Filamentous Fungi

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  • ECOLOGICAL
  • Wide, non-septate,mycelium. Ribbon-like
  • Filamentous Fungi

    1. 1. SOME DISEASES CAUSED BY FILAMENTOUS FUNGI <ul><li>Chromoblastomycosis </li></ul><ul><li>Mycetoma </li></ul><ul><li>Mucormycosis **** </li></ul><ul><li>Aspergillosis **** </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    2. 2. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS A chronic localized infection of the subcutaneous tissue caused by several species of dematiaceous fungi www.freelivedoctorcom
    3. 3. Chromoblastomycosis Fonsecaea pedrosoi Cladosporium carrionii Phialophora verrucosa www.freelivedoctorcom
    4. 4. Ecological Association Chromoblastomycosis <ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Decaying vegetation </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    5. 5. www.freelivedoctorcom
    6. 6. www.freelivedoctorcom
    7. 7. www.freelivedoctorcom
    8. 8. www.freelivedoctorcom
    9. 9. www.freelivedoctorcom
    10. 10. Sclerotic Bodies A fungus form resulting from host defenses www.freelivedoctorcom
    11. 11. SCLEROTIC BODIES www.freelivedoctorcom
    12. 12. www.freelivedoctorcom
    13. 13. www.freelivedoctorcom
    14. 14. www.freelivedoctorcom
    15. 15. Chromoblastomycosis Melanin may be a virulence factor www.freelivedoctorcom
    16. 16. Geographic distribution World-wide (usually warmer climates) www.freelivedoctorcom
    17. 17. CLINICAL SPECIMENS <ul><li>PUS </li></ul><ul><li>BIOPSY MATERIAL </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    18. 18. TREATMENT <ul><li>EXCISION </li></ul><ul><li>TERBINEFINE </li></ul><ul><li>ITRACONAZOLE </li></ul><ul><li>POSACONAZOLE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    19. 19. No Serological Tests Available www.freelivedoctorcom
    20. 20. www.freelivedoctorcom
    21. 21. Mycetoma <ul><li>Tumefaction </li></ul><ul><li>Granules </li></ul><ul><li>Draining sinus tracts </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Bone invasion </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    22. 22. www.freelivedoctorcom
    23. 23. Mycetoma agents <ul><li>Madurella mycetomatis </li></ul><ul><li>Phialophora jeanselmei </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudallescheria boydii </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    24. 24. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION WARM CLIMATES (SE United States, South America, Africa) www.freelivedoctorcom
    25. 25. ECOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION SOIL www.freelivedoctorcom
    26. 26. Clinical Specimens Mycetoma <ul><li>Pus </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    27. 27. IDENTIFICATION <ul><li>Colonial morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Conidia formation </li></ul><ul><li>Granules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biochemical reactions </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    28. 28. De DEMATIACEOUS HYPHAE www.freelivedoctorcom
    29. 29. Serological Test Pseudalescheria Immunodiffusion www.freelivedoctorcom
    30. 30. Therapy Terbinefine Itraconazole Posaconazole www.freelivedoctorcom
    31. 31. Mucormycosis An acute infection characterized by inflammation and vascular invasion and thrombosis. www.freelivedoctorcom
    32. 32. Portal of entry <ul><li>Inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Surface contamination (burns) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    33. 33. Mucormycosis *Rhizopus species Mucor species Absidia species. www.freelivedoctorcom
    34. 34. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION WORLDWIDE www.freelivedoctorcom
    35. 35. ECOLOGICAL NICHE <ul><li>UBIQUITOUS </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>SOIL </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIC DEBRIS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    36. 36. UNCONTROLLED DIABETIC Rapidly fatal www.freelivedoctorcom
    37. 37. MUCORMYCOSIS <ul><li>CLINICAL SIGNS </li></ul><ul><li>Ketoacidosis </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal stuffiness </li></ul><ul><li>Proptosis </li></ul><ul><li>Eschar </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    38. 38. CHARACTERISITICS OF MUCOR INFECTION <ul><li>AFFINITY FOR ARTERIAL INVASION </li></ul><ul><li>NASAL OR SINUS INFECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT EXTENSION TO THE BRAIN THROUGH CRIBIFORM PLATE </li></ul><ul><li>RAPIDLY FATAL </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    39. 39. www.freelivedoctorcom
    40. 40. www.freelivedoctorcom
    41. 41. www.freelivedoctorcom
    42. 42. WIDE, NON-SEPTATE, RIBBON-LIKE www.freelivedoctorcom
    43. 43. www.freelivedoctorcom
    44. 44. TREATMENT <ul><li>MUCORMYCOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Control diabetes (or other underlying condition) </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsy </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Surgery (Debridement) </li></ul><ul><li>Amphotericin B </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    45. 45. SEROLOGIC TEST <ul><li>IMMUNODIFFUSION </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    46. 46. ASPERGILLOSIS A variety of diseases: pulmonary, external ears, eyes, meninges, sinuses or blood stream www.freelivedoctorcom
