AED 1313AED 1313
INTRO. TO BUILT ENVIRONMENTINTRO. TO BUILT ENVIRONMENT
Semester 1, 2013/2014Semester 1, 2013/2014
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENTENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
AND ISSUESAND ISSUES
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN, CENTRE FOR
FOUNDATION STUDIES, IIUM, PETALING JAYA
“A community which takes satan rather than Allah as its patron and assault nature to the extend of
altering Allah's creation, will face obvious and tangible loss and its ultimate abode will be (an
environmental) hell from which it will find no escape.”
WHAT IS POLLUTION ?
The word comes from Latin word ”POLLUTUS’ which means MADE
FOUL, UNCLEAN or DIRTY
Anything added to air, water, soil, or food that threatens the health, survival
capability, or activities of living things.
Material that causes pollution is called pollutants
Definition from EQA (Act 127)
Any direct or indirect alteration of the physical, thermal, chemical or biological
properties of any part of the environment
by discharging, emitting or depositing environmentally hazardous
substances, pollutants or wastes, so as to affect any beneficial use adversely , to
cause a condition that is hazardous or potentially hazardous to public health,
safety or welfare, or to animals, birds, wildlife, fish or aquatic life, or to plants
or to cause contravention of any condition, limitation or restriction to which a
license under this Act is subject.
WATER POLLUTIONWATER POLLUTION
““Any physical, biological or chemical change in water quality thatAny physical, biological or chemical change in water quality that
adversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable foradversely affects living organisms or makes water unsuitable for
desired uses”desired uses”
(Saigo, Cunningham, Environmental science, Mc Graw- Hill)(Saigo, Cunningham, Environmental science, Mc Graw- Hill)
WATER POLLUTION IS MAINLY CAUSED BY:
Marine pollution – oil spill
SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
1. POINT SOURCES OF WATER
Discharge of pollution from specific
Identifiable because it comes from
Can be monitored / regulated
E.g. Industrial discharge (wastewater,
chemicals, factories) and sewage
treatment plants that emit fluids of
varying quality directly into water supply.
2. NON – POINT SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION
Cannot be traced into any one point of discharge.
Very hard to monitor
Eg. Agriculture runoff ( chemicals, pesticides, sediments) urban
runoff, roadway runoff.
EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION TO THE ENVIRONMENT
Human health – poisoning from drinking water of untreated sewage, poisonous
food animals where they accumulate toxin from environment and human
consume these food.
Unbalanced river / lake ecosystems that can no longer support full biological
Deforestation from acid rain
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
1. Point sources solution
Divert effluent from the waste streams and treat or filter it before it
enters the environment.
e.g. septic tank, primary & secondary sewage treatment
2. Non point sources solution
- Harvesting excessive plant growth;
unwanted weeds can be eliminated by chemical treatments.
- Construction and mining sites- sediment traps, destabilize the exposed area
with grass immediately
- Preserving wetlands
- Encourage to recycle waste oil and to minimize use of
fertilizers and pesticides.
- Regular street sweeping - reduce contaminants
- Applying precisely determined amounts of fertilizers
- Use slow-release fertilizers
- Plant buffer zones of permanent vegetation between cultivated field and
nearby surface water
The air pollution have been predicted in the Quran:
“Watch for the day when the sky will bring forth visible smoke that will engulf.”
Substances which, when presents in
the atmosphere can adversely affect
the health of humans, animals and
plants or microbial life, damage
materials or interfere with the
enjoyment of life and the use of
WHAT IS AIR POLLUTANTS?
Chemical or physical changes brought about by either natural processes or human activities,
resulting in air quality degradation.
SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION
Volcanoes erupt ash, acid mists, hydrogen sulfide and other toxic gases
Forest fire creates cloud of smoke into the air
Human-caused air pollution
Effects and Causes of Air
Polluted air can cause health problems
and damage to the environment such
Health problems affecting all living
Thinning of the ozone layer in the
Emission control devices
Raise parking fees
Using particular removal such as bag filter and electronic
Stationary fuel combustion
Oil companies are required to offer alternative fuels, such as
methanol or ethanol, hydrogen or compressed natural gas.
