IntroductionThe word “communicate” comes from the Latin word“communicate” that means to impart, to participate, to share or tomake common. By virtue of its Latin origin it also the source of theEnglish word “common” .communication is the process ofexchanging information through a common system of symbols.These symbols can include sign language, speaking, writing,gestures or pictorial graphs and charts. Communication is thus theprocess of sharing information, ideas, concepts and messagesbetween people. It is the core of all human relationships.Communication is essentially a two-way process can be consideredcomplete only when the message generated by the origination ofthe process is understood in its correct meaning by the recipient.The recipient in turn communicates is understanding of themessage through words or actions. This is called feedback and itcompletes the process of communication. In society we share orthoughts, feelings, emotions, reactions, propositions, facts andfigures with individuals as well as groups at all level, higher, loweror equal. Communication is, in fact, the most important of all ouractivities as it has helped us to organise ourselves as a civilizedsociety. In a civilized society there are well-defined roles for all andone. They only way to play these roles is through communication.All communication is based on, and is guided by role-relationships.Only when we understand and appreciate these role-relationshipscan we successfully communicate. In the words john Adair“communication” is essentially the ability of one person to makecontact with another and to make himself or herself understood.
With every interaction, whether active or passive, we find ourselvescommunicating with other people. Even our silence connotes someintention, which others may interpret at their discretion. Whether byartifact or by attendance, every human being constantlyparticipates in the process of communication. The field ofCommunication Theory exists at a crossroads of Psychology andSociology, borrowing heavily from each, illuminating a process thatdefines what it is to be human The concepts of effectivecommunication, the communication process, and Ability to functionin the world and cooperate with others and are all tied. overcomingbarriers are all critical pieces to our ability to communicateeffectively. Learners were introduced to the Communicationprocess during the first day introductions. The CommunicationProcess Loop should be displayed in the room. Throughout LearningSkills, teachers can use this visual to review the Communicationloop and to help students remember the process. While primarilyreferring to spoken verbal communication, typically relies on bothwords, visual aids and non-verbal elements to support theconveyance of the meaning. Oral communication includesdiscussion, speeches, presentations, interpersonal communicationand many other varieties. In face to face communication the bodylanguage and voice tonality plays a significant role and may have agreater impact on the listener than the intended content of thespoken words. In oral communication it is face to face thats whywe got to know the others reaction. and we immediately got thefeedback
Process of communication1. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.2. Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.3. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.4. Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder.
5. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.
Purpose of communicationCommunication is a combination of various skills – body movement,mind, spirit, energy, language, tone, voice, social skills, and so on.Each one has to be developed and perfected separately, combinedin the right proportions and with the right strategies during theprocess of communication.Now we come back to the origin of the communication process,which is the sender, which is „you. It is imperative that one be aneffective sender. This needs the right combination of inner balance,attitude, and a constant and balanced level of confidence.Purpose of communicationOnce we have this, the next important thing is to understand andknow the „purpose of communication. This means:Why are you communicating?What are the different reasons you are communicating for?There could be several purposes for communication or at timesthere could be no real purpose. You could be relating a story,sharing information or an experience with someone with the primarypurpose to impress that person. And if that person is suitablyimpressed, then you can call yourself a successful communicator.Of course, if the receiver is obligated to act impressed it is adifferent story altogether. Such communication to impress happensmainly at social get-togethers, parties or casual meetings.But on the flip side, if one doesnt know where and when to stop orhas no idea how to communicate, its certain he or she ends up as a„bore whom everyone would want to avoid like a plague! To informsomeone about something is the most common and the simplestpurpose of why we communicate. The sender is more like amessenger but he has to make sure that the information iscomplete, accurate and timely.
Sharing is more like a two-way communication and there is theprocess of specific feedback as well. Your purpose could be toshare some information in detail with the receiversThe way we communicate with others can greatly alter therelationships we have and techniques can be used to eitherdeliberately create harmonious working or to put a spanner in theworks. By fostering a common understanding and awareness themessage you try to portray becomes ever clearer and you are morelikely to gain support from others.From a management point of view, portraying a vision enables anexecutive to lead without being ever-present on the shop floor. Astrongly communicated message gains the way we communicatewith others can greatly alter the relationships we have andtechniques can be used to either deliberately create harmoniousworking or to put a spanner in the works. By fostering a commonunderstanding and awareness the message you try to portraybecomes ever clearer and you are more likely to gain support fromothers.From a management point of view, portraying a vision enables anexecutive to lead without being ever-present on the shop floor. Astrongly communicated message gains respect and understandingand increases the influence of the communicator. Being able torelate concepts and plans with no ambiguity is an important skillbut it is also important that the person receiving the messagerealizes the same as what he is being told. For this reason youshould incorporate feedback when you are communicating so thatyou can be sure that others are on the same wavelength.At any level of a job communication skills are important and oftenemployers look for the ability to make oneself understood in bothverbal and written context as a key issue in deciding on employees.It is key to know what your message is, to succinctly recount it andto be persuasive enough to get others to buy-in to what you aresaying.
