SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 112
Download to read offline
Chapter-1
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
The term environment is derived from a French word environner
which means ‘surrounding’. It refers to an aggregate of all conditions
that affect the existence, growth, and welfare of an organism or a
group of organisms.
Environment is the sum total of all social, economical, biological,
physical, and chemical factors which constitute the surroundings of
humans, who are both creators and moulders of the environment.
Definitions
Environment is the sum total of influences which modify and
determine the development of life and its associated characteristics.
The elements of environments are interconnected to each other in a
complicated way (spider web) : disturbance of one element will affect the other
one.
The elements of environments are interconnected to each other in a
complicated way (spider web) : disturbance of one element will affect the other
one.
Components of Environment
The components of environment are broadly classified as abiotic and
biotic components.
Abiotic or non-living components of environment include all the
physical and chemical factors that influence living organisms.
Examples of abiotic components are air, water, soil, rocks, etc.
Biotic or living components are the living components of
environment and include microbes, plants, animals, and human
beings.
Biotic Components
Abiotic Components
Types of Environment
Natural Environment
Man-Made Environment
•Lithosphere:
Crust: < 1% (Thin)
Everest: 8.85 km
Mantle, Cores
•Hydrosphere:
(oceans, sea, rivers)
•Atmosphere:
~1%:
30 km (99% of air)
extends to 120 km
•Biosphere: All life
Planet Earth: Segments of Environment
Environmental Studies
Environmental Studies refers to the study of the environment. It is
not restricted to the point of view of one particular discipline but
involves all disciplines that may affect the environment in any
possible way.
It involves the study and understanding of the fact that even a single
phenomenon can affect the environment in a variety of ways with
varying degrees of complexity, and each of these effects can be
understood from different perspectives rooted in different
disciplines.
Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies
Environmental Studies requires skills that encompass a range of
disciplines including chemistry, biology, earth sciences, atmospheric
science, statistics, mathematics, and geography.
Importance of Environmental Studies
 Environmental Studies is useful in checking environmental pollution and
related solutions.
 It helps in maintaining ecological balance.
 It helps to gain skills to assess the environmental impact of human
activities. Environmental study will help to protect biodiversity.
 It gives us basic knowledge of environment and associated problems.
 It helps to achieve sustainable development .
 It helps to educate people regarding their duties towards the protection
of environment.
 The knowledge of environmental science will be applied to the study of
agriculture.
Need for Public Awareness
 Earth’s resources are dwindling and our environment is being
increasingly degraded by human activities and hence
something needs to be done.
 Government alone cannot perform all the clean-up functions.
 Individual/group efforts in their own every possible way has to
be made to protect our environment.
 Mass public awareness: newspapers, radio, television strongly
influences public opinion on conserving our environment.
Methods for Public Awareness
 Environmental education
 Through media
 Through organizing seminars & conferences
 Entertainment
 Science centers
 Involvement of youth
 Through print, broadcast and internet
ECOLOGY
How does “Environment” differ from “Ecology”
Ecology
(Greek word: Okologie; meaning: “place to live”)
“Physical, biological and socio cultural adaptations”
Branch of science that deals with the scientific study of the
interrelationships between living organisms with respect to
each other and to their surroundings.
Sustainable Development
The concept of sustainable development can be interpreted in many different
ways, but at its core is an approach to development that looks to balance
different, and often competing, needs against an awareness of the
environmental, social and economic limitations we face as a society.
All too often, development is driven by one particular need, without fully
considering the wider or future impacts. We are already seeing the damage this
kind of approach can cause, from large-scale financial crises caused by
irresponsible banking, to changes in global climate resulting from our
dependence on fossil fuel-based energy sources.
The term sustainable development refers
to the development that meets the needs
of the present without compromising the
ability of the future generations to meet
their own needs.
Measures for Sustainable Development
Effective planning for population control
Reducing per capita demand of natural resources
Using efficient technological devices
Following the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycling) approach
Promoting environmental awareness through education
Effective planning for regeneration of natural resources
Sustainable Building Materials: Approach
Green buildings
Green building (also known as eco buildings or sustainable
building) refers to a structure and using process that is
environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a
building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction,
operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition.
Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources
Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity
Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation.
Objective of green buildings
Designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment
on human health and the natural environment
Environmental benefits
Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems
Improve air and water quality
Reduce waste streams
Conserve and restore natural resources
Economic benefits
Reduce operating costs
Create, expand, and shape markets for green product and services
Improve occupant productivity
Optimize life-cycle economic performance
Social benefits
Enhance occupant comfort and health
Heighten aesthetic qualities
Minimize strain on local infrastructure
Improve overall quality of life
Potential benefits of green building
Why Build Green? merits of green building
Classification of Natural Resources
Resources whose continual harvest is possible with proper planning
and management, such as plants, animals, solar energy, wind energy,
etc., are known as renewable resources. (They can renew
themselves, provided they are not over harvested).
Renewable Resources
Those resources which once gone have very little chance of recovery
or resynthesis are called non-renewable resources. Examples of non-
