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Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology
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Archaeological Computing Research Group (ACRG) Seminar: Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology

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Digital Spatial Technologies have become central to modern archaeological practice. There are a number of interrelated strands to this which can be broadly categorised as capture, management, …

Digital Spatial Technologies have become central to modern archaeological practice. There are a number of interrelated strands to this which can be broadly categorised as capture, management, analysis/interpretation, visualisation and dissemination.

Techniques and technologies used to capture spatial data include: Total Station Theodolites (TST), Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS), Airborne Laser Scanners (ALS) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS); computational photography including Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI), Structure from Motion (SfM) and photogrammetry.

Allied with this are tools and techniques to support management, analysis, visualisation and dissemination including more robust, ontologically driven, semantically enabled data models and Archaeological Information Systems (AIS) to handle both spatial and spatially referenced digital data and all manner of visualisations and interfaces (2D, 3D, graphs, web, portals, etc) for resource discovery, analysis and dissemination.

Digital resources are being made accessible like never before, with spatiality forming a key component, opening up new potential with platforms such as Google Earth and Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) for research, public access and heritage management either here, now, or becoming possible, drawing on and breathing new life into archaeological archives and indices.

All of this combines to help us as archaeologists create richer, multi-vocal, data driven narratives and theoretical frameworks and ultimately better understand the past and convey this to a wider audience. Drawing on experiences from one of the UKs largest archaeological units as well as ongoing projects across the heritage domain in which I have participated or observed, this talk aims to give a personal view on where we as a discipline are at and some ideas for where we can go next.