METHODS OF COMMUNICATION VERBAL COMMUNICATION:-Communication is at the heart of any relationship, be it familial,business, romantic, or friendly. While there have been significantadvances in how we understand body language and other forms ofcommunication, verbal communication continues to be the mostimportant aspect of our interaction with other people. It‟s importantto understand both the benefits and shortcomings of this most basiccommunication.In a world flooded with E-mail and other text-based communication,verbal communication has several advantages over other forms ofcommunication. For example, we can slow down and present pointsone-by-one and make sure that each point is clearly communicatedand understood before moving on to the next point. This can greatlyincrease both the speed and accuracy of communication.Verbal communication is far more precise than non-verbal cues. Nomatter how clear we believe we are being, different gestures havedifferent interpretations between different cultures and evenbetween two members of the same culture. One famous example isRichard Nixon‟s use of the victory finger salute in Australia, as hewas unaware that the gesture was a vulgarity there. However,verbal communication is most effective when combined with otherforms of communication like body language and gestures to helpcue the intensity of the verbiage.Verbal communication is also the most effective way of explainingintangible concepts, as problem areas can be readily addressed andexplained. Verbal communication also does not use naturalresources in the way that technological methods or printing can.
NON VERBAL COMMUNICATIONNonverbal communication is any kind of communication notinvolving words. When the term is used, most people think offacial expressions and gestures, but while these are importantelements of nonverbal communication, they are not the onlyones. Nonverbal communication can include vocal sounds thatare not words such as grunts, sighs, and whimpers. Even whenactual words are being used, there are nonverbal soundelements such as voice tone, pacing of speech and so forth.Nonverbal communication can be incorporated in a person‟sdress. In our society, a person wearing a police uniform isalready communicating an important message before they saya word. Another example is a man‟s business suit, which isperceived by some as communicating an air of efficiency andprofessionalism.While each of these cues conveys a message, so does itsabsence. In some settings, failing to express a nonverbal cuealso communicates meaning. A policeman out of uniform iscalled “plainclothes” and is seen as deliberately trying toconceal his role. To some, this may make him seem smart orefficient, while others may consider him sneaky oruntrustworthy. In the same way, a businessman who does notwear a suit is conveying an air of casualness which somewould consider slightly less professional. In the modern world,“dressing down” implies a relaxation of professional standardsthat is much more than just a change of clothes.Many cues are based on learned cultural standards, but thereare some elements of nonverbal communication that areuniversal. Paul Beckman‟s landmark research on facialexpressions in the 1960′s found that the expressions foremotions such as anger, fear, sadness and surprise are thesame across all cultural barriers.
