Linked Data : Cataloguing and a World Wide Web of Data


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Presentation given at UCL Library Services Staff Conference 2014, 11 July 2014.

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  • I intend to look at
    what linked data is
    What it looks like
    In particular, how it might affect cataloguing
    NB. It is not a cataloguing standard. It is not even a library standard.
  • A URL is basically an address. A URI is an identifier. There are lots of different sorts (URNs, ftp, etc.).
    A http URI is one kind, and the basis of the web. WEB OF DATA (not to be confused with the Web of Things, e.g. fridges)
    Whereas people can benefit from HTML and well writtten content, computers need structure, and this structure is provided by RDF.
    Links made the web of documents more powerful and do the same for the web of data.
    Concentrate on RDF
  • An English sentence
  • Two entities and a relationship
  • This is a basic triple (spread over three lines), the basis of all RDF, no matter how complex it gets.
    Note that this triple stands on its own. There is no need for it to be part of MARC as the equivalent MARC does!
  • There are many ways to write triples out depending on who or what needs to write or read them. Most computers can read them all. Turtle is one of the easier ones for humans to read.
  • Almost always these are mixed together. is a simple but powerful one designed for adding to web pages. Moves away from search engines having to index text and document formatting towards them understanding what a web page is all about.
  • A Worldcat page
  • The bottom of a web page shows the tags embedded within it.
  • This is what a small sample of the the underlying RDF looks like.
    Note the formal statements made at the top.
    Links to external resources. Means we can follow these links and find more information.
  • More assertions are made using the VIAF URI, in this case giving the actual name as a string.
  • For comparison this is the British Library data model.
    Reused existing vocabularies!
  • Again, re-used existing vocabularies, except where there was nothing to fit.
    Again, links to external resources as well as giving the text of the person's name.
  • A selection of prominent libraries that have published catalogue data as linked data.
    All different ways of doing things. Of note in particular is that the Oslo Public Library is using linked data, not merely converting. The European Library data includes all the RLUK data found on COPAC! Their model includes a number of elements from the RDA registry.
    The Oslo and Swedish examples are notable in that linked data are used in their processes, i.e. not just as a big conversion.
  • Where does cataloguing fit into all this?
    When US national and major university libraries starting testing RDA, they found that MARC21 really couldn't handle it so made progress towards a replacement one of their less humiliating conditions to implementing RDA.
  • The Library of Congress implemented the Bibliographic Framework Initiative (BIBFRAME). Aided by consultants Zepheira and some early experimenters (including the BL although no longer).
  • BIBFRAME has its own model
    Bears some similarity to the FRBR model.
  • This is a theoretical example, imagining that we have a linked data server set up.
  • Notice how all the properties are BIBFRAME-specific. BIBFRAME is very like this, unusually so, arguably for reasons of security and control. also is but is much less ambitious or complicated.
    None of this is supported by library systems, and that is part of the point! MARC locks us into library-specific specialised software. Using linked data frees us, at least in theory. There is the danger with BIBFRAME being such an 'official' standard that this is what everyone will follow. Not necessarily a good thing.
  • TOY 1: An editor. Bibframe have produced this as a means of getting Bibframe into systems to be played with without having to convert from MARC records. A good toy!
  • TOY 2. A simple use of linked data to navigate between different, utterly separate sources of data, via a third.
  • Ta da
    Thank you
    Any questions?
  • Linked Data : Cataloguing and a World Wide Web of Data