renewable resources are coal, minerals, and petroleum. (Total stock is
limited).
Non-renewable Resources
Our natural resources
 water
 forest
 energy
 land
 food
 minerals
The rainforest in Fatu-Hiva, in Marquesas Islands is an example of
an undisturbed natural resource. Forest provides timber for
humans; food and shelter for flora and the fauna. The nutrient
cycle between organisms form food chains and biodiversity of
species.
The Carson Fall in
Mount Kinabalu, Malaysia is
an example of undisturbed
natural resource. Waterfalls
provide spring water for
humans, animals and plants
for survival and also habitat
for marine organisms. The
water current can be used to
turn turbines or
hydroelectric generation.
The ocean is an example of a natural resource. Ocean waves can
be used to generate wave power which is a renewable energy.
Ocean water is important for salt production and providing
habitat for deep water fishes. There are biodiversity of marine
species in the sea where nutrient cycles are common.
Wind is a natural resource that
can be used to generate
electricity, as with these 5MW
wind turbines in
Thorntonbank Wind Farm
28 km (17 mile) off the coast of
Belgium
Natural ResourcesNatural Resources UsesUses
Air (Wind)Air (Wind) Required for all living things for breathing, Use toRequired for all living things for breathing, Use to
produce wind energy.produce wind energy.
Animals / PlantsAnimals / Plants Provide food, cloth, shelter, medicine. Used as modeProvide food, cloth, shelter, medicine. Used as mode
of transport. Animal dung can be used asof transport. Animal dung can be used as
fuel/fertilizer.fuel/fertilizer.
SoilSoil Used as the primary nutrient source for plants. It isUsed as the primary nutrient source for plants. It is
the habitat of many organisms.the habitat of many organisms.
Solar LightSolar Light Provide light, energy and help to plants for makingProvide light, energy and help to plants for making
their foodstheir foods
Wood / TreeWood / Tree Used as construction material. Used to makeUsed as construction material. Used to make
utensils, furniture and sporting equipments.utensils, furniture and sporting equipments.
WaterWater Used in household, agriculture and transportation.Used in household, agriculture and transportation.
Examples of Renewable Resources
solar energy
Hybrid Of Wind And Solar energy
Biomass Energy
 COAL
 OIL
 NATURAL GAS
 OIL SHALE AND TAR SANDS
 NUCLEAR POWER
Over 85% of the energy used in the world is from non-
renewable supplies
Most developed nations are dependent on non-renewable
energy sources such as fossil fuels (coal and oil) and nuclear
power.
Industrialized societies depend on non-renewable energy
sources.
Examples of Non-renewable Resources
Land Resources
The Importance of Land
 The human civilization has thrived on land.
 Land is used for agriculture.
 Land contains huge amount of mineral deposits.
 It also contains water in the form of underground water.
 Most of the animals find their habitat on land.
 Land directly or indirectly provides all the resources required to
fulfil the basic needs of humans: food, cloth, and shelter.
Soil profile
 Soil profile is a vertical cross section from surface down to the
parent materials. A well- developed soil profile shows distinct
horizons.
 The three major horizons are A, B, and C horizons. Horizons are
sometimes also called zones.
 The soil profile is important tool for nutrient management and soil
fertility.
 Decomposition of weathers and organic matter, profile of the soil
changes.
 The soil profile is made of distinct layers , known as horizons.
 Five most common horizons are collectively known as master
horizons.
 Study of soil profile is essential for proposed the soil structure and
for technical descriptions.
Horizons in Soil profile
Functions of Soil
Role in nutrient cycles
In agriculture
Regulate the water
Regulate the emissions of gases
Degrade pollutants and filter ground water
Producing clay
Provide the structural material as brick, cement etc.
Sequester carbon as organic matter.
Land Degradation
The fertility of land supports the growth and productivity
of natural vegetation and agricultural crops. A number of
natural and man-made factors lower the quality of land.
This is commonly referred to as land degradation.
Causes of land degradation
Natural factors
Heavy rains
High speed wind and storms
Natural disasters like earthquakes ,floods, prolonged
drought, etc.
Anthropogenic factors
Mining.
Urbanization
The indiscriminate and uncontrolled removal of trees
Excess use of fertilizers
Industrial discharges
Overgrazing, soil erosion, etc..
Soil Erosion
Soil erosion is removal of top soil from its resting place by various
physical agencies like wind and water. It can be defined as “the
detachment and transport of the fertile layer of soil by water or air.”
It is also known as the creeping death of land.
The detachment and transportation
of the fertile layer of soil by water or
air.
Causes of Soil Erosion
 Large-scale deforestation for meeting commercial as
well as day-to-day needs
 Heavy floods in rivers
 Overgrazing by cattle
 Dry violent winds
 Improper agricultural techniques
Effects of Soil Erosion
 Desertification of land
 Decrease in productivity of land
 Reduction in the agricultural land at the banks of rivers
 Deposition of soil in river beds and canals causing diversion of
their natural flow and hence leading to disasters
Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of
various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning.
Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of
various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning.
Contour farming is the farming
practice of planting across a slope
following its elevation contour lines
Contour farming is the farming
practice of planting across a slope
following its elevation contour lines
Strip farming is defined as
alternating crop rows between heavy-
rooted plants and loosely-rooted
plants to minimize erosion.
Strip farming is defined as
alternating crop rows between heavy-
rooted plants and loosely-rooted
plants to minimize erosion.
Terrace cultivation is method of
growing crops on sides of hills or
mountains by planting on graduated
terraces built into the slope.
Terrace cultivation is method of
growing crops on sides of hills or
mountains by planting on graduated
terraces built into the slope.
Methods of Controlling Soil Erosion
 Reduced tillage
 Contour cultivation
 Strip cropping
 Terracing
 A forestation on barren land
 Control of overgrazing
 Construction of small check dams
 Promotion of equitable use of water resources
 Prevention of excavation of rocks
Strip cropping Contour banding
Terracing
Methods to control Soil Erosion
Afforestation
Construction of small check dams
Desertification
Causes of Desertification
Natural Factors
Very low rainfall
High salinity of soils
Excessive evaporation
Vast difference in diurnal temperature
