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Jauhar ali. vol 2. screening for abiotic and biotic stress tolerances

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Jauhar ali. vol 2. screening for abiotic and biotic stress tolerances

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Jauhar ali. vol 2. screening for abiotic and biotic stress tolerances

  1. 1. Jauhar Ali* Xiuqin Zhao# *International Rice Research Institute #Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
  2. 2. Selection Strategy Identify a widely adaptable genotype Use several donors 15 to 45 donors BC1F2 is better than higher generations Screening BC1F2 under higher levels of stress Level of stress should be able to kill the recipient parent It should allow us to select a good number of Ils that can be managed based on breeding capacity of a given centermanaged based on breeding capacity of a given center Progeny confirmation is essential for at least two rounds before we can be sure that these trait is stably being inherited without segregating Extreme transgressive segregants must be carefully utilized for further pyramiding across different donors
  3. 3. Populations (BC1F2, 200 plants) Single plant selections (BC1F3-5, 24 plants) Seeding (Drybed or Wetbed) • Done every dry season where terminal drought is experienced • Irrigation water is withdrawn from the field at 30 days after transplanting; Tensiometers and digital soil moisture data logger are installed to monitor soil moisture level at 15 cm soil depth. DroughtDroughtDroughtDrought ScreeningScreeningScreeningScreening Transplanting (21 day-old seedlings) (Single seedling per hill) Irrigation withdrawal (30 DAT) Selection & Harvesting (Maturity) level at 15 cm soil depth. • GSR field for drought screening has the strength of draining water in just 3 days and stably reaching -70 kPa in a week without rainfall. Drought stress can reach up to -300 kPa. • During the wet season, GSR materials are tested for rainfed condition. • Selection is done at maturity for lines and single plants showing good drought tolerance.
  4. 4. 1. Plants were grown in screenhouse in optimum temperature growing conditions and were transferred to Outdoor growth chamber (OGC)/Indoor Growth Chamber (IGC) at the start of panicle heading (before 8:30 a.m. or before the on-set of anthesis) to impose high temperature treatments. 2. Plants grown in screenhouse under normal condition were placed on automated growth chamber for an average of 10 days or until all the spikelets on the main tiller completed anthesis. 3. During this period the spikelets in the panicle were exposed to 38/21°C day/night temperature with 75/85% day/night RH. Heat tolerance screening protocol –phytotron conditions Modified INGER-IRRI protocol day/night temperature with 75/85% day/night RH. 4. Plants were exposed to high temperature of 38°C for 6 h (8:30-14:30) 5. At panicle emergence, the secondary panicle/plant was used as pollen sample source. 6. Five spikelets/panicle/plant were sampled. Samples were placed inside a vial with 70% ethanol. All 6 anthers each from the 5 spikelets were taken and crushed into a glass slide and were stained with I2KI. 7. Count of sterile and fertile pollen under the microscope was recorded. Three microscope fields per slide under 10x magnification for data gathering. 8. Data on % grain sterility/fertility was obtained at harvest by counting the no. of filled and unfilled grains in the main panicle.
  5. 5. 1. Heat tolerance screening of select BC1F2 populations conducted under an irrigated lowland fields of the International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines (lat 14º 08’ N, long 120º 15’ E, elevation 21 m). 2. The genotypes were seeded in staggered plantings so that flowering will coincide with the hottest months of the year (Mid April - Mid May) at Los Baños. 3. Seedling establishment was done in dry beds and transplanting was done 21 days after seeding. Each accession was transplanted in a 5 m length row. 4. Row spacing was 20 x 20 cm and one seedling per hill was used. Recommended agronomic practices were followed. Pesticides and bird nets Heat tolerance screening protocol in the field Recommended agronomic practices were followed. Pesticides and bird nets were used to protect the plants against pests. All other crop management practices were at the optimum level. 5. Observations were recorded on 50% heading, peak anthesis, % pollen sterility, % grain sterility, plant height, panicle number per plant, % lodging, phenotypic acceptability and grain yield. 6. Fifty percent heading was determined when the panicles are exerted in approximately 50% of the plants in the plot. 7. Peak anthesis was recorded at the time of flowering in three consecutive days. Observation was done from 0600 to 1300.
  6. 6. 7. Pollen sterility was determined by taking 10 spikelets each from the main panicle of the three selected plants from each accession (total of 30 spikelets/accession). Spikelets were sampled from top, middle and bottom portion of the panicles. Taking one anther each from the 30 spikelets, anthers were mixed, crushed, and stained with I2KI in a glass slide. The slides were mounted on a microscope at 10x magnification and the fertile and sterile pollen were counted at 3 microscope fields. 8. Three plant samples for grain sterility data was obtained at harvest by Heat tolerance screening protocol in the field-continued 8. Three plant samples for grain sterility data was obtained at harvest by counting the no. of filled and unfilled grains. 9. Plant height from 3 plants at harvest was recorded. Number of panicle in 3 plants was recorded. 10. Percent lodging was also noted. 11. Phenotypic acceptability was measured (1=excellent,3=good,5=fair,7=poor &9=unacceptable). 12. Grain yield was obtained from the bulk harvest of each plot.
  7. 7. OUTLINE WHY Drought tolerance? Concepts on drought tolerance Breeding objective Selection Environment & Target population ofSelection Environment & Target population of environments (TPE) What traits to be measured? What kind of facilities required? What equipments are available? How to screen for drought tolerance? A case study in GSR molecular breeding
  8. 8. WHY ? Drought tolerance breeding is important for global food security
  9. 9. Drought stress affected areas of the world Source: www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov
  10. 10. Drought is a major problem in agriculture
  11. 11. Rice field affected by drought at vegetative stage Hunan province,2003
  12. 12. 50% rice land in Asia-water supply is unpredictable & droughts are common. Food crisis-global climate changes Yields in rainfed are low with output 25% of total rice production WHY DROUGHT TOLERANCE BREEDING ? Yields in rainfed are low with output 25% of total rice production Rice yields in irrigated –doubled over 30 years with only modest gains in rainfed rice systems. Developing drought tolerance (DT) varieties utilizing rice molecular breeding is ideal.
