A Contained Atmosphere If a mainly carbon dioxide atmosphere is provided to a kidney bean plant,will its growth be affected? Ryan Henderson
Rationale• I enjoy growing plants• I enjoy learning about combustion• Botany is and interest of mine as a future job field
Research Topics• The Various Parts of a Plant• Photosynthesis - the Light and Dark Reactions• Combustion
HypothesisIf a kidney bean plant is exposed to a mainly carbon dioxide atmosphere over the course of one week and six days, then it will grow faster than a plant of the same species under normal circumstances for the same period of time.
Materials• Dried organic beans (Bag) •Aluminum foil (sheet)• Outdoor soil •Measuring cup• Tub Ware Dishes (Entrée •Disposable plastic gloves size) (pairs) •Eye dropper • Sheets of Paper •Plant support beams• Ruler •A computer (with • Lighter Microsoft Excel)• Scissors •A Source of Tap Water • Straw (e.g. faucet) •Paper towels• Pencil •Manual (Crank) Drill• Tape (roll)
Procedure• Pre-experiment bean germination – Wet 2 paper towels and put them on the tops of two lids of the 15 Tub Ware dishes – Take 15 red kidney beans out of the bag of mixed beans and place them on the paper towels and sprinkle a drop of water on each with the tear• Using the measuring cup, place 2.5 deciliters (250 milliliters) of soil into the bottom of all 15 of the plastic dishes• At the end of the 1st day, plant 5 beans in the soil in the 5 plastic dishes – With gloved hands, make an indentation in the soil in the plastic container and press each seed deep into the soil (2.5- 5 centimeters)
Procedure – Cover the seed with soil – Water the seed- sprinkling around each of the buried beans – Place 1 support rod next to each planted bean-but not too close to the seed• Repeat step 3 twice so that there are now 15 potted beans; place 5 of them onto the table to the side with lid off to not be tampered with for two more weeks except to be watered once a day-these are the “control group” plant• Use the manual drill to put a hole about 1-2 millimeters wide in the top-right corner of the 10 remaining plastic dishes (the other plants- not the control group plants) – **Note: When using the drill, put the object that is to be drilled on a hard backing surface, and wear gloves when handling machinery that is sharp**
Procedure• Put 5 of the straws through holes in the tops• Affix the straws into place with large amounts of tape, then cap off with tape• Place the 5 plastic containers with straws to the side- continue to water them (through the straws with the eye droppers) but make no additional changes to them• Make 5 cylinders of aluminum foil (approximately 5 centimeters in diameter) for the remaining 5 plants and place in the soil in a corner far away from the planted beans and press it into the soil• Take the pieces of paper and measure out 5 squares with lengths and widths of 10 centimeters
Procedure• Cut out the squares• Place each of the measured pieces of paper in each of the 5 remaining plant containers into the center of the tin foil.• Light the paper and close the lid as fast as possible-the straw needs to be through the lid of the plastic dish enters the soil at a diagonal angle – **Make sure that the containers with burning flames is a least four meters away from any object that is flammable in the environment** • Make sure that there is a fire extinguisher somewhere nearby **within 5 meters of the area of experimentation**
Procedure• Observe the burning to make sure the plant is not threatened by the flames – A. Water all plants with the measuring cup (and sometimes the tear dropper) every 4 days at 6:00 PM with 100 milliliters of tap water for 1 week and 5 days- water the plant with the straw-top with the tear dropper to make sure that all of the water gets to the plant through the straw.
Procedure• At the end of 1 week and 6 days, take all of the plants out of the soil.• Measure the plants’ length with a ruler from the longest downward root to the end of the tallest leaf or bean shell and record in Microsoft Excel – **Note: Be careful with the plants after cutting them- they will not be fully developed so they may be fragile. **• Average recorded data and organize into presentable format that compares the 15 plants’ growths over 1 week and 6 days using Microsoft Excel and Microsoft PowerPoint and the differences between the heights
Images of the ExperimentStep 5: Materials Step 3: Materials, to make holes in including growing the tops of the rods and beanscontainers Steps 9 and 16: Step 5: A hole Six finished made by the plants manual drill
Pictures Step 3: A Step 1: Beans completely set up in "Pre- Control Group Germination" Plant Stage Step 18: Roots of Step 18 Plant B of Sealed Plant B of Group 2Group 1
PicturesStep 18: Step 18:Plant C of the Plant A of theSealed Group Sealed Group2 2
Data: Control Group (in centimeters) Plant A Plant B Plant C Plant D Plant E 13 2 13.5 2 9
Data: Sealed Group 1 Plant A Plant B Plant C Plant D Plant E Average 3.5 23.5 20 0 0 9.4
Data: Sealed Group 2Plant A Plant B Plant C Plant D Plant E Average 21.5 26.4 23.2 0 0 14.22
Data: AveragesControl Group Sealed Group 1 Sealed Group 2 Average Average Average 7.9 9.4 14.22
Conclusion: Data and Summary he experiment, “A Contained Atmosphere,” reached its conclusion on January 14, 2012. fter the preparations at the beginning of the experiment, it was very uneventful. After the plants were measured, the subject group with the greatest growths and average growth were from Sealed Group 2.
Conclusion: Controls• This experiment was valid due to the following controlled variables:• Soil Source: All soil was of the same brand• Water Source: All water came from the same tap and was evenly distributed• Soil Amount: Each plant was in the same amount of soil
Conclusion: Anomalies• This experiment was valid even though there were several flaws, including: -overwatering -equal sunlight availability to all of the plants - All of the plastic dishes were the same brand model
Conclusion: Future Improvements• In the future, I could use heat lamps to more evenly distribute solar energy to the plants• Also, more accurate measuring devices could have been used to evenly distribute water•The plants’ mass could have been measured as well as their height
Future• This experiment could possibly help greenhouse operators grow their plants faster.• This experiment’s data could improve existing space air-purifying rooms