The setting where communication takes place also lends a meaning to words apart from their literal definition, and constitutes nonverbal communication. For instance, the word “tradition” means one thing when it is spoken in City Hall, and quite another when it is spoken in a church. The sign of a cross takes on great cultural meaning when used in a religious context, but on a road sign it just means that an intersection is coming up. EFFECTIVE VERBAL COMMUNICATIONEffective verbal communication has more to do with listening than itdoes with speaking because you are always dealing with anaudience. This is true no matter whether you are speaking to acrowd of thousands or to a party of one. Listening is key becausewhen you address an audience, no matter the size, you have tomeet its needs to communicate effectively, and to know the needsof your audience, you have to listen. There are a few basic rules youshould keep in mind when aiming for effective verbalcommunication. These are described in this article.The first tip to keep in mind is to know your audience. This isperhaps the most important piece of effectively communicatingverbally; you have to listen. For example, if you are speaking to asmall gathering of people in some kind of informal setting ordiscussion, the best tool in your kit is the ability and willingness tolisten to what the other people in your group are saying, as well aswhat they are not saying. Similarly, if you plan to speak to a muchlarger group of people, it will be to your advantage to find outbeforehand as much as you possibly can about the audience youintend to speak to. In such situations, it pays to do your homework.Try to find out the burning questions your audience might have. Findout how much they know about the subject you plan to talk about.Find out if they hold any opinions about the topic and if so, which
ways those opinions lean. Learn how the audience is likely tocommunicate; some audiences will listen to everything you say nomatter whether they agree with it or not. Other audiences will befull of interrupters and challengers. INFORMAL COMMUNICATIONIf formal communication is viewed like dressing for a black tieaffair, informal communication is like dressing casually and wearingslippers around the house. Much informal communication occurs ona person-to-person basis, in a face-to-face manner, withoutceremony or fanfare. Other ways to communicate in an informalmanner may include texting, post-it notes, and an informal drop invisit to another person, or a quick and spontaneous meeting.Informal communication includes all the various methods of relayinginformation or messages between people. It often is called “thegrapevine” as messages weave back and forth and around people.There are none of the trappings of formal messages, such ascompany letterhead, planned meetings or specific introductions ofguests. Everyone is relaxed and casual, eager to chat about manythings, as there is no specific agenda to follow.This type of communication frequently is oral, and works easily forsmall groups. The scope of the conversation may be broader than aformal presentation, and include topics that are diverse in nature,free flowing and loose rather than scripted carefully. Unfortunately,informal communication is subject to creating rumours andmisinformation due to its loose nature and lack of substantiatingevidence. This is the type of interaction that occurs in theworkplace as banter between employees, or idle chatting. It is seenas blog entries on the Internet. At colleges, students areencouraged to drop by their professors‟ offices as needed,informally. Other informal web communication is seen in diaries,
personal email letters, instant messaging, emoticons, online chatrooms and cyberspace bulletin boards. FORMAL COMMUNICATIONFormal communication can be considered as communication effortsthat are “dressed up” to fit customary rules and ceremony Forexample, in a written letter, the formal communication style willdemand that the layout of the piece of written communicationfollow a specific format that includes the date, header, salutation,body of the letter, close, signature lines and any indicators ofenclosures all placed neatly upon company letterhead or personalstationery. By contrast, an informal piece of written communicationcan be as simple as a jotted note to a friend on a torn slip of paperFormal communications are mostly written, although they may nowalso include formal presentations that are on computer disk, videotape or DVDs, MP3 presentations and other similar electronicreproductions of written communications. Other forms of formalcommunications include newsletters, legal advisories, invitations,awards, and letters of congratulations. Non-written formalcommunication devices are in-person communications in the formsof departmental meetings, telephone calls, conferences and specialinterviews. Some publications that are devoted to a specialpurpose, such as a company‟s annual report, are formalcommunications.There is a non-verbal component to formal communication as well.The style and manners of the presenter dictate the formalness of ameeting, and this can be immediately seen at the time ofintroduction of a speaker. Some elements of non-verbal formalcommunication include maintaining a certain distance from others,standing above the crowd, speaking in formal tones and usingformal means of address to others, such as “Mister” or “Doctor”when calling upon others
COMMUNICATION THROUGH BODY LANGUAGECommunication is how human beings interact with the world thatsurrounds them. There are many forms of communication, somebeing more effective at conveying the intent or feelings of theindividual expressing than others. Many people have a hard timewith communication, and can find it difficult to tell others what theythink or to give them bad news. Sometimes, they can‟t find the rightwords to express the things they want to say. There are also thosepeople who are not to be believed due to a history of dishonesty orembellishing the truth. One form of communication, however, isalways honest and can always be counted on.Body language is a form of communication that is performedsubconsciously. It occurs almost constantly, and will almost alwaysgive the correct impression that a person has of someone else, theenvironment, or the situation at hand. Body language makes it easyto know if someone is nervous, scared, interested, or focused,among many other feelings that could be happening.Learning to read body language can be as simple as payingattention to your own body when feeling specific emotions. Forexample, if you are able to notice the unconscious things that yourbody does when you are nervous, and then it should be simple foryou to be able to see when another person is nervous in a certainsituation. Often, reading the body language of another person willtell you more than having an actual conversation would, especiallyif the conversation has the potential to be uncomfortable or issomething that no one wants to acknowledge.
