DEFINTIONS OF COMMUNICATION ” Communication is transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver – G.G. Brown. “Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or messages”- Fred G. Meyer.
CONT… Communication is the transmission of a message or information by speaking or writing. . Communication is giving, receiving or exchanging ideas, information, signals or messages through appropriate media, enabling individuals or groups to persuade, to seek information, to give information or to express emotions.
Effective Communication Definitions Effective communication is a two-way process - sending the right message, that is also being correctly received and understood by the other person/s. Effective communication is a process through which the sender conveys a message that the receiver readily receives and understands. It is a two-way process instead of a one-way process.
Communication & Effective Communication Communication is Effective conversation giving or exchanging (communication) is a information, signals, conversation in which no messages by talk or one gets confused by the gestures or writing other persons MEANING
VALUE & IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IMPORTANCE OFVALUE OF COMMUNICATION COMMUNICATION The value of communication If you’re a good is based on relevant and communicator, you’ll have timely information. Without better chances of success. such information, there can You’re able to persuade be no effective people, influence communication others, negotiate effectively.
VALUE & IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark. Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in molding employee’s attitudes.
VALUE & IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION Communication also helps in socializing. In todays life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication. As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational member’s behavior in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management.
Key Questions Differentiate between Communication and Effective Communication? Explain the value of Communication? Define importance of Communication?
Components of Communication Context Sender Message Medium Receiver Response
Components of Communication Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder Context - is a person who sends the message. A Communication is sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey affected by the context in the message and produce the which it takes place. This required response. For instance - a context may be physical, training manager conducting social, chronological or training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a cultural. Every group or an organization. The views, communication proceeds background, approach, skills, with context. The sender competencies, and knowledge of the chooses the message to sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal communicate within a symbols chosen are essential in context. ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.
Components of Communication Medium - Medium is a means used to Message - Message is a key exchange / transmit the message. The idea that the sender wants to sender must choose an appropriate communicate. It is a sign that medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed elicits the response of to the desired recipients. The choice of recipient. Communication appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message process begins with deciding effective and correctly interpreted by the about the message to be recipient. This choice of communication conveyed. It must be ensured medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance that the main objective of the - Written medium is chosen when a message is clear message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.
Components of Communication Recipient / Decoder - Response (Feedback )- Recipient / Decoder is a Feedback is the main person for whom the message component of is intended / aimed / communication process as it targeted. The degree to which permits the sender to analyze the decoder understands the the efficacy of the message. It message is dependent upon helps the sender in various factors such as confirming the correct knowledge of recipient, their interpretation of message by responsiveness to the the decoder. Feedback may message, and the reliance of be verbal (through words) or encoder on decoder. non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.
Key Questions Label the diagram? What are the components of communication? Describe each component?
Areas of Human CommunicationVERBAL NON-VERBAL Verbal Non communication includes verbal communication incl rate, volume, pitch as well as udes those important but articulation and unspoken signals that pronunciation. Verbal individuals exhibit, communication also includes specifically : carriage/posture, sign language and written appearance, listening, eye forms of communication contact, hand gestures and facial expressions
Verbal Communication The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Verbal communication is one way for people to communicate face-to-face. Some of the key components of verbal communication are sound, words, speaking, and language. Verbal communication is communication that uses words, either written or spoken. This is in contrast to non-verbal communication, such as body language. "Verbal" is sometimes used colloquially in the sense of "spoken", but it is better to use "oral" in that context, to avoid ambiguity
Non- Verbal Communication “nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source [speaker] and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver [listener]. Basically it is sending and receiving message in a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words). It is both intentional and unintentional. Most speakers / listeners are not conscious of this. It includes — but is not limited to: touch glance eye contact (gaze) volume vocal nuance proximity gestures facial expression pause (silence) intonation dress posture smell word choice and syntax sounds (paralanguage) Broadly speaking, there are two basic categories of non-verbal language: nonverbal messages produced by the body; nonverbal messages produced by the broad setting (time, space, silence)
Example A very good example is: A man comes home late, hears from the kitchen the slamming of pots and pans and cupboard doors. He enters the kitchen, asks his wife "Whats wrong, honey?" She answers, "Nothing!" as she slams another cupboard door and rolls her eyes toward the ceiling. She has spoken the word "Nothing", but it is her unspoken communication that tells him that "nothing" is not the real answer. It is clearly communicated by her actions. A truly effective communicator will train him or herself in nonverbal communication as well as verbal and oral.
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBALCOMMUNICATION 1. Facial Expression 2. Gestures 3. Paralinguistic Features 4. Body Language and Posture 5. Proxemics 6. Eye Gaze 7. Haptics 8. Appearance
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION 1. Facial Expression 2. Gestures Facial expressions are Deliberate movements and responsible for a huge signals are an important way proportion of nonverbal to communicate meaning communication. Consider without words. Common how much information can gestures include waving, be conveyed with a smile or a pointing, and using fingers to frown. While nonverbal indicate numeric amounts. communication and behavior Other gestures are arbitrary can vary dramatically and related to culture. between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are similar throughout the world.