  13. 13. RICE ECOSYSTEMS
  14. 14. Soil texture class Permanent wilting point (PWP) Field capacity (FC) Plant available soil moisture (PASM) moisture Water per 30 cm soil depth moisture Water per 30 cm soil depth moisture Water per 30 cm soil depth % mm % mm % mm Sands 1.7-2.3 7.5-10.0 6.8-8.5 30-37.5 5.1-6.2 22.5-27.5 Sandy loam 3.4-4.5 15-20 11.3-14.7 50-65 7.9-10.2 35-45 Soil moisture capacity of different soil types Sandy loam 3.4-4.5 15-20 11.3-14.7 50-65 7.9-10.2 35-45 Loams 6.8 30 18.1 80 11.3 50 Silt loams 7.9 35 19.8 87.5 11.9 52.5 Clay loams 10.2 45 21.5 95 11.3 50 Clay 14.7 65 22.6 100 7.9 35 Source: ‘WATER’ : The year book of Agriculture. 1955, USDA, USA
  15. 15. plantavailablewaterplantavailablewater Sadras et al.,1996 PAWPAW--plantavailablewaterplantavailablewater
  16. 16. Water Requirement (WR) is quantity of water required by a crop for its normal production under field conditions it includes (i) consumptive use of water (CU) (ii) water used for land prep, sowing transplanting, leaching of salts cultural operations (iii) unavoidable losses of water from crop fields such as deep percolation losses Rapeseed=200-300 mm ; transplanted rice=1000 to 2500 mmRapeseed=200-300 mm ; transplanted rice=1000 to 2500 mm CU of rice is 400-500 mm not much different from other crops Y_ WR WUE-F (Kg/mm water)= ….Equation 3 Where Y is (Yield in kg/ha) and WR is the seasonal water requirement of crop in (ha mm) Rice =3.7 kg/mm water and for wheat is 12-14 kg/mm of water in semiarid conditions in India Field water use efficiency (WUE-F)
  17. 17. Drought condition Drought is lack of plant available moisture in the environment (soil). During drought period the matric potential of water in soils is anywhere between -15 bars to -60 bars (or lower) and atmospheric RH below 50 to 10%; corresponding water potentials in air then are -1000 bars and -3200 bars respectively. 10%; corresponding water potentials in air then are -1000 bars and -3200 bars respectively. Wet year= year in which the total precipitation exceeds by more than twice the normal deviation (ND) of rainfall of the last 50 years average. Drought year =when annual precipitation in the area falls short of the last 50 years average rainfall by more than twice the normal deviation
  18. 18. Drought stress types Early Drought-vegetative growth stage Intermittent mid season drought- tillering and mid grain fillinggrain filling Late drought-flowering and grain filling
  19. 19. • Leaf tip drying & rolling of leaves • Water Stress delays flowering • Poor panicle exertion Effect of drought on rice • Poor panicle exertion • High pollen and spikelet sterility •Poor grain filling (half filled) •Grain shedding • Partial drying of spikelets
  20. 20. Complexity : Drought Early Drought –Terminal salinity Flash flooding -Terminal droughtFlash flooding -Terminal drought Genetic overlap of salinity and droughtGenetic overlap of salinity and drought tolerance traitstolerance traits Drought with submergence/anaerobicDrought with submergence/anaerobic germination tolerancegermination tolerance ––possible solutionpossible solution
  21. 21. Salinity & drought – a growing threat Salinity area is steadily on the rise even in the traditional irrigated rice areas Drought adds up to salinity problem in multifold Conventional breeding approaches have yet to come out with desired resultscome out with desired results Molecular breeding approaches can be the most effective and result oriented approach under given circumstances. Molecular QTL/gene pyramiding: the ultimate step
  22. 22. Character(s) Population Type Size QTL# Reference Drought Shoot biomass, root morphology, root thickness CT9993 X IR62266 DHL 154 44 Kamoshita et al. Shoot biomass, root morphology, root thickness IR58821 X IR52561 RIL 166 31 Kamoshita et al. Tiller and root number, thickness, dry weight CO39 X Moroberekan RIL* 203 18 Champoux et al. (1995) Root morphology and root distribution IR64 X Azucena DHL 105 39 Yadav et al. (1997) Root morphology, root cell length Azucena X Bala F2 178 24 Price and Tomos (1997) Tiller, total and penetrated root number, ratio Azucena X Bala RIL 205 18 Price et al. (2000) Root length, number, thickness, penetration index IR58821 X IR52561 RIL 166 28 Ali et al. (2000) Root thickness, root penetration index CT9993 X IR62266 DHL 154 5 Zhang et al. (2001) Tiller and root number, penetration ability CO39 X Moroberekan RIL 203 39 Ray et al. (1996) Salinity & drought tolerant QTL studies Root thickness, root penetration index IR64 X Azucena DHL 109 12 Zheng et al. (2000) Osmotic adjustment and dehydration tolerance CO39 X Moroberekan RIL 52 7 Lilly et al. (1996) Osmotic adjustment under drought CT9993 X IR62266 DHL 154 5 Zhang et al. (2001) Morphological and physiological traits IR64 X Azucena DHL 56 15 Hemamalini et al. (2000) Leaf rolling, leaf drying, RWC, growth rate IR64 X Azucena DHL 105 42 Courtois et al. (2000) Leaf size and ABA accumulation IR20 X 63-83 F2 123 17 Quarrie et al. (1997) Leaf rolling and stomatal conductance Azucena X Bala F2 178 8 Price et al. (1997) CMS under drought CT9993 X IR62266 DHL 104 9 Tripathy et al. (2000) Na+, K+ uptake and concentration Nona Bokra X Pokkali //IR4630 X IR10167 RIL 150 16 Flowers et al. (2000) Salinity Tolerance Na+, K+ uptake and concentration Nona Bokra X Pokkali //IR4630 X IR10167 RIL 150 16 Flowers et al. (2000) Dry mass, Na+, K+ uptake, concentration and ratio IR4630 X IR15324 RIL 118 25 Koyama et al. (2001)
  23. 23. Breeding objective “high yield potential” with “DT”with “DT”
  24. 24. Improved DT varieties must: Produce higher yield than check varieties in the TPE under all types of drought stress -frequently Produce high yields in absence of stress.Produce high yields in absence of stress.
  25. 25. BC populations QTL analysis Molecular markerPhenotype Procedures of molecular breeding Pyramiding breeding Improved varieties Phenotype & genotyping
  26. 26. Less Progress in DT breeding Cannot reliably measure DT Higher G*E Lower H
  27. 27. Learning objectives How to screen the DT lines withHow to screen the DT lines with higher repeatability? knowing the target environment Phenotyping the traits correctly; Direct selection for yield Indirect selection for DT related traits
  28. 28. Knowing the target environment for your breeding program
  29. 29. Successful DT breeding programs must define: the target population environment (TPE); the stress of target environment: timing,the stress of target environment: timing, intensity, duration, uniformity of the stress
  30. 30. Dataset of target population of environments (TPE) Characterization of the envir. conditions at the plot levelconditions at the plot level Characterization of the envir. conditions at the genotype level
  31. 31. Classical equations for yield estimation under drought Yield=ET××××T/ET××××TE××××HI(Passioura,1977) Yield=∑ (PPFD××××εa ×××× εb )××××HI PPFD=photosynthetic photon flux density (Moonteith,1977). Yield= grain number ×××× indiv. grain wt. DM (biomass) = T ×××× WUE and Yield = DM ×××× HI where T is the water transpired by the crop and WUE = water-use efficiency, the efficiency of dry matter produced per unit of T. Note: The proportion of the total available water that is transpired by the crop ranges from 0.6 for upland rice to 0.3 for lowland rice.