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  • 1. Wessex Archaeology Digital Spatial Technologies in Archaeology A view from the coalfacePaul Cripps•Geomatics Manager, Wessex Archaeology•Archaeological Computing Research Group, University of Southamptonhttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 2. Wessex Archaeology Overview • Capture & Creation – In the beginning… • Structure & Order – Modelling • Analysis & Interpretation – Resource Discovery – Intelligent searching – Semantics • Visualisation – The importance of UI • Dissemination & Archives – Onto the web and beyond • Where next…? – SDI, OpenData, LinkedDatahttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 3. Wessex Archaeology Capture & Creation • Growing range of 3D tools/techniques for field survey • Complimentary – A toolbox approach – Right tools for the job – Strengths/weaknesses • Direct Survey Techniques – Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) – Total Station Theodololites (TST) • Indirect Survey Techniques – Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) – Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) – Structure from Motion (SfM) – Photogrammetry – Reduced field time vs increased office timehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 4. Wessex Archaeology Capture & Creation • Office based capture/creation using CAD/GIS • Digitisation – Vectors from 2D maps/plans – Vectors from Point Clouds • Integration – Point Clouds – Photography/Imagery – 2D/3D Vectors • Automation – Point Cloud  Vectors – Raster  Vector – Photos/Video  Point Cloud and/or Mesheshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 5. Wessex Archaeology Structure • Spatial Data = Raster/Vector/Voxel + Attributes • The basics, essential for practitioners: – Appropriate geometries/data types/models – Well modelled, standards compliant attribute data structures – Database theory: (de)Normalisation, Atomicity, Redundancy, etc • Moving forwards – Ontologically driven models – Semantic clarity – Event based modelshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 6. Wessex Archaeology Modelling • Object Oriented approaches • Events in the Present – Object-Relational storage – ie archaeologists (people) • Event driven models doing archaeology – Any data object is the product – Fieldwork, analysis, of an Event interpretation – Very useful for describing the • Events in the Past archaeological process – ie past peoples living, • Can reduce everything to a experiencing, interacting with few core elements each other and the world around them; leaving… • Typologies, classifications • Stuff – A large proportion of what we – ie archaeological remains; do finds, structures, etc in… • Object Inheritance • Places – Subtyping – ie depositional contexts, – Ensures robust data objects structures, geographic entities, etchttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 7. Wessex Archaeology Analysis & Interpretation • Inference & Evidence – Who said what – About what – Based on what • Multivocality – Multiple potential narratives – Multiple strands of evidence • Versioning – Currency & Validity Image courtesy of Sophia Yip: sophiayip.com – Change & Propagationhttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 8. Wessex Archaeology Analysis & Interpretation • Semantic clarity • Ontologically mediated search & retrieval • Computer based reasoning; logic applied to existing resources • Distributed systems, aggregation, cross-searching • Graph theory applied to structured data – Stratigraphy • Moving into extra dimensions Image courtesy of Sophia Yip: sophiayip.com – 3D GIS – 4D GIShttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 9. Wessex Archaeology Visualisation: temporal • Structured data opens up • Dynamic views of visualisation potential available evidence vs – The Stratigraphic Matrix as chronology UI – Highlights discrepancies – Visualised any stored – Pinpoints where different (spatial) data through the strands of evidence tell chronological sequence different stories • Graph theory • Result: more explicit, • Graphing applications data driven narratives – Consume XML/RDF representations of site archiveshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 10. Wessex Archaeology Visualisation: 2D plans • Structured data opens up • Dynamic views of visualisation potential available evidence vs – Visualise any stored spatial patterns (spatial) data through – Highlights discrepancies spatial arrangements – Pinpoints where different – Most data can be spatially strands of evidence tell referenced different stories • Sharing & collaborative • Result: more explicit, working data driven narratives – Thinking spacehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 11. Wessex Archaeology Visualisation: 3D • Many potential modes • Wireframes, solids, – Suit different purposes meshes, points, etc • Photorealistic – Generally no need to mesh – Beautiful dissemination – Meshes/solids for specific outputs tasks eg refitting, volumetrics, etc – Lighting models, physics, etc • Web based streaming • Thematic/Schematic – Access to Big Data remotely – Can highlight different properties – Sharing/collaboration – Eg ALS/TLS intensity false • Nifty pseudo 3D colour – eg RTI – Perfect for objects, structures, surfaces, landscapeshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 12. Wessex Archaeology Dissemination & Archives • Archives as living breathing repositories to be used and enhanced – No more dead trees please – No more microfilm in boxes please – No more photographic prints in boxes please • Digital systems as Data Warehouses vs Indices • Leverage emerging/established spatial tech – Standards based infrastructure vs project specific piles • Shared/Community maintenance, access, enhancement • SDI, Social Media, Web2.0, etchttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 13. Wessex Archaeology Where next…? • Currently lots of potential for spatial data – Technologies available – Growing skills in the heritage sector • Photographic data capture techniques – SfM, automated photogrammetry • Overcome obstacles for more integrated GI: – Political will/understanding of technology – Political will/understanding of licensing/copyright – Funding bodies only funding project specific developments not infrastructure/systemic approacheshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 14. Wessex Archaeology Joining it all up: SDI • Many sources of geographic data – Statutory, non-statutory – National, local – Contractors, museums, site archives • Currently disparate – Access restricted – Time wasted transforming/handling data – Versioning & currency – Monetary