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
In mid-August 2005 several locations in
mainland Malaysia declared air quality
emergencies as smoke from burning in
Indonesia wafted across the Strait of
Malacca and blanketed the country with
This image, created using data collected by
the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)
on NASA’s Aura satellite, shows the
density of the smoke on August 10, 2005.
Red-colored areas show where smoke was
AIR POLLUTION CASE
NOISE POLLUTIONNOISE POLLUTION
WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION?
Sounds that are often annoys us, unpleasant or
Noise PollutionNoise Pollution
Noise and sound are measured in decibels.
A decibel number of 65, for example, would cause distraction and is considered
“intrusive.” This is about the level of your average, everyday traffic.
80 decibels is considered annoying and is approximately the loudness of an alarm
clock. Neither one of these is dangerous to your hearing, but can impair your ability to
A decibel level of around 88 would occur in city traffic or in industrial work.
Individuals exposed to this noise level for a lengthy period of time may experience
actual hearing damage.
Once the decibel level goes above 80, prolonged exposure such as eight hours or more
may cause increased tension, fatigue, changes in breathing, blood circulation and of
course, loss of hearing.
Sound at the level of 135 decibels is beyond annoying and intrusive, it becomes simply
painful and can damage your hearing. A pneumatic drill would cause a sound like this.
1. Transport noise
Road noise comes from cars, buses, lorries, van & motorbike.
2. Social noise
Neighborhood noise- Amplified music, dogs, domestic activities, car
3. Industrial noise
From factory or by building works. - much more problem to people
working in a factory, will suffer permanent hearing damage and report
annoyance from general public.
NOISE POLLUTION SOLUTION
Sound reflector wall that are :
a) High concrete wall or
b) Louvered wall to be built between residential area and highway road as a reflector.
Bumper as to avoid racing along special road or residential area.
Planting zone as a barrier between spaces
Social noise -neighborhood
Layout housing arrangement for car parking spaces, resident have to few minutes
walk away from residential area.
Landscape design such as planting, fountain to avoid hearing noise from road
Double glazing and better insulated walls to reduce noise
Zoning and planning layout by following the guidelines of government
Finding a new technology on machine by engineers to avoid noise
Precision Machinery Enclosure
Low Decibel Room
High noise machinery enclosure (From130dBA,
reduced to Below 80dBA)
There are no passengers on
Spaceship Earth. We are all crew
DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING:
What is Environmental
It is about how human beings
should relate to their
environment, how to use Earth’s
resources, and how to treat other
species, both plant and animal.
1. Take from the environment – only resource needed
for human life.
2. Modify the environment – only when the present
environment is not conducive for human
2. Protects the public health – preserve the
environment from deterioration.
3. Conserve renewable resources – planned and
4. Preserve special environment – nature reserve e.g.
Kuala Gula, Hutan Belum, Gua Niah, Bukit
Cherakah, Taman Negara, Tasik Bera, etc.
5. Protect special habitats – protect special animals,
protect endangered species.
6. Protect the integrity of the global ecosystem –
without it people won’t survive.
3 primary theories of moral responsibility regarding the environment:
1. Anthropocentric (human-centered)
- a theory of moral responsibility that views the environment
as a resource for humankind.
2. Biocentric (life-centered)
- a theory of moral responsibility that states that all forms of
life have an inherent right to exist. Human have no right to
reduce the richness and diversity except to satisfy vital needs.
Living simple in means and co-exist with the rest of nature.
- an approach to environmental responsibility that
maintains that the environment deserves direct moral
consideration rather than consideration derived merely
from human interests.
WHY ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS
Our natural resources are limited.
We are part of the environment.
-every living thing is interrelated
-concept of carrying capacity
We must understand and cooperate
Our action must be ecological sound.
Inculcation of Environmental Ethics
Education – formal
Promoting models of