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GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
From interoperable to
in...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Introduction
• Backgroun...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Geospatial Semantics
• “...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Linked Geospatial Data
•...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Linked Geospatial Data
•...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Linked Geospatial Data
•...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
LGD for Archaeological R...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
GSTAR
• GeoSemantic Tech...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
GSTAR
• Investigating:
•...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
GSTAR
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Producing LGD
• Leverage...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Using LGD
• Growing numb...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Using LGD – query
• Quer...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Using LGD – results
• Ve...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Using LGD - GSTAR
• Work...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
CASE STUDY
Colonisation ...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Colonisation of Britain
...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Colonisation of Britain ...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
ColonisationofBritainLin...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
CASE STUDY
CRMEHgeo
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
CRMEHgeo
• Integration o...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
CRMEHgeo
crmeh:EHE0007 C...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
CRMEHgeo
• Applied to so...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
CRMEHgeo
• Process desig...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
CONCLUSIONS
From Interop...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Interoperable
• Include ...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Interoperating
• GSTAR D...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Interoperating
• Investi...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Interoperating
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
Acknowledgements
• Thank...
GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015
fin
• paul.cripps@southw...
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From interoperable to interoperating Geosemantic resources; Practical examples of producing and using Linked Geospatial Data (LGD)

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Conference presentation given at Computer Applications in Archaeology 2015, Siena, Italy

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From interoperable to interoperating Geosemantic resources; Practical examples of producing and using Linked Geospatial Data (LGD)