  32. 32. Determinants of Yield under drought Grain yield is a function of RAD = incident radiation per day (15 to 20 MJ m–2 under tropical conditions) % RI = fraction of radiation intercepted by green leaves (around 95% at the time of full canopy development, but only 45% for the crop life cycle) GLD = green leaf duration, or number of days leaves remain green (e.g., 120days in high-yielding varietiesremain green (e.g., 120days in high-yielding varieties [HYVs] and 140+ days in traditional varieties) RUE = radiation-use efficiency (about 2.0 g biomass [shoot] DM MJ–1) under non limiting conditions HI = harvest index (proportion of shoot dry matter that is grain [e.g., 0.5 in HYVs, 0.3 in traditional varieties] (Bänziger et al 2000)
  33. 33. Environmental parameters-plot level Light: Daily irradiance, PPFD Air Temperature: Canopy temperature: Infra red thermometersCanopy temperature: Infra red thermometers RH,vapour pressure deficit (VPD), ET0 Water status: plant & soil
  34. 34. Water rainfall-irrigation Environmental parametersEnvironmental parameters-- plot levelplot level --cont.cont. rainfall-irrigation initial soil water content in the field depth of a water table Soil characters: Biotic stress
  35. 35. Crop phenology/synchronisation with the timing of water deficit Environmental parametersEnvironmental parameters sensed by plant at plant levelsensed by plant at plant level Individual plant water status Plant nutrients
  36. 36. a ba Crop sensitivity isCrop sensitivity is stagestage--specificspecific EARLY DROUGHT INTERMITTENT DROUGHT Three types of drought based on free water level (Fischers et al., 2003) a c EARLY DROUGHT LATE DROUGHT INTERMITTENT DROUGHT
  37. 37. Simulation of target environment (field & plant level)
  38. 38. *test hypothesis *maximise the differences among the test plant materials Controlled EnvironmentControlled Environment *maximise the differences among the test plant materials *understand better plant adaptation strategies
  39. 39. Controlled environments Dry seasonDry season Exp sites
  40. 40. Experimental site Not to simulate a farmers field but to simulate clearly defined stress that is relevantdefined stress that is relevant in farmer’s field-characteristic of TPE
  41. 41. How to manage the drought environmentenvironment
  42. 42. 1. Start with a uniform fields and managing them uniformly Choose a level field with minimum variation in soil depth and texture; if you apply irrigation, it must be uniform in depth, replicates or incomplete blocks shoulddepth, replicates or incomplete blocks should be placed inside a basin; If using sprinkler, the irrigation must be applied when there is little wind…… “How to manage the drought environment”“How to manage the drought environment”
  43. 43. 2. Know what happened in the field Record the presence or absence of the standing water weekly; Knowing the water depth above and below the ground;ground; Multi-locus water records for each trial located across any perceived water gradient. “How to manage the drought environment”“How to manage the drought environment”
  44. 44. 3.Keep out unwanted water Sowing at a time of year when you expect a good chance of low rainfall; Use a rain exclusion shelter; Check for the water table to avoid the entry of unwanted water from the adjacent areas. “How to manage the drought environment”“How to manage the drought environment”
  45. 45. 4. Remove water at the desired time Drought stress should match flowering stageDrought stress should match flowering stage Seedling stage: irrigation for good plant standSeedling stage: irrigation for good plant stand Vegetative phase: progressive water deficitVegetative phase: progressive water deficit Flowering period: drought conditionsFlowering period: drought conditions Grain filling: well watered conditionsGrain filling: well watered conditions “How to manage the drought environment”“How to manage the drought environment”
  46. 46. 5.How severe a drought stress? reduces yield by 50% or more Recurrent parents gets killed completely-BC populationscompletely-BC populations “How to manage the drought environment”“How to manage the drought environment”
  47. 47. 6.Correction for difference in flowering dates Rice is very sensitive to the drought around the flowering. Stagger the planting dates so that all genotypes flower at the same time. “How to manage the drought environment”“How to manage the drought environment”
  48. 48. 7. Conduct a companion nursery under well-watered conditions Estimate the severity of the controlled environment as the mean reduction in yield betweenmean reduction in yield between the well watered and the drought conditions “How to manage the drought environment”“How to manage the drought environment”
  49. 49. 8. Use tolerance parent in crossing practice As with all breeding programs, progress will be greater with the use of parents that have demonstrated yield superiority in the targetyield superiority in the target domain. One of the useful strategy is to backcross simply valuable traits into a mega cultivar. “How to manage the drought environment”“How to manage the drought environment”
  50. 50. The “value” added approach – backcross breeding Widely adaptable high yield Add new genes/traits by backcross breeding IR64 introgression lines with improved target traitshigh yield varieties (IR64) target traits Discovery of desirable QTLs using DNA markers and MAS for pyramiding QTLs IR64 lines with improved target traits and the “same” yield potential and quality
  51. 51. How to reduce the experimental error variance?
  52. 52. 1. Increasing the number of environments where lines are evaluated. 2. Increasing the number of replicates in an experiment 3. Using uniform fields and managing them uniformlyuniformly 4. Use replicate check lines in early screening nurseries 5. Using improved statistical designs that partly control the variation within a replicate & using statistical analysis tools that consider spatial variation
  53. 53. How to screen the DT lines with higher yield potential? know the target environment Phenotyping the traits; Direct selection for yield Indirect selection for DT related traits Direct selection for yield Indirect selection for DT related traits
  54. 54. Identify DT varieties thatIdentify DT varieties that produce more grain under stress
  55. 55. Fischer et al.,2003Fischer et al.,2003
  56. 56. DT screening facilities Direct selection for yieldDirect selection for yield
  57. 57. Drought screenDrought screenDrought screenDrought screen facility in Shanghaifacility in Shanghaifacility in Shanghaifacility in Shanghai (3400m(3400m(3400m(3400m2222))))
  58. 58. Screen of the BC3F2 populations for DT under the field conditions Drought screen in Hainan
  59. 59. How to increase response to direct selection for yield?
