What is organizational behavior
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What is organizational behavior

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    What is organizational behavior What is organizational behavior Document Transcript

    • What is Organizational Behavior? Organizational behavior is the area of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization‟s effectiveness. An organization is a collection of people who work together to achieve a wide variety of goals, both goals of the organization and goals of the various individuals in the organization. Organizations exist to provide services and goods that people want. These goods and services are the products of the behaviors of workers. Organizational behavior usually known as „OB‟ is the study of the many factors that have an impact on how individuals and groups respond to and act in organizations and how organizations manage their environments. Organizational behavior is a field of study, that statement means that it is a distinct area of expertise with a common body of knowledge. What does it study? It studies three determinants of behavior in organizations: individuals, structure and groups. In addition, OB applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively. To sum up our definition, OB is concerned with the study or what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organization. And because the OB is specifically concerned with employment related situations, you should not be surprised to find that is emphasizes behavior as related to jobs, work, absenteeism, employment turnover, productivity, human performance and management. Although many people assume that understanding human behavior in organizations is intuitive, many commonly held beliefs about behavior in organizations, such as the idea that a “happy worker is a productive worker”, are either entirely false or true only in specific situations. The study of organizational behavior provides a set of tools, concepts and theories that help people understand, analyze and describe what goes on in organizations and why. How do the characteristics of individuals, groups, work situations, and the organization itself affect how members feel about their organization? The ability to use the tools of organizational behavior to understand behavior in organizations is one reason for studying this subject. A second reason is to learn how to apply these concepts, theories, and techniques to improve behavior in organizations so that individuals, groups and organizations can achieve their
    • goals. Managers are challenged to find new ways to motivate and coordinate employees to ensure that their goals are aligned with organizational goals. Five Contributing Disciplines to the Organizational Behavior OB is a behavioral science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. The dominant areas are psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and political science. As we shall learn, psychology‟s contributions have been mainly at the micro level of analysis; the other four disciplines have contributed to our understanding of macro concepts such as organization and group process. 1. Psychology Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. Psychologists involve themselves with studying and attempting to understand individual behavior. Those who have contributed and continue to add to the knowledge of organizational behavior are learning theorists, personality theorists, counseling psychologists, and, most important industrial and organizational psychologist. Early industrial and organizational psychologists concerned themselves with problems of fatigue, boredom, and other factors relevant to working conditions that could impede efficient work performance. More recently, their contributions have been expanded to include learning, perception, personality, training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces, job satisfaction, decision making processes, performance appraisals, attitude measurement, employee selection techniques, work design and job stress. 2. Sociology Where psychologists focus on the individual, sociologists study the social system in which individual fills their role; that is, sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings. Specifically, sociologists have made their greatest contribution to organizational behavior through their study of group behavior in organizations, particularly in formal and complex organizations. Some of the areas within organizational behavior that have received valuable input from sociologist are group dynamics, design of work teams, organizational culture, formal organization theory and structure, organizational technology, communications, power conflict, and inter group behavior. 3. Social Psychology
    • Social psychology is an area within psychology, but it blends concepts from psychology and sociology. It concentrates on the influence of people on one another. One of the major areas receiving considerable investigation from social psychologist have been change, how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance. In addition, social psychologists are making significant contributions in the areas of measuring, understanding, and changing attitudes; communication patterns; the ways in which group activities can satisfy individual needs; and group decision making processes. 4. Anthropology Anthropology is the study or societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologists‟ work on cultures and environments, for instance, has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior between people in different countries and within different organizations. Much of our current understanding of organizational culture, organizational environments, and differences between national cultures is the result of the work of anthropologist or researchers using their methodologies. 5. Political Science Although frequently overlooked, the contributions of political scientists are significant to the understanding of behavior in organizations. Political science studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment. Specific topics of concern include structuring of conflict, allocation of power and how people manipulate power for individual self-interest. Contributing disciplines to the Organisational Behaviour field Organizational behaviour is an applied behavioural science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioural disciplines. The predominant areas are psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and political science Psychology - Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behaviour of humans and other animals. - To use psychological and organizational theory and research to improve organizational effectiveness and the work life of all individuals.
    • - psychologists concern themselves with studying and attempting to understand individual behaviour - learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces, job satisfaction, decision- making process, performance appraisals, attitude measurement, employee selection techniques, work design and job stress Sociology - Sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles - Sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings to improve organizational performance. - Study of group behaviour in organisations, group dynamics, design of work teams, organisational culture, formal organisational theory and structure, organisational technology, communications, power and conflict Social psychology - An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. - Major area: change – how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance - Study areas: measuring, understanding and changing attitudes, communication patters, building trust, the ways in which group activities can satisfy individual needs, group decision-making processes Anthropology - The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. - Study on culture and environment has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behaviour between people in different countries and within different organisations Political science
    • - The study of the behaviour of individuals and groups within a political environment - Study areas: structuring of conflicts, allocations of power, how people manipulate power for individual self-interest Challenges and Opportunities of Organizational Behaviour Organizational Behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within the organizations and its effective use for the purpose of such knowledge towards improving its performance. Similar to the evolution of man and its environment there has been a substantial change in the approach for better productivity within an organization through the brainstorming efforts applied by a good manager. Understanding organizational behavior within a corporation and particularly the factors influencing the organizational behavior of a single entity has become the key to the success of any manager. There is no one single approach to organizational behavior which is best for all organizations; instead, companies must evolve the system which works best for them with the help of effective planning and technological support which changes over time as their environment and the individuals within that environment change. Challenges and opportunitiesges and unities for OB • Responding to Globalization – Increased foreign assignments – Working with people from different cultures – Coping with anti-capitalism backlash – Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low- cost labor – Managing people during the war on terror. • Managing Workforce Diversity – Embracing diversity – Changing U.S. demographics – Implications for managers * Recognizing and responding to differences • Improving Quality and Productivity
    • – Quality management (QM) – Process reengineering • Responding to the Labor Shortage – Changing work force demographics – Fewer skilled laborers – Early retirements and older workers • Improving Customer Service – Increased expectation of service quality – Customer-responsive cultures 1: Changing Social/ Cultural Environment National culture Organizational ethics and well-being Diverse work force 2: Evolving Global Environment Understanding Global Differences... [continues]