extremes
Anthropogenic Factors
Overgrazing
Over irrigation
Excessive ploughing
Excessive use of fertilizers
Continuous cutting of trees
Conversion of fertile land into an infertile desert land is
called desertification.
Effects of Desertification
 Poor soil quality
 Rapid soil erosion
 Unfavorable climate
 Huge economic losses
 Low water table, salty and hard water
Control of Desertification
 Promoting large-scale plantation of trees
 Changing agricultural practices and promoting dry land farming
 Development of pasture lands (suitable for Grazing) and control of
overgrazing
 Promoting equitable use of water resources
 Development of water catchment areas
The desertification is increasing significantly in Bhuj in northern
Gujarat due to over usages of ground water for last 20 years.
Water tables going down by 3m/year.
Forest Resources
A forest is a biotic community with a
predominance of trees; it is an
important renewable resource.
Forests restore oxygen in our
atmosphere through photosynthesis and
also provide solvents, medicines, fuels,
and many other products that are
important for our health and comfort.
India is rich in forest resources with a
great diversity of flora and fauna.
The effect of desertification in Northern Gujarat
 The desertification is increasing significantly in Bhuj in northern
Gujarat due to over usages of ground water for last 20 years.
 Water tables going down by 3 m/ year
 According to the Experts, it is spreading to nearby villages
 Parameters such as groundwater level, vegetation, soil and rain
are showing an alarming decline and rapid degradation
 Every ecological and political bodies are warned to people about
this degradation.
Importance of Forests
 Forests provide timber for construction of buildings and furniture.
 They provide raw material for a number of large- and small-scale
industries. (bee keeping, Furniture, beedi, sal seed oil, bamboo
sticks)
 They provide a variety of edible products for human beings and
animals.
 They provide natural habitat to tribal people.
Direct Benefits
 They make manure (organic matter used as organic fertilizer in
agriculture) and fuel wood available to humans.
 They are an important source of national income.
 They provide various medicinal plants.
 They increase the beauty of landscape and attract tourists.
 They are extremely helpful in generating employment
opportunities.
Indirect Benefits
 Forests help in minimizing natural hazards.
 They help in reducing soil erosion and siltation of downstream
water bodies.
 They help in reducing desertification and land degradation.
 They help in maintaining biodiversity by providing habitat to wild
animals.
 They help in regulating hydrological cycle.
 They help in regulating the gases in atmosphere.
A conifer forest in the Swiss 
Alps 
Mixed deciduous forest in Serbia
Temperate rainforest in Tasmania's Amazon Rainforest in Brazil
Indian top five states with largest area under forest
cover
According to India's 2013 forest survey report, thus obtained and
published by the Government of India suggests the top five states
with largest area under forest cover:
Madhya Pradesh: 7.75 million hectares
Arunachal Pradesh: 6.73 million hectares
Chhattisgarh: 5.6 million hectares
Maharashtra: 5.06 million hectares
Odisha: 5.03 million hectares
The seven north-eastern States of India have nearly 1/4th of the
country’s forest cover.
Deforestation
Causes of Deforestation
 Encroachment of forest land for agricultural use to meet the
growing demands of foods.
 Expansion of cities to accommodate the growing population
 Construction of dams, canals, and highways
 Establishment of industrial areas
 Demand for firewood
 Mining
The term deforestation refers to the removal or reduction of
forest cover.
Causes of Deforestation
Population explosion: Population
explosion is the root cause of all the
environmental problems, vast area of
forests are cleared for human
settlement
Shifting Cultivation: It is a traditional
agroforestry system in which felling
and burning of forests followed by
cultivation of crop for few years and
abandon of cultivation allow forests for
re-growth cause extreme damage to
forest.
Growing food demand: To meet the food
demand of rapidly growing population
more and more forests are cleared off for
agricultural purpose.
Fire wood: Increasing demand of wood
for fuel increases pressure on forests.
Raw material for wood based industry:
Increasing demand of wood for making
furniture, plywood, paper, match box etc
results into tremendous pressure on
forests.
Infrastructure development:
Massive destruction of forest occurs
for various infrastructure
development like, big dams,
highways projects etc.
Forest fires: Forest fires may be
natural or man made cause a huge
loss of forest.
Over grazing: Overgrazing of land
by cattle result into soil erosion,
desertification.
Natural forces: Floods, storms,
heavy winds, snow, lightening are
some of the natural forces
Human activities have a very adverse
impact on forests
Even
deserts are
affected by
human
activities
Mountain
ecosystems
provide vital
ecosystem
services, but
they are facing
severe
degradation due
to climate
changing.
Effects of Deforestation
 Loss of natural habitat of wild animals and plants
 Increased intensity and frequency of floods
 Land degradation
 Loss of forest products
 Change in climatic conditions
 Siltation of rivers and lakes
 Loss of revenue
 Change in hydrological cycle and reduced rainfall
 Increased socio-economic problem in the long run
Cherrapunji was famous because it received the largest volume of
rainfall in the world It still does but ironically, experiences acute water
shortages. This is mainly the result of extensive deforestation (no trees to
hold the water and the water run off to rivers. Because proper methods of
conserving rainwater are not used. There has been extensive soil
erosion.
Only rain water harvesting can sort out the problems of the world's
wettest town. Scientists point out the example of Jaisalmer, one of the
driest towns in India in Rajasthan, with rainfall levels as little as 100 mm
of water per year, where it was found that if you harvest water on just
one hectare of land, you have captured as much as one million litres of
water --enough to meet drinking and cooking water needs of 182 people
at 15 litres per day for one year.
Control of Deforestation
 Mining activities should be prohibited in areas declared as
protected forests.
 Cutting of trees should be followed by massive plantation.
 The environmental laws and legal provisions should be strictly
enforced.
 Public awareness should be created regarding medicinal and other
economic and environmental significance of forests.
.
The story of Wangari
Maathai
Nobel Prize for noble
work
First woman in Africa to
get a Ph.D.
Green Belt Movement
(GBM) in 1977.
Empower the people
Participation of locals in forest conservation
The story of Chipko: The local women who saved the trees
 
