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# Population

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### Population

1. 1. CHAPTER 2Population<br />
2. 2. Population Density<br /><ul><li>Population density is the number of people living in a unit area of land.
3. 3. It is expressed in terms of the number of people per square kilometre of the land. A dense population would have more people per square kilometre compared to a sparse population.
4. 4. For example, Singapore has a dense population of about 6 000 people per square kilometre, compared to Canada’s population density of </li></ul> 3 people per square kilometre.<br />Total number of people<br />Population density =<br />Total land area<br />
5. 5. Population Density<br /><ul><li>People are not evenly distributed in a country and some regions are more crowded than others.
6. 6. Cities generally have high population densities while areas such as countrysides and deserts usually have low population densities.</li></ul>Countrysides usually have low population densities with few people per square kilometre.<br />Cities have high population densities with high number of people per square kilometre.<br />
7. 7. High Rate of Population Growth<br /><ul><li>Less developed countries with low levels of economic wealth and poor living conditions usually experience a high rate of population growth (e.g. countries found in Africa, South America and some parts of Asia).
8. 8. A population pyramid can be used to show the pattern of population growth.</li></li></ul><li>
9. 9. Population distribution-The way in which people are spread out over an area of land is known as the population distribution.<br />POPULATION DENSITY=<br /> Total number of people <br /> _______________________<br /> Total land area <br />
10. 10. POPULATION DENSITY BY COUNTRY<br /> 1   Macau: 20,824.4 people per sqkm <br /> 2   Monaco: 16,486.7 people per sqkm <br /> 3   Hong Kong: 6,571.14 people per sqkm <br /> 4   Singapore: 5,539.77 people per sqkm <br /> 5   Gibraltar: 4,486.92 people per sqkm <br /> 6   Gaza Strip: 3,090.71 people per sqkm <br /> 7   Bermuda: 1,249.44 people per sqkm <br /> 8   Malta: 1,192.51 people per sqkm <br /> 9   Bahrain: 1,014.66 people per sqkm <br />10   Maldives: 1,000.73 people per sqkm <br />
11. 11. 10 MOST POPULATED CITIES<br />Tokyo, Japan –<br />Seoul, South Korea –<br />Guangzhou (Canton), China – <br /> Mexico City, Mexico – <br />Delhi, India –<br />Mumbai, India –<br />New York, USA –<br />Sao Paolo, Brazil –<br />Manila, Philippine –<br />Shanghai, China – <br />
12. 12. Population Pyramid<br />what is population pyramid?<br />A graphical tool that shows the proportion of the total population that is male or female in the horizontal axis and their age groups in the vertical axis<br />
13. 13. Concepts you should know<br />Old:- those 60 and above<br />Young:- Those between 0-14yrs<br />Working populaion:- Between 15 yrs and 64 yrs<br />Small proportion in the elderly age group<br />Working population<br />Proportion of youth and children<br />
14. 14. Population pyramid of countries with huge rate of population growth<br />Narrow apex:- high death rate, poor medical fecility<br />Broad base – high birth rate – high population growth<br />
15. 15. Countries with low rate of population growth<br />Broader apex-better Medical <br />Facility-aging population<br />Narrower base-<br />Low birth rate-low population growth<br />
16. 16. Figure 2:<br />Relatively narrow base.<br />Broader apex.<br />Elderly population more than working population.<br />Shows a developed economy<br />Ageing population.<br />
17. 17. Inverted population pyramid<br />In an inverted population pyramid, a huge number of elderly - supported by a smaller number of working people. <br /> The number of children continuously decreases. <br />Less economically active persons in the future. And to make the situation even worse, the average age of workers likewise increases.<br />Ex: Spain, Japan, Philippines.<br />
18. 18. Low Rate of Population Growth<br /><ul><li>Mostly developed countries (Japan, UK) experience low rate of population growth</li></ul>low death rate low birth rate.<br />Factors that lead to Factors that lead to<br />low death rate? low birth rate ? <br />Higher standards of hygiene. Later marriages<br />Better nutrition. Fewer marriages<br />Better medical and health care . Preference for <br /> smaller families<br />
19. 19. Low Rate of Population Growth<br />Since 1980, the total fertility rate of Singapore has declined steadily and fallen below replacement rate.  Singaporeans were getting married later, and more Singaporeans were remaining single; 30% of population were single in 2000 compared to 19% a decade earlier.  As a result of this fertility decline, the Singapore population is aging at an alarming rate.<br />
20. 20. IMPLICATIONS<br />AGEING POPULATION<br /> Smaller workforce : that can lead to slow economic growth.<br />Higher taxes: burden on the working population.<br />Defense: Lesser number of youths to join armed forces .<br />
21. 21. Actions <br /> -Encouraging marriage and childbearing<br /> -Incentives –<br /> Tax rebates ; child care subsidies ; child care leave ; flexible working hours for mothers ; affordable child care facilities and in-house child care facilities<br />
22. 22. BABY BONUS<br />It was introduced on 1 April 2001<br />You will get a cash gift of up to \$4,000 each for your 1st and 2nd child and \$6,000 each for your 3rd and 4th child.<br />
23. 23.
24. 24. Low Rate of Population Growth<br />Actions to manage a low rate of population growth<br /><ul><li>Encouraging families to look after their elderlies- promoting by various programmes, tax subsidies.
25. 25. extend the working life. 60-62
26. 26. There is also a need to encourage financial planning. Ex CPF</li></li></ul><li>Actions to manage a low rate of population growth<br />Meeting the needs of the elderly<br />Building special facilities – More clinics, hospitals ; old age homes<br />Helping the elderly keep healthy :- exercise classes and courses for life long learning<br />