  60. 60. Selection environment Drought TPE rrGG H
  61. 61. Broad sense heritability (H) of line means in a multi-environment trial Fischer et al.,2003Fischer et al.,2003
  62. 62. Example : Estimating the relative effects of increasing replications, sites and years on heritability (H) & some estimates of variance components for rainfed LL & UL Fischer et al.,2003Fischer et al.,2003
  63. 63. Ways to increase response to direct selection for yield Ensure the selection environment (SE) is representative of the TPE The early selection for yield under droughtThe early selection for yield under drought and irrigated conditions. Increase the selection intensity Increase the heritability
  64. 64. How to screen the DT lines with higher yield potential? know the target environment Phenotyping the traits; Direct selection for yield Indirect selection for DT related traitsIndirect selection for DT related traits
  65. 65. Breaking down the complex traits and evaluating potential of components
  66. 66. Yield under Drought For yield QTL, too much environment influence the yield performance, even in the same plot, Photoperiod-Light is different during whole cycle this difference is large -great influence on yieldthis difference is large -great influence on yield under drought condition.
  67. 67. Genetic improvement for DT by selecting for yield over locations & years are slow because of low heritability of yield under stress, Inherent variation in the field Limitation of only one experimental drought crop/ year
  68. 68. Plant is complex adaptive systems Plant respond to G*M*E at crop level; Phenotypic responses and fitness occur at plant level; Adjustments occur at organ/tissue level;Adjustments occur at organ/tissue level; Gene network drivers reside at cellular level; Adaptation via systems of information flow and control
  69. 69. PhenologyPhenology (drought escape(drought escape) unpredictable, intermittent drought Mild or medium stress
  70. 70. Yield improvements in water limited environments achieved by identifying secondary traits contributing to drought resistance and selecting for those traits in a breeding program. Effectiveness of selection for secondary traits to improve yield under water-limiting conditions - demonstrated in maize and wheat.
  71. 71. Using secondary traits can give additional information about how yield will change under drought and hasten that progress. Potential trait should be placed inPotential trait should be placed in the process of yield formation or of the other characters of interest.
  72. 72. Secondary traits can be useful if: 1. Genetically correlated to the yield in TPE 2. Highly heritable in the SE 3. Not associated with the poor yield under un-stressed environment 4. Easily and economically
  73. 73. What secondary traits used?What secondary traits used?
  74. 74. Selected secondary traits expected to be of value in DT breeding programs Fischer et al.,2003Fischer et al.,2003
  75. 75. Flowering date: 50% of the productive tillers in a plot have emerged. Flowering delay: days to floweringFlowering delay: days to flowering in stress environment- days to flowering in control environment.
  76. 76. Spikelet fertility: number of filled grain/number of total grains.
  77. 77. Leaf Drying the degree of leaf drying was assessed visually on a scale of 1–5 1 = no evidence of drying,1 = no evidence of drying, 5 = all leaves apparently dead essentially according to the standard evaluation system of IRRI (1996) .
  78. 78. Leaf drying score: a visual score for total leaf area lost by desiccation.
  79. 79. Leaf Rolling Degree of leaf rolling was assessed visually on a scale of 1–5 1 = unrolled, 5 = fully rolled Standard EvaluationStandard Evaluation System of IRRISystem of IRRI (1996).(1996).
  80. 80. Leaf rollingLeaf rolling LessLess developeddeveloped rootroot largerlarger leaf area,leaf area, BMBM Less osmoticLess osmotic ajustmentajustment YieldYield n/an/a 1.1.Time the plant began to experience stressTime the plant began to experience stress 2.2.Whether the stress is uniform in the nurseryWhether the stress is uniform in the nursery yy
  81. 81. Crop temperature measured by infra thermometer, Crop T is a stress indicator
  82. 82. Relatively lower CT in drought stressed crop plants indicates a relatively better capacity for taking up soilcapacity for taking up soil moisture and for maintaining a relatively better plant water status.
  83. 83. Canopy temperature 1.1. Measurement around midday forMeasurement around midday for population within 2 hrspopulation within 2 hrs 2.2. Thermometer has a fixed angle viewThermometer has a fixed angle view 3.3. Reading made with the sun at theReading made with the sun at the back of theback of the operateroperater 4.4. No cloud & windNo cloud & wind4.4. No cloud & windNo cloud & wind 5.5. Nursery with running check varietyNursery with running check variety 6.6. CT result of interactiveCT result of interactive envtenvt.. conditions: Ta, RH andconditions: Ta, RH and radrad etc.etc. 7.7. Necessity ofNecessity of envtenvt characterizationcharacterization to interpretto interpret TpTp in terms of stressin terms of stress indexindex
  84. 84. lineline ControlControl StressStress DiffDiff GG1GG1 DK98DK98 28.9328.93 31.4731.47 2.532.53 DK159DK159 29.9329.93 32.7332.73 2.802.80 DK164DK164 29.3329.33 32.3332.33 3.003.00 29.4029.40±±±±±±±±0.500.50 32.1832.18±±±±±±±±0.650.65 2.782.78 GG2GG2 DK106DK106 30.6730.67 31.8731.87 1.201.20 DK135DK135 31.6031.60 34.2034.20 2.602.60 DK175DK175 31.8731.87 36.9336.93 5.075.07 31.3831.38±±±±±±±±0.630.63 34.3334.33±±±±±±±±2.542.54 2.962.96 The flag leaf temperature of the DT lines and IR64 under drought and irrigated conditions 31.3831.38±±±±±±±±0.630.63 34.3334.33±±±±±±±±2.542.54 2.962.96 GG3GG3 DK124DK124 32.5332.53 38.6738.67 6.136.13 DK147DK147 32.7332.73 40.1340.13 7.407.40 DK177DK177 31.8031.80 39.4039.40 7.607.60 32.3632.36±±±±±±±±0.490.49 39.439.4±±±±±±±±.73.73 7.047.04 GG4GG4 DK99DK99 34.9334.93 38.2038.20 3.273.27 DK143DK143 33.1333.13 38.8738.87 5.735.73 DK184DK184 36.2736.27 40.0740.07 3.803.80 34.7834.78±±±±±±±±1.571.57 39.0439.04±±±±±±±±0.950.95 4.274.27 CKCK IR64IR64 32.5332.53±±±±±±±±0.230.23 37.8737.87±±±±±±±±0.240.24 5.335.33
  85. 85. Fischer et al.,2003Fischer et al.,2003
  86. 86. Traits reflect plant water status RWC(%) : RWC(%) [(FW-DW) / (TW-DW)] x 100 TW=sample turgid weight FW=sample fresh weight DW=sample dry weight Leaf water potential Osmotic adjustment
  87. 87. RWC is an appropriate estimate of plant water status in terms of cellular hydration under the possible effect of both LWP and OA. turgid- >97%turgid- >97% wilt - 60~70% desiccated- <40% RWC(%) [(FW-DW) / (TW-DW)] x 100
  88. 88. LWP as an estimate of plant water status is useful in dealing with water transport in the soil-plant- atmosphere continuum. Indirect measurement of soil water potential LWP values measured before dawn provide the highest LWP and Leaf water potential (LWP) LWP values measured before dawn provide the highest LWP and Come to an equilibrium with water potential of soil in root zone & current leaf water status. LWP extremely dependent on environmental conditions.