  1. 1. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 From interoperable to interoperating Geosemantic resources Paul Cripps University of South Wales, Trefforest, UK • Hypermedia Research Group • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Research Group Archaeogeomancy, Salisbury, UK http://gstar.archaeogeomancy.net/ PracticalexamplesofproducingandusingLinked GeospatialData(LGD) Douglas Tudhope University of South Wales, Trefforest, UK • Hypermedia Research Group
  2. 2. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Introduction • Background • Geospatial Semantics • Linked Geospatial Data (LGD) • LGD for Archaeological Research • GSTAR • Producing LGD • Using LGD • Case Study: • Colonisation of Britain • Case Study: • CRMEHgeo • Interoperable • Interoperating Earthorama by spdorsey http://flic.kr/p/69C5QD
  3. 3. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Geospatial Semantics • “…research area combining Geographic Information Science (GIScience), spatial databases, cognitive science, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Semantic Web” • Janowicz, K. et al., 2012. • Concept of Linked Geospatial Data (LGD) as means of expressing spatial information
  4. 4. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Linked Geospatial Data • LD including spatial components • Various forms, methods, approaches: • Suit different use cases • ‘Simple’ database, textual, LD approaches • More complex GIS driven approaches • Major research area • W3C + OGC collaboration • Semantic Web / Linked Data community • Geospatial community
  5. 5. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Linked Geospatial Data • Simple LGD: • Placenames • Gazetteers • eg Plaiedes, Geonames, Ordnance Survey • Leverage Linked Data approaches • Coordinates ie point locations • Numbers, text • Leverage numeric approaches • Mapping as points, markers
  6. 6. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Linked Geospatial Data • Advanced LGD: • Geometries • points, lines, polygons, donuts, etc • Relations & Functions • eg Within, Contains, Intersects • eg Buffer • Coordinate Reference Systems (CRS) • Transformations & Projections • Implement OGC standards • WKT, GML, Simple Features • Implement W3C standards • XML, RDF, RDFS, OWL, SPARQL • New OGC+W3C standards • GeoSPARQL
  7. 7. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 LGD for Archaeological Research • Real-world Archaeological Research Questions can be complex: • “Show me a distribution density plot for each Parish in my Study Area of all object records by type from prehistoric sites of type barrow within 500m of a higher than average density of worked flint” • Currently not easy to do… • Disparate sources, including Linked Data • Semantic, Numeric, Spatial
  8. 8. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 GSTAR • GeoSemantic Technologies for Archaeological Research • Doctoral research project • Due for completion April 2016 • Building on: • core CIDOC CRM • CRMEH extension • GeoSPARQL
  9. 9. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 GSTAR • Investigating: • Production of Linked (Geospatial) Data • Working with Linked (Geospatial) Data • For Archaeological research purposes • Use cases: • Archaeological research scenarios (academic, commercial, etc) • How can LGD support real-world research processes? • Using range of data from UK institutions • Wiltshire Museums, Wiltshire Historic Environment Record, English Heritage, Wessex Archaeology, Archaeology Data Service
  10. 10. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 GSTAR
  11. 11. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Producing LGD • Leverage existing ontologies: • To add place identifiers • Placenames, UIDs, Coordinates • CIDOC CRM: Place Appellation identifies Place • To add depictions • Geometries • GeoSPARQL: Feature has Geometry (asWKT, asGML) • CSV, rDBMS, shp, gdb, xml pipelines •  RDF, Turtle •  Triplestore
  12. 12. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Using LGD • Growing number of tools, platforms • Data storage • Processing • Visualisation • Spatially enabled triple stores • eg Parliament, Oracle, etc • Web Services to handle data • Libraries for processing, conversions, parsing, mapping, etc
  13. 13. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Using LGD – query • Query using SPARQL • Query using GeoSPARQL • Extension of SPARQL; same syntax • Compliant endpoints • Wrappers, APIs, etc • Maps!
  14. 14. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Using LGD – results • Very flexible; many options • Not always so straightforward… • Bigger Toolbox: LD stack + FOSS webgis stack • Ontologies, Java, Jena, Joseki/Fuseki, GeoTools, Jetty, Parliament, OpenLayers, GeoServer, etc • RDF, JSON, XML, etc for use in applications • Use XSLT/HTML/CSS/PHP etc • Text, tables, images, etc • Use WFS/GML/WKT/GeoJSON etc • Web Maps
  15. 15. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Using LGD - GSTAR • Working GeoSPARQL endpoint! • Parliament • Source data Linked Geospatial Data • Interoperating geosemantic resources • Ongoing: Building web page to house a querying/browsing/results interface • Linked Data widgets from HeritageData.org • Map based interface • Visualisations • Capture query polygon  GeoSPARQL query
  16. 16. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 CASE STUDY Colonisation of Britain
  17. 17. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Colonisation of Britain • Digitisation project • Undertaken by Wessex Archaeology • Funded by English Heritage • Deposited with Archaeology Data Service • Linked Data component • Outputs represented as Linked Data • Uses CIDOC CRM • Now online at ADS
  18. 18. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Colonisation of Britain - geo • Names of Places • UK administrative areas • Parish, County • Incorporates Ordnance Survey Open Data • Processed using Open Refine + OS API • Potential to extend further by adding GeoSPARQL nodes • eg to add actual Parish boundaries
  19. 19. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 ColonisationofBritainLinkedData Wessex Archaeology, Archaeology Data Service Linked Data resource built using STELLAR Toolkit including Ordnance Survey Open Data
  20. 20. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 CASE STUDY CRMEHgeo
  21. 21. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 CRMEHgeo • Integration of CRMEH + GeoSPARQL • Uses RDFS subClass & subProperty • CRMEH classes inherit from CIDOC CRM & GeoSPARQL • Basic, lightweight solution cf eg CRMgeo • But more limited in scope • Can also be applied to parent CRM classes • Integration of CIDOC CRM + GeoSPARQL
  22. 22. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 CRMEHgeo crmeh:EHE0007 Context crmeh:EHE0022 ContextDepiction crmeh:EHP4i is depicted by geo:Feature geo:hasGeometry rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:subPropertyOf sf:Polygon rdfs:isA Instance of WKT Literal geo:asWKT RDFS GeoSPARQLSimple FeaturesCRMEH crm:E53 Place crm:E44 Place Appellation crm:p87 is identified by rdfs:subPropertyOf rdfs:subClassOfrdfs:subClassOf CIDOC CRM
  23. 23. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 CRMEHgeo • Applied to source data for GSTAR • Sources  QGIS, STELLAR Toolkit  Parliament • Museum Collections • MODES  XML  RDF + WKT • Historic Environment Records • HBSMR  Esri GDB, MS Access  RDF + WKT • Commercial Archaeology Unit • Databases/GIS  Txt, MS Access, Shp  RDF + WKT
  24. 24. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 CRMEHgeo • Process designed for GSTAR • Compilation of LGD resource to answer PhD research questions • Wider applicability • Source repo  STELLAR etc  LGD repo • Entirely FOSS • Scriptable, batchable • Potential route to enable existing resources…?
  25. 25. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 CONCLUSIONS From Interoperable to Interoperating
  26. 26. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Interoperable • Include CoB data in OS web map apps • eg Distribution plans: display artefact densities by administrative area • eg Location plans: show in resources regarding artefact types where examples have been found • Data is online, licensed & accessible • So interoperable • no tech, political barriers to interoperating…
  27. 27. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Interoperating • GSTAR Demonstrator (in development) • Data Layer complete • Application Layers in progress • Present a range of queries relating actual use cases: • Real world research questions • Input from domain specialists • Integrate multiple sources • Inference: generation of relationships using spatial components of sources • Query via web map • Present data via web map
  28. 28. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Interoperating • Investigating archaeological research questions • Start with questions: • eg Show me a distribution density plot for each Parish in Study Area of all object records by object type from prehistoric sites of type barrow within 500m of a higher than average density of worked flint • Express as Queries • GeoSPARQL • Visualise results, think, do • Integration of cultural heritage resources: • Object Records from Museum Collection • Site location, dating and classification from HER • Fieldwalking data from commercial contractor • User Generated input • Spatial operators • Numeric operators • Sources • Web mapping APIs, Linked Data APIs
  29. 29. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Interoperating
  30. 30. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 Acknowledgements • Thanks to: • University of South Wales – funding, supervision, advice • Archaeology Data Service – data from their archives • Wessex Archaeology – data, photographs and images • Wiltshire Council – access to the Historic Environment Record (HER) data • Wiltshire Museums – access to museum collections data • Personal thanks • Supervisors/Advisors: Doug Tudhope, Mark Ware, Alex Lohfink • Research group: Ceri Binding, Andreas Vlachidis, Keith May • Peers and colleagues: Michael Charno, Chris Brayne, Gerald Heibel, David Dawson • Image Credit • Earthorama by spdorsey http://flic.kr/p/69C5QD
  31. 31. GSTAR – Computer Application & Quantitative Methods in Archaeology 2015 – Siena, March-April 2015 fin • paul.cripps@southwales.ac.uk • paul@archaeogeomancy.net • @pauljcripps • gstar.archaeogeomancy.net • hypermedia.research.southwales.ac.uk • gis.research.southwales.ac.uk

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