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION 3. Paralinguistics 4. Body Language and Posture Paralinguistics refers to vocal Posture and movement can also communication that is separate convey a great deal on information. from actual language. This includes Research on body language has factors such as tone of voice, grown significantly since the 1970s, loudness, inflection and pitch. but popular media have focused on Consider the powerful effect that the over-interpretation of defensive tone of voice can have on the postures, arm-crossing, and leg- meaning of a sentence. When said crossing, especially after the in a strong tone of voice, listeners publication of Julius Fasts book might interpret approval and Body Language. While these enthusiasm. The same words said in nonverbal behaviors can indicate a hesitant tone of voice might feelings and attitudes, research convey disapproval and a lack of suggests that body language is far interest. more subtle and less definitive that previously believed.
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION 5. Proxemics 6. Eye Gaze People often refer to their need for Looking, staring and blinking can "personal space," which is also an also be important nonverbal important type of nonverbal behaviors. When people encounter communication. The amount of people or things that they like, the distance we need and the amount of rate of blinking increases and pupils space we perceive as belonging to us dilate. Looking at another person is influenced by a number of factors can indicate a range of emotions, including social norms, situational including hostility, interest and factors, personality characteristics attraction. and level of familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet.
CLASSIFICATION OF NON-VERBALCOMMUNICATION 7. Haptics 8. Appearance Communicating through touch is Our choice of color, clothing, another important nonverbal hairstyles and other factors affecting behavior. There has been a appearance are also considered a substantial amount of research on means of nonverbal the importance of touch in infancy communication. Research on color and early childhood. Harry Harlows psychology has demonstrated that classic monkey study demonstrated different colors can evoke different how the deprivation of touch and moods. Appearance can also alter contact impedes development. Baby physiological reactions, judgments monkeys raised by wire mothers and interpretations. Just think of all experienced permanent deficits in the subtle judgments you quickly behavior and social interaction. make about someone based on his Touch can be used to communicate or her appearance. These first affection, familiarity, sympathy and impressions are important, which is other emotions. why experts suggest that job seekers dress appropriately for interviews with potential employers.
What is listening?What is the difference between Hearing and Listening?
Listening Listening is the ability to accurately receive messages in the communication process. Listening is key to all effective communication Listening means paying attention not only to the story, but how it is told, the use of language and voice, and how the other person uses his or her body. It means being aware of both verbal and non-verbal messages. Listening means paying attention not only to the story, but how it is told, the use of language and voice, and how the other person uses his or her body. In other words, it means being aware of both verbal and non-verbal messages.
Listening is not the same as Hearing. DifferenceListening Hearing listening requires more than Hearing refers to the sounds that: it requires focus. that you hear,
Importance of Listening•Good listening skills good listening skills can leadalso have benefits in to:our personal lives, better customer satisfaction,including:• a greater number of greater productivity withfriends and social fewer mistakes,networks increased sharing of• improved self- information that in turn canesteem and lead to more creative andconfidence, innovative work.•higher grades inacademic work and•increased health andwellbeing.
Based on the research of:Adler, R., Rosenfeld, L. and Proctor, R. (2001) Interplay: the process of interpersonalcommunicating (8th edition), Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt.
Ten Principles of Listening Stop Talking Be Patient Prepare Yourself to Avoid Personal Listen Prejudice Put the Speaker at Listen to the Tone Ease Listen for Ideas – Not Remove Distractions Just Words Empathize Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication
1. Stop Talking “If we were supposed to talk more than we listen, we would have two tongues and one ear.” Mark Twain. Dont talk, listen. When somebody else is talking listen to what they are saying, do not interrupt, talk over them or finish their sentences for them. Stop, just listen. When the other person has finished talking you may need to clarify to ensure you have received their message accurately.
2. Prepare Yourself to Listen Relax. Focus on the speaker. Put other things out of mind. The human mind is easily distracted by other thoughts – what’s for lunch, what time do I need to leave to catch my train, is it going to rain – try to put other thoughts out of mind and concentrate on the messages that are being communicated.
Empathize Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Look at issues from their perspective. Let go of preconceived ideas. By having an open mind we can more fully empathize with the speaker. If the speaker says something that you disagree with then wait and construct an argument to counter what is said but keep an open mind to the views and opinions of others
Be Patient A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished. Be patient and let the speaker continue in their own time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say and how to say it. Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone.
3. Put the Speaker at Ease Help the speaker to feel free to speak. Remember their needs and concerns. Nod or use other gestures or words to encourage them to continue. Maintain eye contact but don’t stare – show you are listening and understanding what is being said.