  89. 89. OA allow turgor maintenance at low plant water potential -recognized effective for drought resistance in several crops. Osmotic Adjustment (OA)Osmotic Adjustment (OA) several crops. OA is derived from the difference between the osmotic potential of irrigated and the stressed.
  90. 90. Drought screening Peizometer Raised bed furrow
  91. 91. ΨΨ: LWP: LWP
  92. 92. Putative physiological traits applied in breeding for drought tolerance vigor Leaf development Water use efficiency component traits Photosynthesis/stomataPhotosynthesis/stomata regulation Hormone control:ABA Stay green/senescence Grain fill duration and rate
  93. 93. Precautions for collecting secondary traits Careful sampling procedure involving Age of sampled organs; Position of the considered organ in the canopy (e.g. organ directly exposed to sunlight vs(e.g. organ directly exposed to sunlight vs shaded) ; Micrometeorological conditions at sampling (time of the day, weather during the sampling)
  94. 94. Soil water potential: tensiometer, pressure chamber Soil water content: neutron probe, Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Soil water statusSoil water status--determinationdetermination neutron probe tensiometer TDR
  95. 95. Screening for tolerance for lowland drought stressLowland fields regularly affected by drought are -upper fields -light soil texture. Field without standing water -most -growing seasonseason -dry out repeatedly. Field -target environment : screening should mimic these conditions.
  96. 96. Protocol 1. Lowland drought screening trials should be conducted-level, well- drained field at top of the topo-sequence. No irrigated or flooded trial above this site. 2. Ground-water tube 1 m deep -installed in each replicate. 3. Lines screened in trials -3 replicates. Plots at least 2 rows. 4. Trials -transplanted into puddled soil. Field -drained about one week after transplanting. 5. Field -allowed to dry until soil cracks & surface is completely dry. Field5. Field -allowed to dry until soil cracks & surface is completely dry. Field should not be irrigated again until the local check variety is wilting & water table is at least 1 m below the surface. If tensiometers are installed the field should be irrigated when soil water tension = -40 kPA at a depth of 20 cm. 6. One day after re-irrigation field -drained again. 7. Steps 5 and 6 should be repeated until harvest. 8. Yield and harvest index should be determined.
  97. 97. Screening for tolerance to upland stress Screening in dry or wet season. Upland varieties -photoperiod- insensitive, dry season- preferred- for reliably imposing stress. Protocol Upland drought trials -unbunded, well-drained field at top of toposequence -no irrigated or flooded trial above drought site. Ground-water tube 1 m deep installed in each replicate. Lines screened in trials with 3 replicates & Plots least 2 rows. Trials direct-sown into dry soil. Field irrigated to maintain soil at field capacity or above until canopy closure, or for about 30 DAS.capacity or above until canopy closure, or for about 30 DAS. At 30 DAS frequency irrigation- reduced.Fields allowed to dry until surface is completely dry. Field not be irrigated again until check is severely wilted& water table is 1 m below surface. Tensiometer-Field irrigated-soil water tension = -50 kPA at depth 30 cm. When the target level of soil dryness &plant stress reached- field liberally irrigated. Enough water applied to saturate the root zone- require 60-80 mm of water. Steps 5 and 6 should be repeated until harvest. Yield and harvest index should be determined.
  98. 98. Summary of selected drought tolerant BC2F3 plants under lowland stress conditions in 2002 DS Total plants selected NPT IR64 Teqing 835 2192 210 Total 3237 # of selected plants per population 16.4 (7.1%) 36.5 (15.9%) 4.5 (2.0%) 20.5 (8.9%) Range No. of I donors 0 - 85 0 - 110 0 - 30 0 - 110 35 (533) 34 (1376) 36 (118) 36 per population (7.1%) (15.9%) (2.0%) (8.9%) No. of J donors 16 (47) 25 (816) 11 (92) 25 No. of populations 51 60 47 157
  99. 99. Molecular breeding and trait improvement by designed QTL pyramiding Development of large numbers of trait-specific introgression line (IL) sets in elite rice genetic backgrounds as a platform for large scale rice molecular breeding Establishment of a high-throughput genotyping platform for large scale genotyping of molecular breeding materials Establishment of phenotypic, genetic and pedigree databases of the developed IL sets for large scale MB by design. Development of efficient analytical tools for the discovery of genes/QTLs and the genetic networks of agronomic-important traits in IL sets. Development and application of the fundamental principle and software for improving multiple complex traits by designing intercrosses between selected ILs and corresponding phenotypic and genotypic selection schemes based on accurate genetic information of the parental ILs.
  100. 100. BC2F4 progeny testing IR64 (CK) DT IR64 ILsIR64 ILs for quality
  101. 101. IR64 showing high level of sterility
  102. 102. A DT IR64 BC2F4 line with introgression from OM1723
  103. 103. Yunnan Yunnan Field screenField screen Hainan
  104. 104. Advanced DT-IL parentparentparentparentparentparentparentparent Field screen for DT introgression lineField screen for DT introgression line
  105. 105. DroughtDrought screen inscreen in controlledcontrolled environmentenvironment
  106. 106. DTDT--IL with IR64 genetic backgroundsIL with IR64 genetic backgrounds ReRe--wateredwatered stressstress ITAT109ITAT109 DK108DK108 IR64IR64 DK108DK108IR64IR64
  107. 107. Root analysisRoot analysis
  108. 108. PD29 PD43
  109. 109. DTDTDTDT----ILILILILIR64IR64IR64IR64IR64IR64IR64IR64 IR64IR64IR64IR64DTDTDTDT----ILILILIL
  110. 110. Differential response of NIL plants under 15%PEG to hormone treatments PEG+ABA PEG+GA3PEG+ethephon PEG PEG+ABA
  111. 111. Effect of hormone on stress tolerance PEG PEG+ABA PEG+GA3 PEG+ETH Use of PEG to induce and control plant water deficit in experimental hydroponics’ culture.
