Wessex Archaeology




               The use of Spatial Technologies
               and digital tools and techniques
    ...
Wessex Archaeology



                               Introduction

        • Process and
          Tools/Techniques
      ...
Wessex Archaeology




                                    Overview
        • Fieldwork                                   ...
Wessex Archaeology




                                     In the trench
        • Pre-ex recording                      ...
Wessex Archaeology




                               In the field (literally)
        • Topographic survey               ...
Wessex Archaeology



          In (and around) historic buildings

        • Metric survey                               ...
Wessex Archaeology




                                     In the office
        •     Excavation data                   ...
Wessex Archaeology




                                   And beyond…
        •     Publication of reports                ...
Wessex Archaeology




                               Putting it all together
        • Nearly all data has a spatial comp...
Wessex Archaeology




                               A common framework
        • To make digital systems work, spatial d...
Wessex Archaeology



                                  Showcases

        • Some exemplars of new technologies
          ...
Wessex Archaeology



                  Archaeological excavations
        • Data born digital on survey
          instrum...
Wessex Archaeology



                                        LiDAR

        • 3D point cloud of x,y,z
          coordinat...
Wessex Archaeology



                           Framework Freeviewer

        • An open source GIS
          viewer
     ...
Wessex Archaeology



                                 Geocommons
        • Place to upload and store spatial data (Finder...
Wessex Archaeology



                  Stonehenge laser scanning

        • Laser scan data can be
          incorporated...
Wessex Archaeology



                                Smartnet GPS
        • Partnership between Ordnance
          Survey...
Wessex Archaeology



                         Stonehenge mobile tour
        • Part of our Outreach activities
        • ...
Wessex Archaeology




                                             fin




                               p.cripps@wessex...
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The use of Spatial Technologies and digital tools and techniques in Archaeology

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A presentation given the MSc students studying Archaeological Computing at the University of Southampton on the subject of spatial technologies in archaeology drawing on the tools and technologies used by Wessex Archaeology and other practitioners of archaeological computing, aimed at giving them an idea of what is and what can be done. Part of a CAA seminar series.

