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# Ready, Set, React! Getting the most out of peer instruction with clickers

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Presentation about effective peer instruction using clickers at Clickers 2012.

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• SHOULD E be ‘SOMETHING ELSE” and NOT show the right answer. This might force students to trust themselves …
• Answer: D Topic: Concept 17.4 Skill: Application/Analysis
• Answer: D (Mammal example is false)
• Answer: B Topic: Concept 10.2 Skill: Application/Analysis
• ### Ready, Set, React! Getting the most out of peer instruction with clickers

1. 1. READY, SET, REACT!As we get settled, practice entering a word using youriclicker2: What 3-letter word can you make from the letters A, B, C, D, E?click A – E button, to advance to 2nd character, click A – E button, to advance to 3rd character, click A – E button, SEND to submit answer. Clickers 2012, Chicago, October 24-25, 2012
2. 2. READY, SET, REACT!GETTING THE MOST OUT OFPEER INSTRUCTION WITHCLICKERS Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca #clickers2012 Cynthia Heiner Department of Physics Free University of Berlin, Germany cynthia.heiner@fu-berlin.de Clickers 2012, Chicago, October 24-25, 2012
3. 3. Typical Peer Instruction Episode poses a conceptually-challenging 1. Instructor multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, coloured cards, ABCD voting cards,... 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes.3 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
4. 4. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other immediately, students learn while they may still hold or remember and practice their novice misconceptions how to  students discuss the concepts in theirthink, commu own language nicate like experts  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts4 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
5. 5. Effective peer instruction requires key 1. identifying concepts, misconceptions before class 2. creating multiple-choice questions that require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes during that spark student discussion class 4. resolving the misconceptions5 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
6. 6. Example Questions Don’t concentrate only on the content of the example questions. Watch the “choreography”, too.6 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
7. 7. Clicker question The amplitude and frequency A) of 4 light waves are shown. The waves are representative B) of one instant in time and are all travelling in vacuum. Which wave travels the fastest? C) D) E) all the same speed7 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
8. 8. Clicker question X Are features X and Y ridges or valleys? A) X=ridge, Y=valle y B) X=valley, Y=ridg e Y C) both are ridges D) both are valleys8 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
9. 9. Clicker question Three blocks are in a tank of water. Rank the densities of the blocks and the water from least dense to most dense. (Enter a 4-letter like ABCD and click SEND) C A D (water) B9 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
10. 10. Clicker choreography To be effective, the instructor needs to run the peer instruction in a way that gives students sufficient time to think about, discuss and resolve the concepts. We want students to participate without ever having to stop and think, “What am I supposed to do now?”10 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
11. 11. Clicker choreography 1. Present the question. Don’t read it aloud. Reasons for not reading the question aloud: • your voice may give away key features or even the answer • you might read the question you hoped to ask, not the words that are actually there • the students are not listening anyway – they’re trying to read it themselves and your voice may, in fact, distract them11 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
12. 12. Clicker choreography 2. “Please answer this on your own.” Goals of the first, solo vote: • get the students to commit to a choice in their own minds • get the students to commit to a choice so they’ll be curious about the answer • get the students prepared to have a discussion with their peers, if necessary If they discuss the question right way: • students are making choices based on someone else’s reasoning • those students cannot contribute to the peer instruction as they have no ideas of their own12 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
13. 13. Clicker choreography 2. “Please answer this on your own.” Students may be reluctant to quietly think on their own. After all, they have a better chance of picking the right choice after talking to their friends. If you’re going to impose a certain behaviour on the students, getting their “buy-in” is critical. Explain to them why the solo vote is so important. Explain it to them early in the term and remind them when they start drifting to immediate discussions.13 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/SEI_video.html
14. 14. Clicker choreography 3. Don’t start the i>clicker poll. Instead give the students sufficient time to make a choice. What is sufficient? • Turn to the screen, read and answer the question as if you are one of your students. • Another possibility: keep facing the class, helping those with confused stares. • Another possibility: model how to think about the question by “acting it out.” • When you notice students picking up their clickers and getting restless, they are prepared to vote.14 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
15. 15. Clicker choreography 4. When you have made a choice or when you see the class getting restless, ask the students, “Do you need more time?” If many students are not ready to vote, they will not have committed to a choice and will be unprepared to discuss the question. Some students may be uncomfortable asking for more time. Make it clear, from the first class, that you’ll honour the request with no repercussions. 5. “Yes!” Give them a few more seconds. “[silence]” Ask them to prepare to vote.15 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