  112. 112. 辽优辽优辽优辽优5224在在在在06年辽宁省区年辽宁省区年辽宁省区年辽宁省区 试中的表现试中的表现试中的表现试中的表现 Water saving 70%Water saving 70% The release of new varieties with higher WUE
  113. 113. Jauhar Ali Plant Breeder, Senior Scientist IRRI-GSR Project Leader & Regional Coordinator (Asia) PBGB, IRRI (J.Ali@irri.org)
  114. 114. Submergence Tolerance Screening in Screen house 1.Pre-germinate healthy seeds by soaking them in a petri dish containing distilled water placed in an incubator (30oC) for 48 hours. 2.Prepare the planting medium by mixing 5 g of ammonium sulphate in 2.5 liter bucket of soil. 3.Put the treated-soil in a seedbox (15x21inches or 38x53cms). 4.Make 12 rows in the seedbox. 5.Seed the pre-germinated seeds in the seedbox with spacing of ~1 cm (20-30 seeds/row). 6.Count the total number of seedlings and measure the average of the plant height of Modified from : Xu K, Mackill DJ (1996) A major locus for submergence tolerance mapped on rice chromosome 9. Mol Breeding 2:219-224. 6.Count the total number of seedlings and measure the average of the plant height of each line before submergence (14 days after emergence). 7.Place the seedbox in submergence tank & fill the tank with fresh water (<1m depth). 8.Monitor the floodwater conditions daily (temperature, dissolved O2, light penetration, and pH). 9.IR42 is used as susceptible check, and FR13A or other donors is used as tolerant check. Check IR42 seedlings 10-14 days after submergence. If they are already 70- 80% chlorotic and very soft, you may remove the seedbox from the tank. 10.Measure the average of plant height of each line after removing the seedbox from the water. 11.Count the percent survival rate at 10 and 21 days after de-submergence.
  115. 115. 1.Sow the seeds of each line in black trays using three seeds per hole (each hill measures 1.5 (W) x 1.5 (L) x2.5 (H) cu cm). If black trays are not available, seed them in seedboxes at the spacing of 4 cm between rows and 1cm between seeds. 2.Prepare the land in field tanks. Apply molluscicide after the first and second harrowing. 3.After the final harrowing, apply 30:30:30:: N: P: K through Submergence Screening in Field Tanks Modified from: Xu K, Mackill DJ (1996) A major locus for submergence tolerance mapped on rice chromosome 9. Mol Breeding 2:219-224. 3.After the final harrowing, apply 30:30:30:: N: P: K through complete fertilizer as basal along with full dose of Zn as Zinc Sulphate (20 kg/ha). 4.Apply the remaining N (60 kg/ha) in to two splits through Urea, first at maximum tillering and the second one at panicle initiation. 5.Transplant the seedling (14 d) in the field using two seedlings per hill at 20X 20 cm2 distance. 6.Transplant extra IR42 seedling at one side of field to monitor the submergence stress.
  116. 116. 7. Submerge seedlings completely two weeks after the transplanting time. Plants will be completely submerged with a water head of 120-125 cm at noon to give plants time to photosynthesize in the morning. 8. Monitor the floodwater conditions (temperature, light penetration, dissolved O2, and pH) daily. 9. After 10d of submergence, uproot 5 plants daily from the extra rows of IR42 to observe their condition. In case of severe submergence plants will be 70-80% chlorotic and stems will be very soft. This condition is Submergence field tanks-(continued) be 70-80% chlorotic and stems will be very soft. This condition is expected to come any day starting from 10 to 14 days depending upon flood water quality and environmental conditions. 10.Just after desubmergence allow field to remain without water for 3-4 days. Afterward fill it with not more than 1-2 cm water until another 15 to 20 days; then increase water level to normal 5-7cm. 11.Measure plant height of the seedlings before and after submergence. 12.Percent survival will be taken 21 days after de-submergence.
  117. 117. Submergence screening: submergence tankSubmergence screening: submergence tankSubmergence screening: submergence tankSubmergence screening: submergence tank Populations (BC1F2) Single plant selections (BC1F3-5) Day 0: Seed soaking (pre-germinate at 30OC for 48 hours) Planting medium – seed boxes Day 17: Submergence (count total no. of seedlings) (Place in submergence tank with fresh water at <1m depth) Day 31: De-submergence (Remove seed boxes from tank)Planting medium – seed boxes mix 5 grams Ammonium sulphate in 2.5 kg soil and put in seed box (15in x 21in); make 12 rows in the seed box Day 2: Sowing (Sow pre-germinated seeds in seedbox with spacing ~1cm; 20-30 seeds/row ) (Remove seed boxes from tank) (count no. of surviving seedling at 10 & 21 days after de-submergence) Day 52: Transplanting (transplant surviving plants) (Single seedling per hill) Maturity: Harvesting (Single plant harvesting)
  118. 118. SUBMERGEN CE screeningCE screening in screen house
  119. 119. Submergence mass screening: field tankSubmergence mass screening: field tankSubmergence mass screening: field tankSubmergence mass screening: field tank Populations (BC1F2, 20g/pop’n.) Single plant selections (BC1F3-5, 2g/line) Seed beds: From prepared land in field tanks, prepare wet beds, <1m wide, make rows at ~7cm distance. Day 31:De-submergence (Drain water from the tank) Day 52: Scoring (count for percent survival 21 days after de-submergence)rows at ~7cm distance. Day 0: Sowing (sow seeds at 10rows/population or 1row/line, cover with thin layer of soil) Day 17: Submergence (score for germination/emergence) (measure average plant height) (14 DAE, fill the tank with ~1m depth of fresh water for 14 days) 21 days after de-submergence) Transplanting (transplant surviving plants) (Single seedling per hill) Maturity: Harvesting (Single plant harvesting)
  120. 120. Screening of BC2F2 populations for submergence tolerance in a deep-water pond Thirty-five-day old seedlings were submerged under deep water for two weeks, then allowed to recover
  121. 121. Anaerobic germination screeningAnaerobic germination screeningAnaerobic germination screeningAnaerobic germination screening Seeds are direct seeded and immediately submerged in waterSeeds are direct seeded and immediately submerged in waterSeeds are direct seeded and immediately submerged in waterSeeds are direct seeded and immediately submerged in water with 10 cm depth for 21 days. Lines showing high germinationwith 10 cm depth for 21 days. Lines showing high germinationwith 10 cm depth for 21 days. Lines showing high germinationwith 10 cm depth for 21 days. Lines showing high germination score under low oxygen condition are identified.score under low oxygen condition are identified.score under low oxygen condition are identified.score under low oxygen condition are identified.