Afforestation
Functions of Forests
The functions of forest may broadly classified into following
categories
•Protective Function
•Productive Function
•Regulative Function
•Accessory Function
Protective Functions
 Forest Provide protection against
• Soil erosion
• Droughts
• Floods
• Noise
• Radiations
Soil erosion FloodsSoil erosion
Droughts
Productive Functions
Forest Provide various products like, gum resins, medicines, honey,
pulp, bamboo, timber, Vegetables and fruits.
Regulative Functions
 The Forest regulates the
level of Oxygen and carbon
dioxide in atmosphere.
 The forests also help in
regulating temperature
conditions
Accessory Function
Forest provides aesthetics, habitat to various flora and fauna besides
that it also has an recreational value.
Ecological Importance of Forests
Regulation of global climate and temperature
Forest play a crucial role in regulation of global climate and
temperature as forest cover absorb the solar radiations that would
otherwise be reflected back into the atmosphere by bare surface of the
earth.
Transpiration of plants increases the atmosphere humidity which
affects the rainfall, cools the atmosphere and thus regulate the
hydrological cycle
Reduction of Global Warming
The main green house gas co2 is used by forests for
photosynthesis process the forest act as a sink for co2 there
by reducing the green house effect due to co2.
Production of Oxygen
During Photosynthesis process forest releases oxygen a very
important gas for human survival thereby forests are called as
lungs of earth.
Conservation of Soil
They prevent soil erosion by
binding the soil particles tightly in their roots.
reducing the velocity of wind and rain which are chief
agents causing erosion
Improvement in fertility of Soil
The fertility of soil increases due to humus formed by the decay
of forest litter (leaves, branches, stems roots etc.)
Control of water flow
The forest act as a giant sponge they slow down runoff,
absorbing and holding water that recharges springs, streams,
and ground water.
Habitat to wild life
They provide the habitat for high wild life species
Absorption of Noise
Forest cover absorbs the noise and helps in preventing noise
pollution
Absorption of air pollutants
Forest absorbs many toxic gasses and air pollutants and can help
in keeping air pure.
Economical Importance of Forest
Timber: Wood used for commercial
purposes like for making furniture and
other items like boats, bridges and other
day to day uses.
Fuel Wood: The wood is used as fuel for
cooking and other purposes by poor
people.
Raw material for wood based
industries: forest provide raw material
for various wood based industries like
paper and pulp, sports goods, furniture,
match boxes etc.
Food: Fruits, roots, leaves of plants and trees along with the
meat of forest animals provide the food to the tribal people.
Miscellaneous Products: Miscellaneous products like, resin,
gums, oils, medicines, honey are provided by forests
Water Resources
Importance of Water
 Water is the basic component of every living cell.
 It is the basic input required for agriculture.
 Hydel power can be used for generating hydroelectricity.
 It provides habitat to aquatic flora and fauna.
 Common salt can be obtained from water.
Earth: “Blue Planet”
Sources of Water
Ground Water
Surface Water
Water that is hidden underground in spaces between soil and rock particles
is known as ground water. This ground water is the source of water for
wells, springs, and even to rivers. Rainwater seeps into the ground, some
are clings to particle or to the root of the plants. This moisture is provided
to the plants for their growth. Most water moves deeper into ground. Most
usable water is at depth of 750 m.
After precipitation, the amount of water that does not percolate down into
the ground or does not return to the atmosphere by evaporation or
transpiration and enters the rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, wetland, or
artificial reservoirs constitutes surface water.
Ground water is purer than surface water, the chance of
pollution is less in ground water.
Water Cycle
Water never leaves the Earth. It is constantly being cycled
through the atmosphere, ocean, and land.
Effects of Over-utilization of Ground Water
 Reduced flow of surface water
 Lowering of water table
 Water logging
(saturation of the soil by groundwater)
 Subsidence
 Degradation of water quality
 Increased salt content
 Increased power costs
Water Calamities: Floods and
Droughts
Floods
Floods refers to the presence of unusually large amount of water
at any place or more water that can be handled by the drainage
of the area. The various types of floods are
 Flash Floods (due to sudden heavy rain fall, dam failure)
 River floods (when rain over large the catchment area slowly,
melting of snow)
 Coastal Floods (due to cyclonic activity like hurricanes,
tropical cyclones)
Drought
