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Alcohol Primer: Four Questions about Alcohol  Brian A. Primack, MD, EdM, MS March 2010 Drug Free Pennsylvania
 
1. How Does It Work?
Phineas Gage
 
 
 
Some Neurotransmitters “ Gas” + Aspartate “ Gas” + Glutamate “ Brakes” - Glycine “ Brakes” - GABA Reward, pleasure + Dopam...
Some Neurotransmitters “ Gas” + Aspartate “ Gas” + Glutamate “ Brakes” - Glycine “ Brakes” - GABA Reward, pleasure + Dopam...
GABA and Chloride
GABA, Chloride, and Alcohol
Effect of Alcohol <ul><li>Depress brain activity in general </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Depress ...
Alcohol Withdrawal <ul><li>Rapid heartbeat and respiratory rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increased emotional and physical tension...
2. What’s the Big Deal?
 
Leading Causes of Death in 1-24 Year Olds 25 Suicide 30 Homicide 10-90 Other Accidents 40 Motor Vehicle Accidents % Relate...
Alcohol Is the Leading Cause of Death Those Under 25
Alcohol and injuries <ul><li>Death from falls: 21-77% involve alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfatal falls: 18-53% involve alc...
 
The Liver <ul><li>Cleans up waste products in your blood </li></ul>
Liver Damage: Cirrhosis
Liver Damage <ul><li>Waste builds up and can damage the: </li></ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Testicles </li></ul><ul...
Effects of Alcohol (Netter)
Ascites
Jaundice
Gynecomastia
 
FAS
FAS <ul><li>Growth deficiencies  </li></ul><ul><li>Vision, hearing, dental problems  </li></ul><ul><li>Facial abnormalitie...
Alcohol is the leading cause of child and spousal abuse
Alcohol and sex <ul><li>Teenagers who drink are: </li></ul><ul><li>7x as likely to have sex </li></ul><ul><li>2x as likely...
Alcohol and college campuses <ul><li>Alcohol is implicated in date rape, sexual harassment, racial disturbances, drop outs...
High school dropouts <ul><li>High school students who drink are 5x as likely to drop out of school </li></ul><ul><li>CASA,...
Alcohol, the Gateway Drug <ul><li>Young drinkers are 50 times more likely to use cocaine than non-drinkers </li></ul><ul><...
 
Brain Damage, Poor Nutrition, Obesity
Cost <ul><li>Alcohol represents a financial burden on our society of about $185 billion each year </li></ul><ul><li>Nation...
Summary <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibition causing accidents, social problem...
3. Why Do We Drink?
 
History, Culture
Religion
Other Reasons <ul><li>Financial (beer, wine, liquor industries) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive effects </li></ul><ul><li>Mass ...
Underage drinkers <ul><li>Kids less than 21 drink 25% of the alcohol sold in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Kids less than 21 se...
In 1996, the Budweiser frogs were more recognizable to children aged 9-11 than the Power Rangers, Tony the Tiger, or Smoke...
Reaching youth better than school <ul><li>8-12 year olds could name more brands of beer than they could US presidents </li...
 
 
 
 
 
Longitudinal Studies <ul><li>Longitudinal studies bear out the relationship between initial television, music video, and a...
Econometric Studies <ul><li>In Sweden in the 1970’s, a ban on alcohol advertising resulted in a 20% decrease in the consum...
Targeting minorities <ul><li>Minority neighborhoods in Chicago have on average seven times the number of billboards advert...
Fantasy
Reality
Media Exposure (8-18) Rideout, 2010
Daily exposure to substances in music (ages 8-18): <ul><li>Tobacco: 1.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol: 34.3 </li></ul><ul><li>...
Primack et al.,  Addiction , 2010
Primack et al.,  Addiction , 2010
4. What Can Be Done?
Solutions <ul><li>Bans/laws? </li></ul><ul><li>Public service announcements? </li></ul><ul><li>Media literacy </li></ul><u...
Thank You [email_address]
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Alcohol Primer

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Dr. Brian Primack introduces the health issues around alcohol issue and the role of media literacy education in substance abuse prevention.