  122. 122. Jauhar Ali Plant Breeder, Senior Scientist IRRI-GSR Project Leader & Regional Coordinator (Asia) PBGB, IRRI (J.Ali@irri.org)
  123. 123. •Sieve soil and transfer it in a plastic tray (plastic tray has 17 holes/row) •Prepare 17-34 dry seeds/line (clean, fully filled and not discolored) •Sow the dry seeds (dry seeding) with one seed one hill (total of 17-34 seeds/line), which each hill measures 1.5 (W) X 1.5 (L) X 2.5 (H) cu cm. •Place the seed about 1 cm (not more) below the soil surface. When all the rows in the plastic tray have seeds, cover the seeds entirely using the sieved soil, filling up the hill. Anaerobic Germination Screening Protocol Modified from protocol developed by Dr. A. Ismail’s group, unpublished, CESD, IRRI soil, filling up the hill. •Submergence is done in the concrete table. Maintain the water depth of 5-7 cm. Observe daily, remove weeds and algae. • Daily measure the water conditions (light, pH, O2, and temp level of water) •Score for survival 21 days after seeding. [The percent survival (seeds that germinated and seedlings emerged out of the submerged condition) was recorded for each BC population and the surviving plants were transferred to the field for seed production. Seeds from the surviving plants were harvested and the progeny was tested under the same conditions in the following season to confirm the tolerance of the selected AGT lines.]
  124. 124. Jauhar Ali Plant Breeder, Senior Scientist IRRI-GSR Project Leader & Regional Coordinator (Asia) PBGB, IRRI (J.Ali@irri.org)
  125. 125. Screening for seedling cold tolerance Twelve-day old seedlings were subjected to cold temperature for 18 days at the mean daily temperature of 11.8 Co, including 3-day of low temperature at 8 Co between April 24-26 (LAAS, 2002).
  126. 126. Selection of 861 C418 plants with seedling cold tolerance from 28 C418 BC2F2 populations 2002 (LAAS) # of populations 28 2 26 BC2F2 CT donors Non-CT donors Seedling Cold Tolerance (from NARES) Range 1.4 – 19.3% # of surviving plants per population 10.3% The mean population size was 310, ranging from 196 – 465, the recipient, C418 (japonica) was killed by the stress. 10 – 16% 0 – 3.0% 0.314% # of surviving plants per BC population 10.3% 10.5%7.6%
  127. 127. NAFREC Lao PDR Luang Prabang Lao PDR FC&RI, Vietnam FC&RI, Vietnam CARDI Cambodia Batalagoda,Sri Lanka Batalagoda,Sri Lanka CARDI Cambodia Phka Khgnei, NIA, TandoJam, Pakistan PT Sang Hyan Seri,Phka Khgnei, Cambodia PT Sang Hyan Seri, Sukamandi, Indonesia NIBGE, Faisalabad, Pakistan RRI, Kala Shah Kaku BRAC, Ghazipur Irrigated ICRR Pusakanegara Irrigated ICRR Sukamandi Irrigated
  128. 128. CAMBODIA GSR Hybrid CNH 9101 IR56383IR56383--3535--33--22--11 OR142-99 CAR9 PRM CAMBODIA GSR Hybrid TRIALS IG 80+5 cks CNH 9107CNH 9111 Partially water stressed under irrigated conditions CNH 9097 CNH 9099
  129. 129. Initial GSR Success stories in Asia: Sri Lanka CNH9050 3½ month hybrid desirable identified 4½ month hybrid undesirable to farmers BG 407 H GSR inbred performing well in Sri Lanka under severely water stressed rainfed lowland conditions against their checks CNI9024 BG358
  130. 130. Line FGW- stress(g) FGW-S.Stress (g) %reduction in yield DM-Stress DM- S.Stress CNI25 222.0 204.0 8.8 116 123 CNI26 145.3 143.8 1.0 109 130 CNI 7 159.3 141.5 12.6 103 130 CNI21 141.9 132.9 6.8 113 130 CNI13 171.8 122.4 40.4 109 124 CNI10 166.8 112.1 48.8 109 130 CNI23 138.1 103.2 33.8 109 124 CNI14 145.6 100.7 44.6 103 130 SRI LANKAN RAINFED GSR INBRED SCREENING CNI14 145.6 100.7 44.6 103 130 At308 150.4 93.4 61.0 103 130 CNI24 158.4 88.2 79.6 94 117 CNI28 135.2 76.4 77.0 90 86 Bg250 140.3 74.6 88.1 109 117 At581 174.4 74.5 134.1 103 130 Bg3R 156.0 58.7 165.8 103 130 At1382 120.1 45.5 164.0 103 124 Bg 304 165.4 40.9 304.4 94 124
  131. 131. SRI LANKASRI LANKA --RRDIRRDI--STRESSSTRESS SRI LANKASRI LANKA --RRDIRRDI--SEVERE STRESSSEVERE STRESS PAKISTANPAKISTAN--KSKKSK--IGIG PAKISTANPAKISTAN--NIANIA--IGIG EntryEntry Yld(t/ha)Yld(t/ha) StressedStressed % over% over checkcheck EntryEntry Yld(t/ha)Yld(t/ha) S.StressedS.Stressed % over% over checkcheck EntryEntry Yld(t/ha)Yld(t/ha) (IG)(IG) %% overover checkcheck EntryEntry Yld(t/ha)Yld(t/ha) (IG)(IG) % over% over checkcheck CNI9003CNI9003 2353.02353.0 34.934.9 CNI9025CNI9025 20402040 118.4118.4 CNI9021CNI9021 34463446 18.6518.65 CNI9023CNI9023 67736773 46.8146.81 CNI9025CNI9025 2220.02220.0 27.327.3 CNI9031CNI9031 16571657 77.477.4 CNI9031CNI9031 32853285 13.1213.12 CNI9015CNI9015 65336533 41.6141.61 CNI9011CNI9011 2153.02153.0 23.523.5 CNI9026CNI9026 14381438 54.054.0 CNI9001CNI9001 30853085 6.226.22 CNI9016CNI9016 58675867 27.1627.16 CNI9018CNI9018 1913.01913.0 9.79.7 CNI9007CNI9007 14151415 51.551.5 CNI9009CNI9009 30263026 4.194.19 CNI9003CNI9003 56005600 21.3821.38 CNI9029CNI9029 1861.01861.0 