MODES OF COMMUNICATIONThe paper develops a theory of communication in which thesender‟s and receiver‟s motivations and abilities to communicateand process information endogenously determine theCommunication mode and the transfer of knowledge. In contrastwith the economic literature, which focuses on the (mostlycostless) transmission of soft and hard information, itModels communication as a moral-hazard-in-team problem, in whichthe sender and receiverSelect persuasion and message elaboration aborts. The papershows how strategies and outcomes depend on whether thereceiver needs to absorb the content in order to act (executive
Decision-making) or uses the information only in order to assess themerits of alternativeDecisions (supervisory decision-making). The model is then shownto provide a rich set ofInsights concerning: (i) the impact of incentive alignment oncommunication strategies; (ii)The relative impudence and the complementarily/substitutabilitybetween issue-relevant communication and cues (information thatrelates to the credibility of the sender rather than tothe issue at stake); and (iii) the path-dependency of communication.VOIP: - VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) Telephone Service isoffered to on-campus entities including UA Departments, UAAffiliates and Third Parties in UA VoIP buildings. A VoIP line is usedto provide service for VoIP phone sets on campus. These VoIP setshave some features not found on the Digital ISDN sets. A VoIPtelephone is also a data device; it passes either a 10/100 or10/100/1000 data connection through your phone to your computer.ADDRESS BOOK: - An address book or a name andaddress book (NAB) is a book or a database used for storing entriescalled contacts. Each contact entry usually consists of a fewstandard fields (for example: first name, last name, companyname, address, telephone number, e-mail address, fax number, mobile phone number). Most suchsystems store the details in alphabetical order of peoples names,although in paper-based address books entries can easily end upout of order as the owner inserts details of more individuals or aspeople move. Many address books use small ring binders that allowadding, removing and shuffling of pages to make room.
SMS/MMS: - Short Message Service (SMS) is a textmessaging service component of phone, web, or mobilecommunication systems, using standardized communications thatallow the exchange of short text messages between fixedline or mobile phone devices.SMS text messaging is the most widely used data application in theworld, with 2.4 billion active users, or 74% of all mobile phonesubscribers The term SMS is used as a synonym for all types ofshort text messaging as well as the user activity itself in manyparts of the world. SMS is also being used as a form of directmarketing known as SMS marketing.VIDEO CONFERENCE:- Videoconferencing is theconduct of a videoconference (also known as a videoconference or video teleconference) by a set oftelecommunication technologies which allow two or more locationsto communicate by simultaneous two-way video and audiotransmissions. It has also been called visual collaboration and is atype of groupware.Videoconferencing differs from videophone calls in that itsdesigned to serve a conference or multiple locations rather thanindividuals. It is an intermediate form of video telephony, firstdeployed commercially in the United States by AT&T during theearly 1970s as part of their development of Picturephone technology.INSTANCE MESSAGE:- instant messaging (IM) is aform of real-time direct text-based chatting communication in pushmode between two or more people using personal computers orother devices, along with shared clients. The users text isconveyed over a network, such as the Internet. More advancedinstant messaging software clients also allow enhanced modes of
communication, such as live voice or video calling and inclusionof links to media.VOICE CONFERENCE:- Voice chat is a modern formof communication used on the Internet. The means ofcommunicating with voice chat is through any of the messengers,mainly Skype, Yahoo! Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger, inSpeak or Windows Live Messenger.[ Voice chat has led to asignificant increase in distant communications where two or morepeople from opposite ends of the world can talk almost free of cost.E-FAX: - eFax stands for electronic fax. Instead of using a faxmachine, eFax works through email. Allowing you to send andreceive using your favorite email program. Currently ICA uses theservice called NextivaFax (NextivaFax.com).SENDING: A fax is sent via email to the fax gateway (NextivaFax),which receives the fax and converts it into PDF format. The fax isthen transmitted to the recipient through standard telephone lines.Please note that only one email address is allowed to send a fax. Ifsomeone else wants to send a fax they either have to use the sameaccount or the online portal.
CONCLUSIONCommunication is the process of sending and receiving messageswith attached meaning ( Schermerhorn, Osborn, Hunt 2000).Communication process has the following basic aspects, which aresource, receiver, channel, noise and feedback. The source is theperson that encodes a message in understandable terms, and thentransmits it via a communication channel that carries the message.There are various communication channels such as face-to-facemeetings, emails, memorandums, faxes, telephone, internet, voice-mail, among others. All the communication channels are all subjectto noise and distortion which can have a big effect on the messagebeen sent. The receiver is the person to whom the message is sentand if there are noises or other barriers a feedback can spot theerror. Feedback is the response from the receiver back to thesource.