16. 16. Clicker choreography 6. “Please vote.” If you’ve given them sufficient time to commit to a choice, the voting should take very little time. Another option: watch the number of votes and when most of the votes are in say, “Can I have your final answers, please?” Don’t wait for every last student to vote. Some may be choosing not to vote.16 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
17. 17. Clicker choreography 7. Check distribution of votes on the i>clicker receiver. Don’t show the histogram to the class (yet): • if there is a popular choice, students are apt to choose it in a 2nd vote, without reasoning why. • a student who picked an unpopular choice is unlikely to participate in peer or class discussion You can motivate students without showing the histogram, e.g., by saying “there seem to be two popular answers” The students’ behaviours will change when they17 see the histogram, probably not for the right Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
18. 18. Clicker choreography 8. Depending on the distribution of votes, proceed. We’ll discuss reacting to various distribution scenarios in a few moments.18 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
19. 19. Clicker choreography 9. At the end, confirm the answer(s) and continue with the class. Even if more than 80–90% of the students have picked the correct choice, some students are still not sure why that choice is correct. Briefly confirm the correct choice: • explain why the correct choice is correct • explain why popular distractors are incorrect • allows those who chose the correct answer to make sure they had the correct reasoning19 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
20. 20. Reacting to their votes You don’t know what’s going to happen but you can anticipate and prepare yourself for the likely outcomes. When you know the first-vote distribution (but they don’t) you have lots of options. This is where you show your “agility.”20 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
21. 21. What do you think you should do with this first-vote distribution? A B C D E A. “Turn to your neighbours and convince them you’re right” B. move on – everyone got it C. confirm correct answer and move on D. “Can someone who answered C tell us why they made that choice?” E. other21 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
22. 22. What do you think you should do with this first-vote distribution? A B C D E A. “Turn to your neighbours and convince them you’re right” B. confirm correct answer and move on C. “Can someone who answered B tell us why they made that choice?” D. show the vote distribution E. other22 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
23. 23. What do you think you should do with this first-vote distribution? A B C D E23 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
24. 24. What do you think you should do with this first-vote distribution? (C is not the correct answer) A B C D E24 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
25. 25. What do you think you should do if this is the second-vote distribution? A B C D E25 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
26. 26. Reacting to their votes When you know the first-vote distribution (but they don’t) there are many options. You can  confirm and move on  ask the students to discuss with their peers  ask students to advocate for the choices they made  check that the question made sense  eliminate one or more choices before re- voting  and more...26 This is where you show your agility. Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
27. 27. Resources www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/clickers.htm links to collections of peer instruction questions peerinstruction4cs.org Beth Simon and Cynthia Lee, UCSD excellent guide to what to do before term, on the first day, how to get student buy-in, and more. CWSEI Eric Mazur Derek Bruff Doug Duncan (1996) (2009) (2004, 2005)27 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
28. 28. Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! 28PRACTICE PEERINSTRUCTIONQUESTIONS:PHYSICS, ASTRONOMY,BIOLOGY
29. 29. Clicker question A ball is rolling C around the B D inside of a A E circular track. The ball leaves the track at point P. P Which path does the ball follow? (Mazur)29 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
30. 30. Clicker question Suppose you pass white light through a prism and all of the colours of the spectrum are projected on a screen. If you then put a red filter over your eye and look at the spectrum, what colours do you see? A) you see mostly red light; the blue and green disappears B) you see mostly blue light; the other colours disappear C) all of the colours turn red (Duncan)30 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
31. 31. Clicker question If this is the phase of the Moon when it rises: what is the phase of the Moon 12 hours later? A B C D E (Prather)31 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
32. 32. Clicker question Susan throws a ball straight up into the air. It goes up and then falls back into her hand 2 seconds later. Draw a graph showing the velocity of the ball from the moment it leaves her hand until she catches it again. velocity time 0 2 sec (UBC CWSEI)32 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
33. 33. Which one is the closest match to your graph?velocity velocity A B time time 0 2 sec 0 2 secvelocity velocity C D time time 0 2 sec 0 2 sec33 E) some other graph (UBC CWSEI) Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
34. 34. Clicker question John is walking to school. This graph shows his position as a function of time. When is John moving with the greatest velocity? position time A B C D E (UBC CWSEI)34 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
35. 35. Clicker question Which of the following is an incorrect step when using the substitution method to evaluate the definite integral 4 2 3 x 1 x dx 0 3 1 4 A) u 1 x C) u du 3 0 du 2 B) x dx D) none of the above 3 (Bruff)35 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
36. 36. Clicker question To minimize the work you do getting a heavy bag of groceries from the first floor to the second floor of a building, you should A. carry the bag up the stairs B. carry the bag up in an elevator C. put the bag on the floor of an elevator, ride up with it, and then pick up the bag again D. carry the bag up a ramp E. put the bag in a cart and push it up a ramp (Chasteen)36 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