costs – Licensinghttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 15. Wessex Archaeology Joining it all up: SDI • Massive potential for leveraging technology • Spatial Data Infrastructures – Distributed Systems – Data Warehouses – Web Map/Feature Services – APIs eg HeritageGateway – Pay-as-you-go models • Open Licenses! • Linked Data – eg CRM EH RDF – Semantically enabled – Cross-searchinghttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 16. Wessex Archaeology Joining it all up: SDI • Improved Access – Mashups – Who’s data is it anyway…? – Google Earth/Maps – KML, WMS/WFS, GeoRSS, GML, etc – Professional Access – Contractors – Improved efficiency – Reduced costs • Academic Access – Research potential • Public Access – Links between museum collections, site archives, national/local heritage recordshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 17. Wessex Archaeology Some case studies & exampleshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 18. Wessex Archaeology Unmanned Aerial Vehicles • Range of types – Gyrocopters – Fixed wing • Range of payloads – RGB HD cameras – Multi-spectral imaging sensors • Can be used to provide imagery for photogrammetry – Wide area, high resolution topographic survey – Very cost effective – 3cm resolution DSM or betterhttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 19. Wessex Archaeology Tamworth Castle • Original spec for photogrammetry – Way too expensive!! • Existing laser scan dataset • New photographic survey – Ground & aerial • Combined to produce stone by stone elevation drawings • No need for resurvey – Cost effective • High quality product – Prepared to EH Metric Survey specificationshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 20. Wessex Archaeology Tamworth Castlehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 21. Wessex Archaeology Tamworth Castlehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 22. Wessex Archaeology Sandsfoot Castle • Requirements: – topographic survey of interior & immediate environs including earthworks – Stone by stone elevation drawings as record – Panoramic photography • Restricted access: dangerous structure (crumbly castle on cliff edge!) • TLSCAD+GIS – Drawn elevations – DSM & contourshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 23. Wessex Archaeology Sandsfoot Castlehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 24. Wessex Archaeology Sandsfoot Castlehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 25. Wessex Archaeology Wakehurst Place • National Trust property • Complex external elevations • Drawn elevations, floor plans, etc – Traditional products • Combination approach – Direct & Indirect survey techniques – image based methods (rectified photography, images+scan data) • Survey control network – Closed loop traverse • Located using GNSS – OS map a little out…http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 26. Wessex Archaeology Wakehurst Placehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 27. Wessex Archaeology Salisbury Plain • Monitoring of earthworks – Topographic survey using TLS • Restricted access – Short fieldwork duration required – Weeks for GNSS vs days for TLS • GIS based analysis – DSMs – Derived products; slope – Models of changehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 28. Wessex Archaeology South Wales • 19 airborne LiDAR datasets • 40km2 • 133.5 million data points • 2 surface models Elevation component Intensity component – Unfiltered elevation – Intensity • Transcription of features – NMP stylehttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 29. Wessex Archaeology Tree graffiti • Record and enhance tree graffiti – Historical WWI and WWII graffiti warped by tree growth • Unwrapping & regression – Challenging!http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 30. Wessex Archaeology Stonehenge carvings Left: (top to bottom) stone 3, stone 3 with ‘axes’ highlighted, stone 53 and stone 4 Above: stone 3 lit from below Right: accessibility shadinghttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 31. Wessex Archaeology Integration & Analysis: GIS • Stonehenge Visitor Centre • Environmental Impact Assessment – Modelled proposed structures & tree planting – LiDAR DSM @ 1m resolution – Analysed potential visual impact on >500 archaeological sites – Probablistic viewshed model – As built + 5,10,15yr models – Many many viewsheds!http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 32. Wessex Archaeology Hamdon Hill • Topographic survey of earthworks • Hillfort containing quarry • Combination approach: Laser scanner + GPShttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 33. Wessex Archaeology Tidworth garrison • Record garrison in advance of redevelopment • Visualisation of existing buildings and their context • Used to target further recording works – Direct Survey using (TST) • 0.75 km2 surveyed • 37 buildings • 25 billion measurements • 18Gb data file • 10-25mm effective resolutionhttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 34. Wessex Archaeology Amesbury Archer bones • Morphological analysis of skull – Cross-sections – Measurements – Profileshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 35. Wessex Archaeology Salisbury Plain • R&D in collaboration with Leica • Effectiveness as topographic survey tool where vegetation is present – Automated vegetation removal – Manual workflowshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 36. Wessex Archaeology Ontologies & Semantics • Obviously proceed with easy targets – Leverage eg Google, LinkedData initiatives, etc • But also build on work to date: • CIDOC-CRM – Not aimed at systems design but useful concepts therein – ISO standard • CRM-EH extensions – Extensions to the CIDOC-CRM for archaeological (fieldwork) data – Models big chunk of the archaeological process • Star + Stellar projects – Tools for working with CRM-EH – Broad range of contributors • Ongoing & forthcoming projects – eg KOS representations of thesauri to populate information systemshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.
  • 37. Wessex Archaeology Thanks! • Thanks to: – English Heritage – Archaeoptics For more info: – 3D Laser Mapping www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics – Kubit www.archaeogeomancy.net – LatimerCAD p.cripps@wessexarch.co.uk – Environment Agency – Warner Land Surveys – Leica – Tamworth Borough Council – Weymouth & Portland Borough Council – National Trust – Aspire Defence – Defence Estateshttp://www.wessexarch.co.uk/geomatics Archaeological Computing Research Group seminar. Southampton. May 2012.

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