    47. 47. CLINICAL TYPES OF PULMONARY DISEASE <ul><li>ALLERGIC </li></ul><ul><li>FUNGUS BALL </li></ul><ul><li>INVASIVE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    48. 48. Difficult to diagnose <ul><li>Clinical symptoms are not specific </li></ul><ul><li>Radiography not specific (except fungus ball) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cultures seldom positive </li></ul><ul><li>Serology seldom positive (early) </li></ul><ul><li>Need invasive procedures for early detection </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    49. 49. COMMON PATHOGENIC SPECIES <ul><li>A. FUMIGATUS </li></ul><ul><li>A. NIGER </li></ul><ul><li>A. FLAVUS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    50. 50. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION WORLD-WIDE www.freelivedoctorcom
    51. 51. ECOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION <ul><li>UBIQUITOUS </li></ul><ul><li>SOIL </li></ul><ul><li>DECAYING VEGETATION </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICATION </li></ul><ul><li>AIR VENTS </li></ul><ul><li>DISINFECTANTS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    52. 52. Culture <ul><li>More than 900 species </li></ul><ul><li>Slow growing </li></ul><ul><li>Various gross colors </li></ul><ul><li>Spores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>color </li></ul></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    53. 53. www.freelivedoctorcom
    54. 54. HISTOPATHOLOGY <ul><li>DICHOTOMOUS BRANCHING </li></ul><ul><li>WIDE, SEPTATE HYPHAE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    55. 55. www.freelivedoctorcom
    56. 56. DICHOTOMOUS BRANCHING www.freelivedoctorcom
    57. 57. Aspergilloma Cavity wall www.freelivedoctorcom
    58. 58. www.freelivedoctorcom
    59. 59. SEROLOGIC TESTS <ul><ul><ul><li>IMMUNODIFFUSION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(antibody) </li></ul><ul><li>EIA - GALACTOMANNAN </li></ul><ul><li>(antigen ) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    60. 60. www.freelivedoctorcom
    61. 61. www.freelivedoctorcom
    62. 62. DRUG OF CHOICE VORICONAZOLE AMPHOTERICIN B www.freelivedoctorcom
    63. 63. DIMORPHIC FUNGI (Endemic Mycoses) <ul><li>COMMON CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>LIMITED GEOGRAPHIC AREA </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFIC ECOLOGICAL NICHE </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTEMIC INFECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>MORPHOLOGICALLY DISTINCT </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    64. 64. BLASTOMYCOSIS Blastomyces dermatitidis www.freelivedoctorcom
    65. 65. BLASTOMYCOSIS A CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE AND GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE OF ANY TISSUE WITH A PREDILECTION FOR LUNGS, SKIN, PROSTATE AND BONE. www.freelivedoctorcom
    66. 66. PORTAL OF ENTRY <ul><li>INHALATION </li></ul><ul><li>INOCULATION </li></ul><ul><li>(rare) </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    67. 67. CLINICAL FORMS <ul><li>SYSTEMIC </li></ul><ul><li>USUALLY PULMONARY </li></ul><ul><li>CUTANEOUS </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    68. 68. www.freelivedoctorcom
    69. 69. Pulmonary Symptoms <ul><li>Anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoptysis </li></ul><ul><li>Night sweats </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    70. 70. www.freelivedoctorcom
    71. 71. CLINICAL SPECIMENS <ul><li>SKIN SCRAPINGS </li></ul><ul><li>SPUTUM </li></ul><ul><li>PUS </li></ul><ul><li>BIOPSY MATERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>URINE </li></ul><ul><li>BRONCHIAL WASHINGS </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    72. 72. ECOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION ORGANIC DEBRIS (SOIL, ROTTED WOOD, DECAYED VEGETATION) www.freelivedoctorcom
    73. 73. www.freelivedoctorcom
    74. 74. www.freelivedoctorcom
    75. 75. www.freelivedoctorcom
    76. 76. www.freelivedoctorcom
    77. 77. Virulence Factor BAD1 www.freelivedoctorcom
    78. 78. www.freelivedoctorcom
    79. 79. www.freelivedoctorcom
    80. 80. www.freelivedoctorcom
    81. 81. www.freelivedoctorcom
    82. 82. www.freelivedoctorcom
    83. 83. Identification <ul><li>1. Microscopic observation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>3. DNA Probe </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    84. 84. www.freelivedoctorcom
    85. 85. www.freelivedoctorcom
    86. 86. Wet Mount www.freelivedoctorcom
    87. 87. SEROLOGIC TEST <ul><li>IMMUNODIFFUSION </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLEMENT FIXATION </li></ul><ul><li>EIA </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    88. 88. DRUGS OF CHOICE <ul><li>ITRACONAZOLE </li></ul><ul><li>AMPHOTERICIN B </li></ul><ul><li>VORICONAZOLE </li></ul>www.freelivedoctorcom
    89. 89. www.freelivedoctorcom
    90. 90. www.freelivedoctorcom

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