Gis work

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introduction to gis

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Gis work

  1. 1.  In general, a GIS provides facilities for datacapture, data management, data manipulation and analysis, and the presentation of results in both graphic and report form, with a particular emphasis uponpreserving and utilizing inherent characteristics ofspatial data.
  2. 2.  An operational GIS also has a series of components that combineto make the system work. These components are critical to asuccessful GIS. A working GIS integrates five key components: HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, DATA, PEOPLE, METHODS
  3. 3.  A GIS topology is a set of rules and behaviorsthat model how points, lines, and polygonsshare coincident geometry. Steps- arc node topology Area defination Adjacency
  4. 4. 1. SPATIAL DATA- A- DISCREET DATA ( FEATURE BASE) B-CONTINUOUS DATA (GENERAL) A- RASTER DATAB- VECTOR DATAC- TIN DATA2. NON SPATIAL DATA- NOMINALDATA,ORDIANAL DATA,INTERVADATA,RATIO DATA, CARTOGRAPHICALDATA, NUMERIC DATA
  5. 5.  GEOLOGICAL DATA SOIL DATA VEGETATION DATA LAND USE DATA WATER RESOURCES DATA LITHOLOGICAL DATA
  6. 6.  DATA ACQUISITION PREPROCESSING DATA MANGEMENT MANIPULATION AND ANALYSIS PRODUCT GENERATION
  7. 7.  Data acquisition is the process of sampling signalsthat measure real world physical conditions andconverting the resulting samples into digitalnumeric values that can be manipulated by acomputer. Sensors that convert physical parameters toelectrical signals. Signal conditioning circuitry to convert sensorsignals into a form that can be converted to digitalvalues. Analog-to-digital converters, which convertconditioned sensor signals to digital values
  8. 8.  Analog-to-digital converter (ADC)- An electronicdevice that converts analog signals to an equivalent digital form.The analog-to-digital converter is the heart of most dataacquisition systems. Digital-to-Analog Converter (D/A) - An electronic componentfound in many data acquistion devices that produce an analogoutput signal. Digital Input/Output (DIO) - Refers to a type of data acquistionsignal. Digital I/O are discrete signals which are either one of twostates. These states may be on/off, high/low, 1/0, etc. Digital I/Oare also referred to as binary I/O.
  9. 9.  Data pre-processing describes any type ofprocessing performed on raw data to prepare itfor another processing procedure.
  10. 10.  A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set ofprograms that enables you to store, modify, and extractinformation from a database, it also provides users withtools to add, delete, access, modify, and analyse data storedin one location. A group can access the data by using queryand reporting tools that are part of the DBMS or by usingapplication programs specifically written to access the data. DBMS’s also provide the method for maintaining theintegrity of stored data, running security and users access,and recovering information if the system fails. Theinformation from a database can be presented in a variety offormats. Most DBMSs include a report writer program thatenables you to output data in the form of a report. ManyDBMSs also include a graphics component that enables youto output information in the form of graphs and charts.Database
  11. 11.  Coordinate Thinning. Geometric Transformations Map Projection Transformations Conflation - Sliver Removal Edge Matching Interactive Graphic Editing Conflation - Sliver Removal
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