6.76.7 CNI9021CNI9021 13291329 42.342.3 CNI9012CNI9012 29362936 1.101.10 CNI9026CNI9026 52805280 14.4414.44 At581At581 1744.01744.0 0.00.0 CNI9013CNI9013 12241224 31.031.0 IR6IR6 29002900 --0.130.13 CNI9018CNI9018 50675067 9.829.82 CNI9013CNI9013 1718.01718.0 --1.51.5 CNI9010CNI9010 11211121 20.020.0 CNI9030CNI9030 28692869 --1.191.19 CNI9019CNI9019 50675067 9.829.82 Adaptability GSR inbred trial (31) in South Asia At 308At 308 1698.01698.0 --2.62.6 CNI9017CNI9017 10831083 16.016.0 CNI9004CNI9004 28592859 --1.551.55 CNI9012CNI9012 46134613 0.000.00 CNI9030CNI9030 1669.01669.0 --4.34.3 CNI9023CNI9023 10321032 10.510.5 CNI9020CNI9020 27312731 --5.955.95 KSKKSK--282282 46134613 0.000.00 CNI9010CNI9010 1668.01668.0 --4.44.4 At308At308 934934 0.00.0 CNI9011CNI9011 27082708 --6.766.76 CNI9001CNI9001 45604560 --1.161.16 Bg 304Bg 304 1654.01654.0 --5.25.2 Bg250Bg250 746746 --20.120.1 CNI9007CNI9007 26732673 --7.967.96 CNI9007CNI9007 43734373 --5.215.21 Bg3RBg3R 1560.01560.0 --10.610.6 At581At581 745745 --20.220.2 KSK 133KSK 133 20622062 --29.0029.00 CNI9014CNI9014 43474347 --5.795.79 At308At308 1504.01504.0 --13.813.8 At 308At 308 637637 --31.831.8 DRDR--8383 17301730 --40.4440.44 IR6IR6 42934293 --6.946.94 Bg250Bg250 1403.01403.0 --19.619.6 Bg3RBg3R 587587 --37.237.2 At1382At1382 1201.01201.0 --31.131.1 At1382At1382 455455 --51.351.3 Bg 304Bg 304 409409 --56.256.2 PlotPlot SizeSize 1.0m1.0m22 1.0m1.0m22 1.25m1.25m22 1.25m1.25m22 No. ofNo. of Lines >Lines > CheckCheck 55 1010 55 88
  132. 132. Adaptability GSR inbred trial (31) in S. E. Asia
  133. 133. Adaptability GSR hybrid trial (122) in South Asia
  134. 134. Adaptability GSR hybrid trial (122) in South East Asia
  135. 135. BG407H GSR-H-0158 Irrigated condition, Batalgoda, Sri Lanka
  136. 136. Ragged stunt virus- BPH outbreak in Sukamandi, Indonesia Ragged stunt virus- BPH –Tolerant inbred lines Promising Multiple disease resistant GSR hybrids at Jakenan rainfed conditions DS2010
  137. 137. Jakenan, Indonesia GSR trials: 42 DT hybrids + 3 checks & 31 DT inbreds + 4 checks (4th March 2010) GSR hybrid under rainfed hand dibbled direct seeded Ciherang check variety
  138. 138. ThanksThanks
  139. 139. Thanks Reference:Reference: Training manual Fischer K.2003 ”BreedingTraining manual Fischer K.2003 ”Breeding rice for droughtrice for drought--prone environments”prone environments” available in theavailable in the web:http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/drought/web:http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/drought/web:http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/drought/web:http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/drought/ web:http://www.plantstress.com/web:http://www.plantstress.com/
  140. 140. Jauhar Ali*Jauhar Ali* Yongli Zhou# *International Rice Research Institute #Institute of Crop Science, CAAS
  141. 141. 15 20 25 30 Hua 564 Hua 565 Wanxian 763 Wanxian 77 Huanghuazhan Hexi 41 Yunjing 23 SAGC-4 SAGC-7 Zhonghua 1 Weed Tolerant Rice 1 Wuyujing 3 Wuyujing 20 Bacterialblightlesionlength(cm) Resistant Susceptible 0 5 10 0 5 10 15 Blast (%DLA) 053A-3 BD007 Cau 1 Cau 2 Yundao 1 Luyin 46 RC8 6527 JH15-1-1-1 PD29 D4098 Resistant Susceptible Bacterialblightlesionlength(cm)
  142. 142. Population Cross Donor Gen. Number of lines (10 DS) HHZ5 Huang-Hua-Zhan*2/OM1723 OM1723 BC1F5 75 HHZ8 Huang-Hua-Zhan*2/Phalguna Phalguna BC1F5 56 HHZ9 Huang-Hua-Zhan*2/IR50 IR50 BC1F5 62 HHZ11 Huang-Hua-Zhan*2/IR64 IR64 BC1F5 56 Materials evaluated for blast and bacterial blight resistance HHZ12 Huang-Hua-Zhan*2/Teqing Teqing BC1F5 66 HHZ15 Huang-Hua-Zhan*2/PSBRC66 PSBRc66 BC1F5 45 HHZ17 Huang-Hua-Zhan*2/CDR22 CDR22 BC1F5 70 HHZ19 Huang-Hua-Zhan*2/PSBRC28 PSBRc28 BC1F5 82 by Dr. Xu in 2010-2011
  143. 143. 10 15 20 25 30 PXO 61 PXO 86 PXO 79 PXO 340 PXO 71 PXO 112 PXO 99 PXO 145 PXO 280 PXO 339 PXO 341 PXO 347 0 5 PXO 349 PXO 363 Interaction among 14 Xoo strains and selected lines in HHZ15 population.
  144. 144. Blast evaluation of virulent strainsBlast evaluation of virulent strains Evaluation of BB resistance of >500 linesEvaluation of BB resistance of >500 lines (HHZ background) against 14 strains of(HHZ background) against 14 strains of 1010 XooXoo races, 2010 WSraces, 2010 WS HHZ PSBRc66 BC1F5 # 329 BC1F5 #350Meirong Xu et al
  145. 145. Zhongzu14-ski-4-1
  146. 146. BPH and Virus Resistance Screening IRRI-ICRR joint project collaborators: Prof.Baehaki/Drs Muhsin,Untung • 30 BC3F2 and BC2F3 population (CS 3) • 39 BC3F3 and BC2F4 population (CS 4; 3rd year)ongoing BC2 F3 HHZ populations screened against virulent BPH strain that caused outbreak in Sukamandi in 2010 Several populations showed ILs with comparable resistance with the checks in second round of screening. ICRR 8.2011

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