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  1. 1. CHAPTER 2Population
  2. 2. Population Density• Population density is the number of people living in a unit area of land.• It is expressed in terms of the number of people per square kilometre of the land. A dense population would have more people per square kilometre compared to a sparse population.• For example, Singapore has a dense population of about 6 000 people per square kilometre, compared to Canada’s population density of 3 people per square kilometre. Total number of people Population density = Total land area
  3. 3. Population Density• People are not evenly distributed in a country and some regions are more crowded than others.• Cities generally have high population densities while areas such as countrysides and deserts usually have low population densities. Countrysides usually have low population densities with few people per square kilometre. Cities have high population densities with high number of people per square kilometre.
  4. 4. High Rate of Population Growth• Less developed countries with low levels of economic wealth and poor living conditions usually experience a high rate of population growth (e.g. countries found in Africa, South America and some parts of Asia).• A population pyramid can be used to show the pattern of population growth.
  5. 5. Population distribution- The way in which people are spread out over an area of land is known as the population distribution.• POPULATION DENSITY= Total number of people _______________________ Total land area
  6. 6. POPULATION DENSITY BY COUNTRY• 1 Macau: 20,824.4 people per sqkm• 2 Monaco: 16,486.7 people per sqkm• 3 Hong Kong: 6,571.14 people per sqkm• 4 Singapore: 5,539.77 people per sqkm• 5 Gibraltar: 4,486.92 people per sqkm• 6 Gaza Strip: 3,090.71 people per sqkm• 7 Bermuda: 1,249.44 people per sqkm• 8 Malta: 1,192.51 people per sqkm• 9 Bahrain: 1,014.66 people per sqkm• 10 Maldives: 1,000.73 people per sqkm
  7. 7. 10 MOST POPULATED CITIES• Tokyo, Japan –• Seoul, South Korea –• Guangzhou (Canton), China –• Mexico City, Mexico –• Delhi, India –• Mumbai, India –• New York, USA –• Sao Paolo, Brazil –• Manila, Philippine –• Shanghai, China –
  8. 8. Population Pyramid• what is population pyramid?• A graphical tool that shows the proportion of the total population that is male or female in the horizontal axis and their age groups in the vertical axis
  9. 9. Concepts you should know• Old:- those 60 and above• Young:- Those between 0-14yrs• Working populaion:- Between 15 yrs and 64 yrs Small proportion in the elderly age group Working population Proportion of youth and children
  10. 10. Population pyramid of countries with huge rate of population growth Narrow apex:- high death rate, poor medical fecility Broad base – high birth rate – high population growth
  11. 11. Countries with low rate of population growth Broader apex-better Medical Facility-aging population Narrower base- Low birth rate-low population growth
  12. 12. • Figure 2:• Relatively narrow base.• Broader apex.• Elderly population more than working population.• Shows a developed economy• Ageing population.
  13. 13. Inverted population pyramid• In an inverted population pyramid, a huge number of elderly - supported by a smaller number of working people.• The number of children continuously decreases.• Less economically active persons in the future. And to make the situation even worse, the average age of workers likewise increases.• Ex: Spain, Japan, Philippines.
  14. 14. Low Rate of Population Growth• Mostly developed countries (Japan, UK) experience low rate of population growth low death rate low birth rate.Factors that lead to Factors that lead tolow death rate? low birth rate ?Higher standards of hygiene. Later marriagesBetter nutrition. Fewer marriagesBetter medical and health care . Preference for smaller families
  15. 15. Low Rate of Population GrowthSince 1980, the total fertility rate of Singapore has declined steadily and fallen below replacement rate. Singaporeans were getting married later, and more Singaporeans were remaining single; 30% of population were single in 2000 compared to 19% a decade earlier. As a result of this fertility decline, the Singapore population is aging at an alarming rate.
  16. 16. IMPLICATIONSAGEING POPULATIONSmaller workforce : that can lead to slow economic growth.Higher taxes: burden on the working population.Defense: Lesser number of youths to join armed forces .
  17. 17. Actions-Encouraging marriage and childbearing-Incentives – Tax rebates ; child care subsidies ;child care leave ; flexible working hours formothers ; affordable child care facilitiesand in-house child care facilities
  18. 18. BABY BONUS• It was introduced on 1 April 2001• You will get a cash gift of up to $4,000 each for your 1st and 2nd child and $6,000 each for your 3rd and 4th child.
  19. 19. Low Rate of Population GrowthActions to manage a low rate of population growth• Encouraging families to look after their elderlies- promoting by various programmes, tax subsidies.• extend the working life. 60-62• There is also a need to encourage financial planning. Ex CPF
  20. 20. Actions to manage a low rate of population growth• Meeting the needs of the elderly• Building special facilities – More clinics, hospitals ; old age homes• Helping the elderly keep healthy :- exercise classes and courses for life long learning