    1. 1. Linked data : cataloguing and a world wide web of data UCL Library Services Staff Conference 2014 11 July 2014 Thomas Meehan
    2. 2. 1. Use URIs as names for things 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL) 4. Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. Tim Berners-Lee (2006) Linked Open Data
    3. 3. Brideshead Revisited was written by Evelyn Waugh.
    4. 4. Brideshead Revisited created by Evelyn Waugh
    5. 5. RDF <> <> <> .
    6. 6. RDF (Turtle) @prefix lc_names: <> . @prefix lc_languages: <> . @prefix dc: <> . lc_names:no97080492 dc:creator lc_names:n79049248 ; dc:created "1945" ; dc:extent "1 volume" ; dc:language lc_languages:eng ; dc:title "Brideshead revisited" ; dc:type <> .
    7. 7. vs
    8. 8. Linked Data in the Wild BBC major events (e.g. World Cup) Dbpedia GeoNames Ordnance Survey Europeana
    9. 9. Common Linked Data Vocabularies RDFS (RDF Schema) – basic data modelling OWL (Web Ontology Language) – ontologies SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System) - thesauri Dublin Core – cultural things FOAF (Friend of a Friend) – people GeoNames - places GoodRelations – commercial things – anything, often embedded in web pages
    10. 10. model <> schema:creator <> .
    11. 11. model <> schema:name "Waugh, Evelyn, 1903-1966" .
    12. 12. British Library model (used for the BNB) <> dct:creator <> .
    13. 13. British Library model (used for the BNB) <> rdfs:label "Waugh, Evelyn, 1903-1966" ; owl:sameAs <> .
    14. 14. Library Linked Data in the Wild Bibliothèque national de France British National Bibliography Cambridge University European Library (includes RLUK data!) Oslo Public Library Swedish National Library
    15. 15. Library Linked Data Vocabularies Dublin Core (again) BIBO RDA BNB Data Model Europeana Data Model (including Bib Extend) BIBFRAME
    16. 16. Changes in Cataloguing ISBD | AACR2 | MARC FRBR | RDA | MARC?
    17. 17. Changes in Cataloguing ISBD | AACR2 | MARC FRBR | RDA | BIBFRAME?
    18. 18. BIBFRAME model
    19. 19. BIBFRAME model <> bf:creator <> .
    20. 20. BIBFRAME model <> bf:authorizedAccessPoint "Waugh, Evelyn, 1903-1966" ; bf:hasAuthority <> .
    21. 21. Editing Catalogue Records Data
    22. 22. Going from Wikipedia to a Catalogue Search 1. “Francis Bacon” (Wikipedia) 2. (VIAF) 3. “Bacon, Francis, 1561-1626” (LC Authorities) 4. UCL Explore search 1. “Francis Bacon (artist)” (Wikipedia) 2. (VIAF) 3. “Bacon, Francis, 1909-1992” (LC Authorities) 4. UCL Explore search
    23. 23. University of Southampton Linked Open Data Map
    24. 24. References Bartlett, Oliver. Linked Data: Connecting together the BBC's Online Content. 2013. Berners-Lee, Tim., Linked Data: Design Issues. W3C, 2006. Bibliothèque national de France. Semantic Web and Data Model. British Library. Free Data Services. Linked Open BNB. Dbpedia. DCMI. DCMI Terms. 2014. The European Library. About The European Library datasets. Europeana. Linked Data. FOAF Project. FOAF Documentations. GeoNames. GeoNames Ontology. Hepp, Martin. GoodRelations: the Professional Web Vocabulary for E-Commerce. Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC). RDA Registry. Kungliga biblioteket. LIBRIS-enheten. LIBRIS Available as Linked Data. 2008. Library of Congress. BIBFRAME: Bibliographic Framework Initiative. Library of Congress. LC Linked Data Service: Authorities and Vocabularies. Meehan, Thomas. Bookmarklet for searching catalogues from Wikipedia.
    25. 25. OCLC. VIAF (Virtual Online Authority File). OCLC. Worldcat. Ordnance Survey. Ordnance Survey Linked Data Platform. Rekkavik, Asgeir. RDF Linked data cataloguing at Oslo Public Library. 2014. library/ Structured Dynamics. Bibliographic Ontology Specification. 2009. University of Cambridge. University of Southampton. University of Southampton Linked Open Data Map. W3C. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview . 2nd Edition. 2012. W3C. RDF Schema 1.1. W3C. RDF Working Group. RDF: Semantic Web Standards.. W3C. SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System.
    26. 26. Linked data : cataloguing and a world wide web of data UCL Library Services Staff Conference 2014 11 July 2014 Thomas Meehan