37. 37. Clicker question For the data set displayed in the following histogram, which would be larger, the mean or the median? A) mean B) median37 C) can’t Ready, from the given mathquest.carroll.edu/resources.html) Clickers 2012: tell Set, React! (Peck, histogram
38. 38. Clicker question An ice cube is floating in a glass of water that is filled entirely to the brim. As the ice cube melts, the water level will A) stay the same, remain at the brim. B) rise, causing the water to spill. C) fall to a level below the brim. D) cannot say without knowing the density of ice. (UBC CWSEI)38 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
39. 39. Question If you lower a 1.5 kg mass on a string into a 5 kg beaker filled with water, what happens to the reading on the scale? A) increases to 6.5 kg B) increases to a value < 6.5 kg C) increases to a value > 6.5 kg D) stay the same (UBC CWSEI)39 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
40. 40. Demo: prediction A cup filled with water has a hole in the side through which the liquid is flowing out. If the cup is dropped for a height, what will happen to the water flowing from the cup? A. It will keep on coming out, flowing the same as before B. It will keep coming out, but it will flow a bit slower than before C. It will keep coming out, but start to flow upwards D. It will keep coming out, flowing horizontally with the falling cup40 E. Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! It will stop flowing (Heiner)
41. 41. Clicker Question Consider a block of wood that has varying dimensions. Does the pressure exerted on the table from the block depend on the blocks position? If so, which way produces the greatest pressure? If not, why not? A) B) C) D) The block of wood has the same density, so it doesn’t matter which way it is positioned. E) The block of wood has the same mass, so it doesn’t41 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! matter which way it is positioned. (Heiner)
42. 42. The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that forms during the growth of a tree largely come from a) sunlight. b) the air. c) the seed. d) the soil.42 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! Question credit: Bill Wood
43. 43. The figure shows a tRNA molecule that recognizes and binds a specific amino acid. Which codon on the mRNA strand codes for the amino acid? A) UGG B) GUG C) GUA D) UUC E) CAU43 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! Question credit: Pearson Education, Inc.
44. 44. Clicker Question How many of the following statements about selection are true? Plants: During their lifetime, plants may experience many different sources of selection Insects: Insects often experience a different type of selection as larvae than as adults Birds: Birds can experience different directions of selection in different years Mammals: Selection in mammals always operates more strongly on survival than on reproduction A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 3 E) 444 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
45. 45. Question Suppose that in the tree below new data were uncovered indicating that taxon E is sister to a group consisting of taxa D and F. Draw the new phylogeny.45 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
46. 46. Which one is the closest match to your phylogeny?  Answer A a) b)  Answer B c) d) Some other phylogeny C  Answer46 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
47. 47. PO2 in the lungs is typically about 100 mm Hg, while PO2 in resting muscles is about 40 mm Hg. Hemoglobin leaving the lungs is nearly saturated with O2. When that fully oxygenated hemoglobin arrives in capillaries near muscle tissue at rest, what percent of its O2 is released? 100 O2 saturation of hemoglobin (%) A. 10% 80 B. 15% 60 C. 30% D. 70% 40 E. 85% 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 PO2(mm Hg)47 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! Question credit: Pearson Education, Inc.
48. 48. Question Which point on the phylogenetic tree represents the closest relative of the frog? A B E D C48 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
49. 49. Question Which experiment will produce 18O2? Experiment 1: H218O + CO2 A. experiment 1 B. experiment 2 Experiment 2: C. both experiments H2O +C18O2 D. neither49 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
50. 50. Question Fill in the blanks. All the somatic cells in your body contain ______ DNA sequences and ______ proteins. A. The same DNA sequences, the same proteins. B. Different DNA sequences, different proteins. C. The same DNA sequences, different proteins. D. Different DNA sequences, the same proteins. 50 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!Question credit: CWSEI, SEI
51. 51. Suppose a plant has a photosynthetic pigment that makes the leaves appear to be reddish yellow. Which wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment? A) red and yellow B) blue and violet C) green and yellow D) blue, green, and red E) green, blue, and yellow51 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React!
52. 52. Question One of the somatic (i.e., not gametes) cells represented below is diploid. Which one? A. B. C.52 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! Question credit: Carol Pollock
53. 53. Question If an organism makes an abnormal protein, the error that led to this abnormality most likely originated A. during the replication of the corresponding gene B. during transcription of the corresponding gene to make the corresponding mRNA C. during translation of the corresponding mRNA to make the protein53 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! Question credit: CWSEI, SEI
54. 54. Clicker Question Draw a cell’s plasma membrane using circles and lines to represent the two “ends” of the phospholipids that comprise the membrane. Indicate the inside and outside of the cell with respect to the membrane. example phospholipid54 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! Question credit: CWSEI, SEI
55. 55. Which of the following illustrations looks most like your own drawing?A. Outsid e of Inside of cell C. Outsid e of Inside of cell cell cellB. Outsid e of Inside of cell D. Outsid e of Inside of cell cell cell E. My drawing looks different55 Clickers 2012: Ready, Set, React! Question credit: CWSEI, SEI