A drought is a condition in which a region suffers from a severe
scarcity in its water availability.
Various kinds of drought
Meteorological Drought (Actual rainfall is less than
climatological mean of that area)
Hydrological Drought (Running down of surface water
leading to a very low stream flow and drying of lakes, rivers.
Agricultural Drought (In adequate soil moisture result in fall
in agricultural productivity)
Water Woes: Junagarh
Junagarh in Gujarat, indiscriminate consumption of ground water
has caused an alarming decrease in the water table.
Reasons:
Person that can afford to dig a bore-well, did so without
adhering to any limit regarding its depth.
Motors are used to withdrawn large amount of water.
Reduction of water tables by 20% in every summer.
Women have to move up to 4 km in search of water.
Ingress of sea water is the another problems faced by villagers,
increases the salinity in ground water and soil, health issues are
increased.
Hardness is increased in water.
Energy Resources
Renewable Energy Sources
Renewable sources of energy or flow sources, rely on natural energy
flows and sources in the environment and thus have the potential of
being continually replenished. These include firewood, animal dung,
solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, etc.
Non-renewable Energy Sources
Non-renewable energy sources are available in limited amount and
develop over a longer period. Because of indiscriminate use they are
likely to be exhausted in the near future. These include coal,
mineral oil, natural gas, nuclear power, etc.
Renewable Sources of Energy
 Solar Energy
 Wind Energy
 Tidal Energy
 Geothermal Energy
 Biomass Based Energy
(natural vegetation, animal
waster)
Non-Renewable Sources of Energy
 Coal
 Natural gas and oil
 Nuclear energy (Controversial,
because use of the radioactive
substance but it does not emit
any green house gas or toxic
gases.
Use of alternative source of energyUse of alternative source of energy
 15 European union nations including Spain and Germany have committed
that by 2020, they will generate 20% of the energy using alterative energy
resources.
 Alternative energy resources not only save the non renewable energy
resources from being used up but also it’s a green and clean technology.
 India has also taken several initiatives to promote the non renewable
energy resources. Currently, India is in 4th
position in the world in
generating wind energy.
 With the increasing price of petroleum, alternative energy resources are
not optional but mandatory.
 India plans to manufacture biodiesel from vegetable oil.
 The cost of setting up a biomass plant is same as that of coal based power
plant.
 15 European union nations including Spain and Germany have committed
that by 2020, they will generate 20% of the energy using alterative energy
resources.
 Alternative energy resources not only save the non renewable energy
resources from being used up but also it’s a green and clean technology.
 India has also taken several initiatives to promote the non renewable
energy resources. Currently, India is in 4th
position in the world in
generating wind energy.
 With the increasing price of petroleum, alternative energy resources are
not optional but mandatory.
 India plans to manufacture biodiesel from vegetable oil.
 The cost of setting up a biomass plant is same as that of coal based power
plant.
Limitation of alternative energy sources
 Alternative sources provide a ray of hope.
 High installation costs and require maintenance.
 Short in availability of material which may be used in designing
and manufacturing, like as supply of silicon is short which is
essential for photovoltaic cell.
 Lack of human capital, affect the whole energy industry
worldwide.
 Still, the benefits are driving governments, businesses and
individuals all-over the world to adopt this technology.
Energy RecoveryEnergy Recovery
 The concept is to get energy by burning the waste
 By this principle the main benefits what we can get…
1. Longer availability of crude oil.
2. Reduction of waste volume by upto 90%.
3. Reduced number of coal fired power plants.
4. Slow climate change.
 Waste to energy plants (which is much advanced today) extract energy from
trash
 This plant reduces the emission of green house gases
 Disadvantages…
1.Proper care must be taken on choosing the trash which is to be burn.
2.Indiscriminate burning may promote air pollution and may release toxic
gases.
3.Combustion of heavy metals are very harmful.
Urban Problems Related to Energy
The energy requirement in urban areas is many times greater than that in
rural areas because of the following reasons:
 Activities that require large amounts of energy (industries, institutions,
transportation, etc.) are concentrated in urban areas.
 Urban people have a higher standard of living compared to rural people
and hence demand more energy for comfortable living.
112