Published in: Education, Technology

The use of Spatial Technologies and digital tools and techniques in Archaeology

  1. 1. Wessex Archaeology The use of Spatial Technologies and digital tools and techniques in Archaeology From trowel tip to publication and beyond… Paul Cripps •Geomatics Manager, Wessex Archaeology •PGR student, University of Southampton, Archaeological Computing Research Group http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  2. 2. Wessex Archaeology Introduction • Process and Tools/Techniques – What we do and the tools we use • No background knowledge required! – Overview of how spatial technologies run through what we do as archaeologists – NOT detailed presentation of technology http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  3. 3. Wessex Archaeology Overview • Fieldwork • CAD & GIS – Excavation recording • Mobile field recording – Field survey – Portable GIS – Buildings recording – Smartnet • In the office • Laser scanning – Post-ex analysis • Web technologies – Grouping & Phasing • Ontologies and data – Desk Based Assessment structures • And beyond… – Publication & Dissemination – Local and national archives http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  4. 4. Wessex Archaeology In the trench • Pre-ex recording • Digital techniques: – GPS survey – Smartnet GPS • Post-ex recording – Robotic Total Station – Drawn plans Theodolite (TST) – GPS survey – Digital context sheets – Photography – Digital photography – Vertical photography – Databases and GIS – Context records – Structured data • Questions of interpretation • Why…? – Access to information – Increased efficiency – Classification – Better access to and sharing of information – Quality data for subsequent processes http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  5. 5. Wessex Archaeology In the field (literally) • Topographic survey • Digital Techniques – Purpose – Topographic Survey • Record known features • Smartnet GPS • Identify new features • Robotic Total Station – Resolution, precision and Theodolite (TST) accuracy • Terrestrial laser scanning • LiDAR • Condition surveys and monitoring – Condition and walkover surveys – Repeatability • Handheld GPS – Systematic • Mobile GIS – Comparable • Why…? • Rapid appraisals – Increased efficiency – Speed and accuracy – Better access to information – Quality data for subsequent processes http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  6. 6. Wessex Archaeology In (and around) historic buildings • Metric survey • Digital techniques – Formal – TST & TheoLT – Accurate – Laser scanning – Elevations – Digital photography – Interiors – Photogrammetry – Perpendicular…? • Traditional stereo- photography • Photographic surveys • Photomodeller – Inventory • Why…? – Baseline – Quality data for subsequent • Condition assessments processes – Repeatability – Accuracy – Systematic – Reduced time in the field but – Comparable more possible outputs with a laser scan http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  7. 7. Wessex Archaeology In the office • Excavation data • Digital technologies – Grouping – Databases • Controlled terminology – Phasing • Summary statistics – Interpretation – GIS • Finds processing • Spatial analysis • Cartography – Dating • Map-based data entry; phasing & – Typologies and classification grouping • Synthesis through spatial component • Environmental – CAD and 3D tools – Typologies and classification • Visualisation • Building surveys • Traditional and novel outputs • Harris Matrix as interface…? – Scale drawings – The internet – 3D models and views • Online resources eg MAGIC • Desk Based Assessment • Why…? – Collation of resources – Access to and sharing of information – Map regression – Better interpretation as a result – Data sources http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  8. 8. Wessex Archaeology And beyond… • Publication of reports • Digital techniques: – Access to accurate, up-to-date – GIS & databases information • Synthesis through spatial – Cartography and figures component • Cartography • Archives • MIDAS compliance and – Metadata interoperability – Local/National repositories • Forum on Information Standards – Standards in Heritage (FISH) wordlists • – The internet Shared resources and access to • Semantic web information • Mapping for all eg GoogleMaps, – Online SMR/HERs Virtual Earth, ArcGIS Server, – National Monuments Record OpenLayers, etc • Portals: Heritage Gateway, ADS, • Potential for exploration and novel Pastscape, Images of England, etc interpretation of existing data • Why…? – Improved quality of data and research (reciprocal) – Public involvement and audiences – Preservation by record http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  9. 9. Wessex Archaeology Putting it all together • Nearly all data has a spatial component or can be related to something which does; a spatial core to archaeological information • Can use digital tools to make best use of this Field Survey Processing and Publication, Repositories Analysis dissemination Building survey and online and archive resources deposition Excavation Post-ex Web-mapping, Web-mapping TST, GPS, databases, ArcGIS, Spatial ArcPublisher, Portable services (WMS/WFS), digital photography, Analyst, AutoCAD, Document Format open formats photomodeller, laser Vue Infinite, Maya, (pdf), open formats (shapefile), semantic scanning, TheoLT databases (shapefile) web http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  10. 10. Wessex Archaeology A common framework • To make digital systems work, spatial data and associated systems must conform to standards – MIDAS, FISH, OGC, CIDOC CRM • Datasets must be adequately described – Metadata – Enables resource discovery • Then we can do magical things  – From survey to report in moments eg Dartmoor – Infinitely reusable point clouds – The rise of GoogleMap mashups – Online Archaeology map (credit: Steve White) http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  11. 11. Wessex Archaeology Showcases • Some exemplars of new technologies – Mixture of work undertaken by Wessex and others • LiDAR – topography and intensity • Web-mapping – Geocommons Maker! and Finder! • Post-ex analysis – The award winning Framework Archaeology Freeviewer and BAA datasets • Laser scanning – Stonehenge • Smartnet – The active GPS network managed by the OS and partners http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  12. 12. Wessex Archaeology Archaeological excavations • Data born digital on survey instruments – Or digitised from permatrace plans • Context records and finds records digitised • Brought together using GIS • Visual inspection of any data by cut/intervention/deposit/group • Detailed geostatistical analysis http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  13. 13. Wessex Archaeology LiDAR • 3D point cloud of x,y,z coordinates – Topographic surface • Plus Intensity; strength of returned laser beam – Surface materials – Moisture content • Massive datasets – Hundreds of millions of points – Resolution 15cm – 2m http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  14. 14. Wessex Archaeology Framework Freeviewer • An open source GIS viewer – Complete application for working with data from Framework Archaeology • Award winning! • Dissemination of additional Framework Archaeology project datasets http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  15. 15. Wessex Archaeology Geocommons • Place to upload and store spatial data (Finder!) – View in GoogleMaps, Virtual Earth – Download as shapefile, KML, etc • Application for making maps and working with spatial data (Maker!) • Sharing and community http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  16. 16. Wessex Archaeology Stonehenge laser scanning • Laser scan data can be incorporated into same spatial framework – GPS/TST control – Topographic survey – Airbourne LiDAR • Visualisation • Surface Analysis – New carvings http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  17. 17. Wessex Archaeology Smartnet GPS • Partnership between Ordnance Survey and GPS providers • High precision (centimetric) GPS – Millimetric with post- processing as required • Differential signals received over GSM/GPRS – No need for base station at known location; turn on and go – Uses active base stations around the country to create virtual baselines http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  18. 18. Wessex Archaeology Stonehenge mobile tour • Part of our Outreach activities • Uses a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file containing stops on the tour – Includes information about each stop on the tour – Includes links to external sources of info eg Wilts SMR and Wikipedia • KML file mounted on the Internet, accessed using web browser on a mobile phone – www.tinyurl.com/shenge • Presented using Google Maps Mobile on mobile devices or Google Earth for larger devices http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008
  19. 19. Wessex Archaeology fin p.cripps@wessexarch.co.uk www.wessexarch.co.uk http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/ Computer Applications in Archaeology Seminar Series, University of Southampton – November 2008

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