11.17.08: Clinical Features of Visual and Ocular Motor Disorders

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11.17.08: Clinical Features of Visual and Ocular Motor Disorders

  1. 1. Author(s): Jonathan D. Trobe, M.D.License: Unless otherwise noted, this material is made availableunder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/We have reviewed this material in accordance with U.S. Copyright Law and have tried to maximizeyour ability to use, share, and adapt it. The citation key on the following slide provides informationabout how you may share and adapt this material.Copyright holders of content included in this material should contact open.michigan@umich.edu withany questions, corrections, or clarification regarding the use of content.For more information about how to cite these materials visit http://open.umich.edu/education/about/terms-of-use.Any medical information in this material is intended to inform and educate and is not a tool for self-diagnosis or a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcareprofessional. Please speak to your physician if you have questions about your medical condition.Viewer discretion is advised: Some medical content is graphic and may not be suitable for allviewers.
  2. 2. Citation Key for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicyUse + Share + Adapt { Content the copyright holder, author, or law permits you to use, share and adapt. } Public Domain – Government: Works that are produced by the U.S. Government. (USC 17 § 105) Public Domain – Expired: Works that are no longer protected due to an expired copyright term. Public Domain – Self Dedicated: Works that a copyright holder has dedicated to the public domain. Creative Commons – Zero Waiver Creative Commons – Attribution License Creative Commons – Attribution Share Alike License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial License Creative Commons – Attribution Noncommercial Share Alike License GNU – Free Documentation LicenseMake Your Own Assessment { Content Open.Michigan believes can be used, shared, and adapted because it is ineligible for copyright. } Public Domain – Ineligible: Works that are ineligible for copyright protection in the U.S. (USC 17 § 102(b)) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ{ Content Open.Michigan has used under a Fair Use determination. } Fair Use: Use of works that is determined to be Fair consistent with the U.S. Copyright Act. (USC 17 § 107) *laws in your jurisdiction may differ Our determination DOES NOT mean that all uses of this 3rd-party content are Fair Uses and we DO NOT guarantee that your use of the content is Fair. To use this content you should do your own independent analysis to determine whether or not your use will be Fair.
  3. 3. CLINICAL FEATURES OF VISUAL AND OCULAR MOTOR DISORDERS Jonathan D. Trobe, MD Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology University of Michigan Medical SchoolFall, 2008
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  14. 14. Image of a doctorperforming a visualfield exam was removed.
  15. 15. Image of a doctorperforming an eyeexam was removed.
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  30. 30. Ocular Motor System1. Move the Eyes from One Equidistant Target to Another ( Saccades )2. Move the Eyes from Distant to Near Target or Vice Versa ( Vergence )3. Keep the Eyes on Target When the Target Moves ( Pursuit )4. Keep the Eyes on Target When the Head Moves ( Vestibulo-ocular )
  31. 31. Saccades1. Voluntary a. Move eyes to target seen in peripheral field ( visually guided ) b. Move eyes to unseen target ( non visually guided )2. Involuntary a. Rapid eye movements of sleep b. Fast phases of nystagmus c. Random
  32. 32. Saccades Test by having patient fixate a stationary target and then look from one target to anotherNote whether eyes are still during fixation, and note speed, amplitude, accuracy of refixations, and if oscillations are present
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  37. 37. Saccadic Disorders1.  Absent (gaze palsy)2.  Reduced amplitude ( hypometric )3.  Slow4.  Inaccurate ( dysmetric )5.  Intrusive
  38. 38. Vergence1. Move eyes closer to one another ( convergence )2. Move eyes farther apart from one another ( divergence )
  39. 39. VergenceTest by measuring ocular alignment when eyes are focusing on a distant and on a near target
  40. 40. Vergence Pathway1.  Generated in both parieto-occipital regions2.  Travels to midbrain3.  Exact pathway not known
  41. 41. Vergence Disorders•  Excessive convergence•  Insufficient convergence•  Excessive divergence•  Insufficient divergence
  42. 42. Vergence Disorders1. Excessive convergence a. Congenital defect b. Too much accommodation c. Loss of vision d. Nonspecific brain insult2. Insufficient convergence a. Idiopathic b. Nonspecific brain insult
  43. 43. Vergence Disorders1.  Excessive Divergence a. Congenital defect b. Loss of vision2. Insufficient Divergence a. Nonspecific brain insult
  44. 44. Pursuit Test by having patient followa moving light or finger at about 30 degrees/ second Note smoothness of motion, amplitude of excursion, presence of oscillations
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  46. 46. Pursuit Disorders1.  Cogwheel ( saccadic )2.  Absent
  47. 47. Vestibulo-ocularIn awake patients with intact voluntary eye movements, can test only with special techniques
  48. 48. Vestibulo-ocularIn comatose patients and in awake patients with poor voluntary eye movements, two tests: 1. Doll s Head Maneuver. Move head rapidly and look for slow contraversive conjugate eye movements 2. Cold Water Calorics. Look for ipsiversive slow conjugate eye movements and perhaps contraversive involuntary saccades ( nystagmus )
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  50. 50. Vestibulo-ocular Disorders•  General hypofunction (creates oscillopsia)•  Imbalance (creates nystagmus)
  51. 51. Supranuclear Gaze Palsy•  Absent voluntary gaze (saccades and pursuit)•  Intact reflex gaze (vestibulo-ocular), elicited by Doll s Head Maneuver or Cold Water Calorics•  Means that brain stem gaze pathways are intact but cerebral gaze pathways are not intact
  52. 52. Additional Source Information for more information see: http://open.umich.edu/wiki/CitationPolicySlide 4 – Source UndeterminedSlide 5 – Source UndeterminedSlide 6 – Mountain View Nikki Selewski Creative Commons Attribution Licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/Slide 7 – Blurry Mountain View Nikki Selewski Creative Commons Attribution Licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/Slide 8 – Source UndeterminedSlide 9 – Source UndeterminedSlide 10 – Source UndeterminedSlide 11 – Source UndeterminedSlide 12 – Obstructed Mountain View Nikki Selewski Creative Commons Attribution Licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/Slide 13 – Half of a Mountain View Nikki Selewski Creative Commons Attribution Licensehttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/Slide 16 – Source UndeterminedSlide 17 – Source UndeterminedSlide 18 – Source UndeterminedSlide 19 – Source UndeterminedSlide 20 – Source UndeterminedSlide 21 – Source UndeterminedSlide 22 – Source UndeterminedSlide 23 – Source Undetermined
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