More Related Content

What's hot

Multidisciplinary nature of enviroment
Multidisciplinary nature of enviromentMultidisciplinary nature of enviroment
Multidisciplinary nature of enviromentShaikh Sabina Meraj
 
human population and the environment
human population and the environmenthuman population and the environment
human population and the environmentNaveen Prabhu
 
Biodiversity & Conservation
Biodiversity & ConservationBiodiversity & Conservation
Biodiversity & Conservationnabeelmano66
 
Environment and its components
Environment and its componentsEnvironment and its components
Environment and its componentsMajba Islam Majba
 
Evs environment and human health
Evs environment and human healthEvs environment and human health
Evs environment and human healthSijo A
 
Environment and Multidisciplinary Nature
Environment and Multidisciplinary NatureEnvironment and Multidisciplinary Nature
Environment and Multidisciplinary NatureSandip Kumar Sahoo
 
Nature and scope
Nature and scopeNature and scope
Nature and scopegeovino
 
ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENT STUDIES
ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENT STUDIESENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENT STUDIES
ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENT STUDIESYash Patel
 
Concept of sustainability and sustainable development
Concept of sustainability and sustainable developmentConcept of sustainability and sustainable development
Concept of sustainability and sustainable developmentGautam Priyadarshi
 
Natural resources final ppt
Natural resources final pptNatural resources final ppt
Natural resources final pptAnoop K Mishra
 
Soil pollution ppt
Soil pollution pptSoil pollution ppt
Soil pollution pptkavya sri
 
Sustainable development
Sustainable developmentSustainable development
Sustainable developmentJasaratShaikh
 

What's hot (20)

Multidisciplinary nature of enviroment
Multidisciplinary nature of enviromentMultidisciplinary nature of enviroment
Multidisciplinary nature of enviroment
 
human population and the environment
human population and the environmenthuman population and the environment
human population and the environment
 
Biodiversity & Conservation
Biodiversity & ConservationBiodiversity & Conservation
Biodiversity & Conservation
 
Natural resources
Natural resourcesNatural resources
Natural resources
 
Multidisciplinary Nature Of Environmental studies
Multidisciplinary Nature Of Environmental studies Multidisciplinary Nature Of Environmental studies
Multidisciplinary Nature Of Environmental studies
 
Forest Resources
Forest ResourcesForest Resources
Forest Resources
 
Ecosyestem structure and function
Ecosyestem structure and functionEcosyestem structure and function
Ecosyestem structure and function
 
Environment and its components
Environment and its componentsEnvironment and its components
Environment and its components
 
Evs environment and human health
Evs environment and human healthEvs environment and human health
Evs environment and human health
 
Ecosystem environmental studies unit:2
Ecosystem environmental studies unit:2Ecosystem environmental studies unit:2
Ecosystem environmental studies unit:2
 
Ecosystem:Structure and Function
Ecosystem:Structure and Function Ecosystem:Structure and Function
Ecosystem:Structure and Function
 
Environmental pollution
Environmental pollutionEnvironmental pollution
Environmental pollution
 
Environment and Multidisciplinary Nature
Environment and Multidisciplinary NatureEnvironment and Multidisciplinary Nature
Environment and Multidisciplinary Nature
 
Nature and scope
Nature and scopeNature and scope
Nature and scope
 
ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENT STUDIES
ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENT STUDIESENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENT STUDIES
ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENT STUDIES
 
Concept of sustainability and sustainable development
Concept of sustainability and sustainable developmentConcept of sustainability and sustainable development
Concept of sustainability and sustainable development
 
Natural resources
Natural resourcesNatural resources
Natural resources
 
Natural resources final ppt
Natural resources final pptNatural resources final ppt
Natural resources final ppt
 
Soil pollution ppt
Soil pollution pptSoil pollution ppt
Soil pollution ppt
 
Sustainable development
Sustainable developmentSustainable development
Sustainable development
 

Viewers also liked

Introduction to Environmental Studies
Introduction to Environmental StudiesIntroduction to Environmental Studies
Introduction to Environmental StudiesRuchi Pandey
 
Wastage of natural_resources
Wastage of natural_resourcesWastage of natural_resources
Wastage of natural_resourcesmirza ibraheem
 
Environmental Studies Report
Environmental Studies ReportEnvironmental Studies Report
Environmental Studies Reportamit942
 
Our environment dhaval and sameep
Our environment dhaval and sameepOur environment dhaval and sameep
Our environment dhaval and sameepShephali Bose
 
Energy Consumption Project - Ryan Miller
Energy Consumption Project - Ryan MillerEnergy Consumption Project - Ryan Miller
Energy Consumption Project - Ryan Millerryan miller
 
Agricultural Pollution Control Project of Moldova: The Progress Made
Agricultural Pollution Control Project of Moldova: The Progress Made Agricultural Pollution Control Project of Moldova: The Progress Made
Agricultural Pollution Control Project of Moldova: The Progress Made Iwl Pcu
 
Agroecology for Food Security and Nutrition
Agroecology for Food Security and NutritionAgroecology for Food Security and Nutrition
Agroecology for Food Security and NutritionSIANI
 
effects of air pollutants on agriculture
effects of air pollutants on agricultureeffects of air pollutants on agriculture
effects of air pollutants on agriculturesaman jamil
 
Options to Address Nutrient Pollution from Agricultural Drainage -Goldman Carter
Options to Address Nutrient Pollution from Agricultural Drainage -Goldman CarterOptions to Address Nutrient Pollution from Agricultural Drainage -Goldman Carter
Options to Address Nutrient Pollution from Agricultural Drainage -Goldman CarterSoil and Water Conservation Society
 
