Filamentous Fungi
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Filamentous Fungi

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  • ECOLOGICAL
  • Wide, non-septate,mycelium. Ribbon-like

Filamentous Fungi Filamentous Fungi Presentation Transcript

  • SOME DISEASES CAUSED BY FILAMENTOUS FUNGI
    • Chromoblastomycosis
    • Mycetoma
    • Mucormycosis ****
    • Aspergillosis ****
    www.freelivedoctorcom
  • CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS A chronic localized infection of the subcutaneous tissue caused by several species of dematiaceous fungi www.freelivedoctorcom
  • Chromoblastomycosis Fonsecaea pedrosoi Cladosporium carrionii Phialophora verrucosa www.freelivedoctorcom View slide
  • Ecological Association Chromoblastomycosis
    • Soil
    • Decaying vegetation
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  • Sclerotic Bodies A fungus form resulting from host defenses www.freelivedoctorcom
  • SCLEROTIC BODIES www.freelivedoctorcom
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  • Chromoblastomycosis Melanin may be a virulence factor www.freelivedoctorcom
  • Geographic distribution World-wide (usually warmer climates) www.freelivedoctorcom
  • CLINICAL SPECIMENS
    • PUS
    • BIOPSY MATERIAL
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  • TREATMENT
    • EXCISION
    • TERBINEFINE
    • ITRACONAZOLE
    • POSACONAZOLE
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  • No Serological Tests Available www.freelivedoctorcom
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  • Mycetoma
    • Tumefaction
    • Granules
    • Draining sinus tracts
    • Muscle invasion
    • Bone invasion
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  • Mycetoma agents
    • Madurella mycetomatis
    • Phialophora jeanselmei
    • Pseudallescheria boydii
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  • GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION WARM CLIMATES (SE United States, South America, Africa) www.freelivedoctorcom
  • ECOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION SOIL www.freelivedoctorcom
  • Clinical Specimens Mycetoma
    • Pus
    • Tissue
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  • IDENTIFICATION
    • Colonial morphology
    • Conidia formation
    • Granules
      • Color
      • Size shape
      • Texture
    • Biochemical reactions
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  • De DEMATIACEOUS HYPHAE www.freelivedoctorcom
  • Serological Test Pseudalescheria Immunodiffusion www.freelivedoctorcom
  • Therapy Terbinefine Itraconazole Posaconazole www.freelivedoctorcom
  • Mucormycosis An acute infection characterized by inflammation and vascular invasion and thrombosis. www.freelivedoctorcom
  • Portal of entry
    • Inhalation
    • Ingestion
    • Surface contamination (burns)
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  • Mucormycosis *Rhizopus species Mucor species Absidia species. www.freelivedoctorcom
  • GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION WORLDWIDE www.freelivedoctorcom
  • ECOLOGICAL NICHE
    • UBIQUITOUS
    • FOOD
    • SOIL
    • ORGANIC DEBRIS
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  • UNCONTROLLED DIABETIC Rapidly fatal www.freelivedoctorcom
  • MUCORMYCOSIS
    • CLINICAL SIGNS
    • Ketoacidosis
    • Nasal stuffiness
    • Proptosis
    • Eschar
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  • CHARACTERISITICS OF MUCOR INFECTION
    • AFFINITY FOR ARTERIAL INVASION
    • NASAL OR SINUS INFECTIONS
    • DIRECT EXTENSION TO THE BRAIN THROUGH CRIBIFORM PLATE
    • RAPIDLY FATAL
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  • WIDE, NON-SEPTATE, RIBBON-LIKE www.freelivedoctorcom
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  • TREATMENT
    • MUCORMYCOSIS
    • Control diabetes (or other underlying condition)
    • Biopsy
    • Culture
    • Surgery (Debridement)
    • Amphotericin B
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  • SEROLOGIC TEST
    • IMMUNODIFFUSION
    www.freelivedoctorcom
  • ASPERGILLOSIS A variety of diseases: pulmonary, external ears, eyes, meninges, sinuses or blood stream www.freelivedoctorcom
  • CLINICAL TYPES OF PULMONARY DISEASE
    • ALLERGIC
    • FUNGUS BALL
    • INVASIVE
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  • Difficult to diagnose
    • Clinical symptoms are not specific
    • Radiography not specific (except fungus ball)
    • Blood cultures seldom positive
    • Serology seldom positive (early)
    • Need invasive procedures for early detection
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  • COMMON PATHOGENIC SPECIES
    • A. FUMIGATUS
    • A. NIGER
    • A. FLAVUS
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  • GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION WORLD-WIDE www.freelivedoctorcom
  • ECOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION
    • UBIQUITOUS
    • SOIL
    • DECAYING VEGETATION
    • FOOD
    • MEDICATION
    • AIR VENTS
    • DISINFECTANTS
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  • Culture
    • More than 900 species
    • Slow growing
    • Various gross colors
    • Spores
      • Size
      • Shape
      • Texture
      • color
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  • HISTOPATHOLOGY
    • DICHOTOMOUS BRANCHING
    • WIDE, SEPTATE HYPHAE
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  • DICHOTOMOUS BRANCHING www.freelivedoctorcom
  • Aspergilloma Cavity wall www.freelivedoctorcom
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  • SEROLOGIC TESTS
        • IMMUNODIFFUSION
    • (antibody)
    • EIA - GALACTOMANNAN
    • (antigen )
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  • DRUG OF CHOICE VORICONAZOLE AMPHOTERICIN B www.freelivedoctorcom
  • DIMORPHIC FUNGI (Endemic Mycoses)
    • COMMON CHARACTERISTICS
    • LIMITED GEOGRAPHIC AREA
    • SPECIFIC ECOLOGICAL NICHE
    • SYSTEMIC INFECTIONS
    • MORPHOLOGICALLY DISTINCT
    www.freelivedoctorcom
  • BLASTOMYCOSIS Blastomyces dermatitidis www.freelivedoctorcom
  • BLASTOMYCOSIS A CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE AND GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE OF ANY TISSUE WITH A PREDILECTION FOR LUNGS, SKIN, PROSTATE AND BONE. www.freelivedoctorcom
  • PORTAL OF ENTRY
    • INHALATION
    • INOCULATION
    • (rare)
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  • CLINICAL FORMS
    • SYSTEMIC
    • USUALLY PULMONARY
    • CUTANEOUS
    • PRIMARY
    • SECONDARY
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  • Pulmonary Symptoms
    • Anorexia
    • Weight loss
    • Cough
    • Hemoptysis
    • Night sweats
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  • CLINICAL SPECIMENS
    • SKIN SCRAPINGS
    • SPUTUM
    • PUS
    • BIOPSY MATERIAL
    • URINE
    • BRONCHIAL WASHINGS
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  • ECOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION ORGANIC DEBRIS (SOIL, ROTTED WOOD, DECAYED VEGETATION) www.freelivedoctorcom
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  • Virulence Factor BAD1 www.freelivedoctorcom
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  • Identification
    • 1. Microscopic observation
    • 2. Conversion
    • 3. DNA Probe
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  • Wet Mount www.freelivedoctorcom
  • SEROLOGIC TEST
    • IMMUNODIFFUSION
    • COMPLEMENT FIXATION
    • EIA
    www.freelivedoctorcom
  • DRUGS OF CHOICE
    • ITRACONAZOLE
    • AMPHOTERICIN B
    • VORICONAZOLE
    www.freelivedoctorcom
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