease emotional and muscular tension
  • Alcohol Withdrawal
    • Rapid heartbeat and respiratory rate
    • Increased emotional and physical tension
    • Increase in certain body processes causes headache, nausea
    • Irritability
    • Need for more drug
  • 2. What’s the Big Deal?
  •  
  • Leading Causes of Death in 1-24 Year Olds 25 Suicide 30 Homicide 10-90 Other Accidents 40 Motor Vehicle Accidents % Related to Alcohol Cause
  • Alcohol Is the Leading Cause of Death Those Under 25
  • Alcohol and injuries
    • Death from falls: 21-77% involve alcohol
    • Nonfatal falls: 18-53% involve alcohol
    • Drowning deaths: 21-47% involve alcohol
    • Burn deaths: 9-86% involve alcohol
    • Hingson, 1993
  •  
  • The Liver
    • Cleans up waste products in your blood
  • Liver Damage: Cirrhosis
  • Liver Damage
    • Waste builds up and can damage the:
    • Brain
    • Testicles
    • Skin
    • Blood
    • Abdomen
    • Many more
  • Effects of Alcohol (Netter)
  • Ascites
  • Jaundice
  • Gynecomastia
  •  
  • FAS
  • FAS
    • Growth deficiencies
    • Vision, hearing, dental problems
    • Facial abnormalities
    • Mental retardation, developmental delays, neurological problems
    • Epilepsy
    • Behavioral problems
    • Organ and body dysfunction (muscle problems, bone and joint problems, genital defects, heart defects, kidney defects )
  • Alcohol is the leading cause of child and spousal abuse
  • Alcohol and sex
    • Teenagers who drink are:
    • 7x as likely to have sex
    • 2x as likely to have sex with 4 or more partners
    • Increases the risk of HIV, other STDs, and teen pregnancy
    • CASA, 2002
  • Alcohol and college campuses
    • Alcohol is implicated in date rape, sexual harassment, racial disturbances, drop outs, overdose deaths, and suicides
    • CASA, 2002
  • High school dropouts
    • High school students who drink are 5x as likely to drop out of school
    • CASA, 2002
  • Alcohol, the Gateway Drug
    • Young drinkers are 50 times more likely to use cocaine than non-drinkers
    • Young drinkers are 7.5 times more likely to use other illicit drugs
    • Greydanus, 1991
  •  
  • Brain Damage, Poor Nutrition, Obesity
  • Cost
    • Alcohol represents a financial burden on our society of about $185 billion each year
    • National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2000
  • Summary
    • Brain
      • Damage
      • Inhibition causing accidents, social problems, other drug use, sexual issues, rape, abuse
    • Liver
      • Cirrhosis
      • Toxin buildup
    • Unborn Child
  • 3. Why Do We Drink?
  •  
  • History, Culture
  • Religion
  • Other Reasons
    • Financial (beer, wine, liquor industries)
    • Positive effects
    • Mass media
  • Underage drinkers
    • Kids less than 21 drink 25% of the alcohol sold in the US
    • Kids less than 21 see 45% more beer ads and 27% more hard liquor ads than people of legal drinking age
    • Those who start to drink at age 15 are 4x more likely to become an alcoholic (than starting at age 21)
  • In 1996, the Budweiser frogs were more recognizable to children aged 9-11 than the Power Rangers, Tony the Tiger, or Smokey the Bear
  • Reaching youth better than school
    • 8-12 year olds could name more brands of beer than they could US presidents
    • Taylor, 1990
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  • Longitudinal Studies
    • Longitudinal studies bear out the relationship between initial television, music video, and advertisement exposure and subsequent onset of or increase in drinking
    • Robinson, 1998, Connolly, 1994
  • Econometric Studies
    • In Sweden in the 1970’s, a ban on alcohol advertising resulted in a 20% decrease in the consumption of alcohol
    • Romelsjo, 1987
  • Targeting minorities
    • Minority neighborhoods in Chicago have on average seven times the number of billboards advertising alcohol as do Caucasian neighborhoods
    • Hackbarth, 1994
  • Fantasy
  • Reality
  • Media Exposure (8-18) Rideout, 2010
  • Daily exposure to substances in music (ages 8-18):
    • Tobacco: 1.8
    • Alcohol: 34.3
    • Marijuana: 28.5
    • Other: 28.5
    • Any substance: 88.0
    Primack, et al., Arch Ped Adol Med , 2008
  • Primack et al., Addiction , 2010
  • Primack et al., Addiction , 2010
  • 4. What Can Be Done?
  • Solutions
    • Bans/laws?
    • Public service announcements?
    • Media literacy
      • Fun, creative
      • Better for more rebellious
      • Difference between representation and reality, analysis
  • Thank You [email_address]