Agroecology: Principles and Practices
Agroecology: Principles and PracticesAgroecology: Principles and Practices
Agroecology: Principles and PracticesQiqo Simbol
 
Environmental pollutions,several types of environmental pollutions are presen...
Environmental pollutions,several types of environmental pollutions are presen...Environmental pollutions,several types of environmental pollutions are presen...
Environmental pollutions,several types of environmental pollutions are presen...Anand P P
 
Agricultural Pollution
Agricultural PollutionAgricultural Pollution
Agricultural PollutionAnshika Bansal
 
Environmental pollution
Environmental pollutionEnvironmental pollution
Environmental pollutionsurbhi jha
 
Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Co...
Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Co...Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Co...
Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Co...India Water Portal
 
Effect of Agrochemicals on Environment
Effect of Agrochemicals on EnvironmentEffect of Agrochemicals on Environment
Effect of Agrochemicals on EnvironmentShruthi Krishnan
 
Components of environment
Components of environmentComponents of environment
Components of environmentUtsav Soni
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Introduction to Environmental Studies
Introduction to Environmental StudiesIntroduction to Environmental Studies
Introduction to Environmental Studies
 
Wastage of natural_resources
Wastage of natural_resourcesWastage of natural_resources
Wastage of natural_resources
 
Environmental Studies Report
Environmental Studies ReportEnvironmental Studies Report
Environmental Studies Report
 
Our environment dhaval and sameep
Our environment dhaval and sameepOur environment dhaval and sameep
Our environment dhaval and sameep
 
Energy Consumption Project - Ryan Miller
Energy Consumption Project - Ryan MillerEnergy Consumption Project - Ryan Miller
Energy Consumption Project - Ryan Miller
 
Agricultural Pollution Control Project of Moldova: The Progress Made
Agricultural Pollution Control Project of Moldova: The Progress Made Agricultural Pollution Control Project of Moldova: The Progress Made
Agricultural Pollution Control Project of Moldova: The Progress Made
 
Agroecology for Food Security and Nutrition
Agroecology for Food Security and NutritionAgroecology for Food Security and Nutrition
Agroecology for Food Security and Nutrition
 
Introduction to environment and environmental studies
Introduction to environment and environmental studiesIntroduction to environment and environmental studies
Introduction to environment and environmental studies
 
effects of air pollutants on agriculture
effects of air pollutants on agricultureeffects of air pollutants on agriculture
effects of air pollutants on agriculture
 
Options to Address Nutrient Pollution from Agricultural Drainage -Goldman Carter
Options to Address Nutrient Pollution from Agricultural Drainage -Goldman CarterOptions to Address Nutrient Pollution from Agricultural Drainage -Goldman Carter
Options to Address Nutrient Pollution from Agricultural Drainage -Goldman Carter
 
Communication skill
Communication skillCommunication skill
Communication skill
 
Agroecology: Principles and Practices
Agroecology: Principles and PracticesAgroecology: Principles and Practices
Agroecology: Principles and Practices
 
Environmental pollutions,several types of environmental pollutions are presen...
Environmental pollutions,several types of environmental pollutions are presen...Environmental pollutions,several types of environmental pollutions are presen...
Environmental pollutions,several types of environmental pollutions are presen...
 
Our NAtural Environment
Our  NAtural EnvironmentOur  NAtural Environment
Our NAtural Environment
 
Agricultural Pollution
Agricultural PollutionAgricultural Pollution
Agricultural Pollution
 
Agricultural Pollution
Agricultural PollutionAgricultural Pollution
Agricultural Pollution
 
Environmental pollution
Environmental pollutionEnvironmental pollution
Environmental pollution
 
Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Co...
Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Co...Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Co...
Agriculture & environmental pollution_Dr Harikumar (The Kerala Environment Co...
 
Effect of Agrochemicals on Environment
Effect of Agrochemicals on EnvironmentEffect of Agrochemicals on Environment
Effect of Agrochemicals on Environment
 
Components of environment
Components of environmentComponents of environment
Components of environment
 

Similar to Introduction to Environmental Studies Chapter 1

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES UNIT 1.pptx
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES UNIT 1.pptxENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES UNIT 1.pptx
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES UNIT 1.pptxswetha38439
 
Environmental Science - Forest Resources
Environmental Science - Forest ResourcesEnvironmental Science - Forest Resources
Environmental Science - Forest ResourcesManjula Rani K
 
presentation1-230531104053-03523bd2.pptx
presentation1-230531104053-03523bd2.pptxpresentation1-230531104053-03523bd2.pptx
presentation1-230531104053-03523bd2.pptxshubhamsannake
 
Definition of environment
Definition of environmentDefinition of environment
Definition of environmentDr Lendy Spires
 
Definition of environment
Definition of environmentDefinition of environment
Definition of environmentDr Lendy Spires
 
Pranavi verma-class-9-green skills(1)
Pranavi verma-class-9-green skills(1)Pranavi verma-class-9-green skills(1)
Pranavi verma-class-9-green skills(1)PranaviVerma
 
The multidiciplinary nature of environmental studies.pptx
The multidiciplinary nature of environmental studies.pptxThe multidiciplinary nature of environmental studies.pptx
The multidiciplinary nature of environmental studies.pptxYashSehrawat20
 