4. Remove Distractions Focus on what is being said: don’t doodle, shuffle papers, look out the window, pick your fingernails or similar. Avoid unnecessary interruptions. These behaviors disrupt the listening process and send messages to the speaker that you are bored or distracted.
Avoid Personal Prejudice Try to be impartial. Dont become irritated and dont let the person’s habits or mannerisms distract you from what they are really saying. Everybody has a different way of speaking - some people are for example more nervous or shy than others, some have regional accents or make excessive arm movements, some people like to pace whilst talking - others like to sit still. Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of delivery.
Listen to the Tone Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying. A good speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep an audience attentive; everybody will use pitch, tone and volume of voice in certain situations – let these help you to understand the emphasis of what is being said.
Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words You need to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the ideas of others. With proper concentration, letting go of distractions, and focus this becomes easier.
Wait and Watch for Non- Verbal Communication Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be important. We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our eyes – watch and pick up the additional information being transmitted via non-verbal communication.
Do Not Jump To Conclusions AboutWhat You See And Hear.You Should Always SeekClarification To Ensure That YourUnderstanding Is Correct.
What is Culture? Culture refers to the values, norms, and traditions that affect the way a member of a group typically perceives, thinks, interacts, behaves, and makes judgments. It even affects perceptions of time and cultural calendars, which can impact day-to-day scheduling and deadlines.
What is Cultural Competence? Cultural competence, in brief, is the ability to interact effectively with people from different cultures. This ability depends on awareness of ones own cultural worldview, knowledge of other cultural practices and worldviews, tolerant attitudes towards cultural differences, and cross-cultural skills.
Managing Cultural Diversity in the Workplace Developing cultural competence results in an ability to understand, communicate with, and effectively interact with people across cultures, and work with varying cultural calendars. While there are myriad cultural variations, here are some essential to the workplace: Communication Team-building Time Calendars
Communication Providing information accurately and promptly is critical to effective work and team performance. This is particularly important when a project is troubled and needs immediate corrective actions. However, people from different cultures vary in how, for example, they relate to bad news. People from some Asian cultures are reluctant to give supervisors bad news - while those from other cultures may exaggerate it.
Team-building Some cultures - like the United States - are individualistic, and people want to go it alone. Other cultures value cooperation within or among other teams. Team-building issues can become more problematic as teams are comprised of people from a mix of these cultural types. Effective cross-cultural team-building is essential to benefiting from the potential advantages of cultural diversity in the workplace
Time Cultures differ in how they view time. For example, they differ in the balance between work and family life, and the workplace mix between work and social behavior. Other differences include the perception of overtime, or even the exact meaning of a deadline. Different perceptions of time can cause a great misunderstanding and mishap in the workplace, especially with scheduling and deadlines. Perceptions of time underscore the importance of cultural diversity in the workplace, and how it can impact everyday work.
Calendars The business world generally runs on the western secular year, beginning with January 1 and ending with December 31. However, many cultures use others calendars to determine holidays such as New Years or specific holy days. For example, Eastern Orthodox Christians celebrate Christmas on a different day from western Christians. For Muslims, Friday is a day for prayer. Jews observe holidays ranging from Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kippur. These variations affect the workplace as people require time off to observe their holidays.
To Develop Cultural Competence, Managing Cultural Diversity In The WorkplaceStrategies, Skills and Techniques. Awareness Attitude Knowledge Skills
Awareness This is the skill to understand ones reactions to people who are different, and how our behavior might interfere with effective working relationships. We need to learn to overcome stereotypes? We need to see people as individuals and focus on actual behavior, rather than our preconceived and often biased notions.
Attitude This is the companion skill to awareness. Attitude enables people to examine their values and beliefs about cultural differences, and understand their origins. It is important that to focus on facts, rather than judgment. Also, note that suggesting that some people are more biased and prejudiced than others can quickly sabotage cultural training. The goal is managing cultural diversity in the workplace, and creating effective working relationships - not to make converts.
Knowledge Social science research indicates that our values and beliefs about equality may be inconsistent with behavior. Ironically, we are often unaware of this. Knowledge about our own behavior - and how it relates to fairness and workforce effectiveness - is an essential skill. Its also essential to be knowledgeable about other cultures, from communication styles to holidays and religious events in multicultural calendars. The minimum objective is tolerance, which is essential for effective teamwork. Differences are what make tolerance necessary , and tolerance is what makes differences possible.
Skills The goal of training - in awareness, attitude, and knowledge - should be skills that allow organizational leaders and employees to make cultural competence a seamless part of the workplace. The new work environment is defined by understanding, communicating, cooperating, and providing leadership across cultures. Managing cultural diversity in the workplace is also the challenge for organizations that want to profit from a competitive advantage in the 21st century economy.