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Alcohol Primer

  1. 1. Alcohol Primer: Four Questions about Alcohol Brian A. Primack, MD, EdM, MS March 2010 Drug Free Pennsylvania
  2. 3. 1. How Does It Work?
  3. 4. Phineas Gage
  4. 8. Some Neurotransmitters “ Gas” + Aspartate “ Gas” + Glutamate “ Brakes” - Glycine “ Brakes” - GABA Reward, pleasure + Dopamine Mood, sleep + Serotonin (5HT) Fight, flight + NE Memory + Acetylcholine
  5. 9. Some Neurotransmitters “ Gas” + Aspartate “ Gas” + Glutamate “ Brakes” - Glycine “ Brakes” - GABA Reward, pleasure + Dopamine Mood, sleep + Serotonin (5HT) Fight, flight + NE Memory + Acetylcholine
  6. 10. GABA and Chloride
  7. 11. GABA, Chloride, and Alcohol
  8. 12. Effect of Alcohol <ul><li>Depress brain activity in general </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Depress brain’s control of body </li></ul><ul><li>Depress speech </li></ul><ul><li>Depress respiratory and cardiac centers </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease normal social inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease emotional and muscular tension </li></ul>
  9. 13. Alcohol Withdrawal <ul><li>Rapid heartbeat and respiratory rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increased emotional and physical tension </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in certain body processes causes headache, nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Need for more drug </li></ul>
  10. 14. 2. What’s the Big Deal?
  11. 16. Leading Causes of Death in 1-24 Year Olds 25 Suicide 30 Homicide 10-90 Other Accidents 40 Motor Vehicle Accidents % Related to Alcohol Cause
  12. 17. Alcohol Is the Leading Cause of Death Those Under 25
  13. 18. Alcohol and injuries <ul><li>Death from falls: 21-77% involve alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfatal falls: 18-53% involve alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Drowning deaths: 21-47% involve alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Burn deaths: 9-86% involve alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Hingson, 1993 </li></ul>
  14. 20. The Liver <ul><li>Cleans up waste products in your blood </li></ul>
  15. 21. Liver Damage: Cirrhosis
  16. 22. Liver Damage <ul><li>Waste builds up and can damage the: </li></ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Testicles </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Many more </li></ul>
  17. 23. Effects of Alcohol (Netter)
  18. 24. Ascites
  19. 25. Jaundice
  20. 26. Gynecomastia
  21. 28. FAS
  22. 29. FAS <ul><li>Growth deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Vision, hearing, dental problems </li></ul><ul><li>Facial abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Mental retardation, developmental delays, neurological problems </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral problems </li></ul><ul><li>Organ and body dysfunction (muscle problems, bone and joint problems, genital defects, heart defects, kidney defects ) </li></ul>
  23. 30. Alcohol is the leading cause of child and spousal abuse
  24. 31. Alcohol and sex <ul><li>Teenagers who drink are: </li></ul><ul><li>7x as likely to have sex </li></ul><ul><li>2x as likely to have sex with 4 or more partners </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the risk of HIV, other STDs, and teen pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>CASA, 2002 </li></ul>
  25. 32. Alcohol and college campuses <ul><li>Alcohol is implicated in date rape, sexual harassment, racial disturbances, drop outs, overdose deaths, and suicides </li></ul><ul><li>CASA, 2002 </li></ul>
  26. 33. High school dropouts <ul><li>High school students who drink are 5x as likely to drop out of school </li></ul><ul><li>CASA, 2002 </li></ul>
  27. 34. Alcohol, the Gateway Drug <ul><li>Young drinkers are 50 times more likely to use cocaine than non-drinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Young drinkers are 7.5 times more likely to use other illicit drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Greydanus, 1991 </li></ul>
  28. 36. Brain Damage, Poor Nutrition, Obesity
  29. 37. Cost <ul><li>Alcohol represents a financial burden on our society of about $185 billion each year </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2000 </li></ul>
  30. 38. Summary <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibition causing accidents, social problems, other drug use, sexual issues, rape, abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cirrhosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxin buildup </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unborn Child </li></ul>
  31. 39. 3. Why Do We Drink?
  32. 41. History, Culture
  33. 42. Religion
  34. 43. Other Reasons <ul><li>Financial (beer, wine, liquor industries) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive effects </li></ul><ul><li>Mass media </li></ul>
  35. 44. Underage drinkers <ul><li>Kids less than 21 drink 25% of the alcohol sold in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Kids less than 21 see 45% more beer ads and 27% more hard liquor ads than people of legal drinking age </li></ul><ul><li>Those who start to drink at age 15 are 4x more likely to become an alcoholic (than starting at age 21) </li></ul>
  36. 45. In 1996, the Budweiser frogs were more recognizable to children aged 9-11 than the Power Rangers, Tony the Tiger, or Smokey the Bear
  37. 46. Reaching youth better than school <ul><li>8-12 year olds could name more brands of beer than they could US presidents </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, 1990 </li></ul>
  38. 52. Longitudinal Studies <ul><li>Longitudinal studies bear out the relationship between initial television, music video, and advertisement exposure and subsequent onset of or increase in drinking </li></ul><ul><li>Robinson, 1998, Connolly, 1994 </li></ul>
  39. 53. Econometric Studies <ul><li>In Sweden in the 1970’s, a ban on alcohol advertising resulted in a 20% decrease in the consumption of alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Romelsjo, 1987 </li></ul>
  40. 54. Targeting minorities <ul><li>Minority neighborhoods in Chicago have on average seven times the number of billboards advertising alcohol as do Caucasian neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Hackbarth, 1994 </li></ul>
  41. 55. Fantasy
  42. 56. Reality
  43. 57. Media Exposure (8-18) Rideout, 2010
  44. 58. Daily exposure to substances in music (ages 8-18): <ul><li>Tobacco: 1.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol: 34.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana: 28.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Other: 28.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Any substance: 88.0 </li></ul>Primack, et al., Arch Ped Adol Med , 2008
  45. 59. Primack et al., Addiction , 2010
  46. 60. Primack et al., Addiction , 2010
  47. 61. 4. What Can Be Done?
  48. 62. Solutions <ul><li>Bans/laws? </li></ul><ul><li>Public service announcements? </li></ul><ul><li>Media literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun, creative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better for more rebellious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between representation and reality, analysis </li></ul></ul>
  49. 63. Thank You [email_address]

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