Environmental Economics
Environmental EconomicsEnvironmental Economics
Environmental EconomicsTintoTom3
 
EVS.pptx
EVS.pptxEVS.pptx
EVS.pptxAnsipp
 
multidisciplinarynatureofenviroment-190118092544-converted.pptx
multidisciplinarynatureofenviroment-190118092544-converted.pptxmultidisciplinarynatureofenviroment-190118092544-converted.pptx
multidisciplinarynatureofenviroment-190118092544-converted.pptxShivamsingh46435
 
multidisciplinary nature of enviroment.pptx.pdf
multidisciplinary nature of enviroment.pptx.pdfmultidisciplinary nature of enviroment.pptx.pdf
multidisciplinary nature of enviroment.pptx.pdfRaaniaPalti
 
TEEB Agriculture and Food
TEEB Agriculture and FoodTEEB Agriculture and Food
TEEB Agriculture and FoodFAO
 
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCESINTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCEShkokani2461
 

Similar to Introduction to Environmental Studies Chapter 1 (20)

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES UNIT 1.pptx
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES UNIT 1.pptxENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES UNIT 1.pptx
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES UNIT 1.pptx
 
Module 3 environment
Module 3 environmentModule 3 environment
Module 3 environment
 
Environmental Science - Forest Resources
Environmental Science - Forest ResourcesEnvironmental Science - Forest Resources
Environmental Science - Forest Resources
 
presentation1-230531104053-03523bd2.pptx
presentation1-230531104053-03523bd2.pptxpresentation1-230531104053-03523bd2.pptx
presentation1-230531104053-03523bd2.pptx
 
786 (1)
786 (1)786 (1)
786 (1)
 
Environmental
EnvironmentalEnvironmental
Environmental
 
Definition of environment
Definition of environmentDefinition of environment
Definition of environment
 
Definition of environment
Definition of environmentDefinition of environment
Definition of environment
 
Green skills.pptx
Green skills.pptxGreen skills.pptx
Green skills.pptx
 
Pranavi verma-class-9-green skills(1)
Pranavi verma-class-9-green skills(1)Pranavi verma-class-9-green skills(1)
Pranavi verma-class-9-green skills(1)
 
The multidiciplinary nature of environmental studies.pptx
The multidiciplinary nature of environmental studies.pptxThe multidiciplinary nature of environmental studies.pptx
The multidiciplinary nature of environmental studies.pptx
 
Environmental Economics
Environmental EconomicsEnvironmental Economics
Environmental Economics
 
Lesson 1.pdf
Lesson 1.pdfLesson 1.pdf
Lesson 1.pdf
 
EVS_MDU UNIT 1.pdf
EVS_MDU UNIT 1.pdfEVS_MDU UNIT 1.pdf
EVS_MDU UNIT 1.pdf
 
EVS.pptx
EVS.pptxEVS.pptx
EVS.pptx
 
Chapter-1-MST.pptx
Chapter-1-MST.pptxChapter-1-MST.pptx
Chapter-1-MST.pptx
 
multidisciplinarynatureofenviroment-190118092544-converted.pptx
multidisciplinarynatureofenviroment-190118092544-converted.pptxmultidisciplinarynatureofenviroment-190118092544-converted.pptx
multidisciplinarynatureofenviroment-190118092544-converted.pptx
 
multidisciplinary nature of enviroment.pptx.pdf
multidisciplinary nature of enviroment.pptx.pdfmultidisciplinary nature of enviroment.pptx.pdf
multidisciplinary nature of enviroment.pptx.pdf
 
TEEB Agriculture and Food
TEEB Agriculture and FoodTEEB Agriculture and Food
TEEB Agriculture and Food
 
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCESINTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT & NATURAL RESOURCES
 

Recently uploaded

CCXG global forum, April 2024, Thomas Spencer
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Thomas SpencerCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Thomas Spencer
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Thomas SpencerOECD Environment
 
The KM-GBF monitoring framework –status & key messages. Joachim Töpper and Ha...
The KM-GBF monitoring framework –status & key messages. Joachim Töpper and Ha...The KM-GBF monitoring framework –status & key messages. Joachim Töpper and Ha...
The KM-GBF monitoring framework –status & key messages. Joachim Töpper and Ha...pensoftservices
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, MJ Mace
CCXG global forum, April 2024,   MJ MaceCCXG global forum, April 2024,   MJ Mace
CCXG global forum, April 2024, MJ MaceOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara Falduto
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara FaldutoCCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara Falduto
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara FaldutoOECD Environment
 
Broiler SBA.docx for agricultural science csec
Broiler SBA.docx for agricultural science csecBroiler SBA.docx for agricultural science csec
Broiler SBA.docx for agricultural science csecLaceyannWilliams
 
Poly-_and_perfluoroalkyl_substances_-sources_pathways_and_environmental_data_...
Poly-_and_perfluoroalkyl_substances_-sources_pathways_and_environmental_data_...Poly-_and_perfluoroalkyl_substances_-sources_pathways_and_environmental_data_...
Poly-_and_perfluoroalkyl_substances_-sources_pathways_and_environmental_data_...Eric Liu
 
Identifying ecologically or biologically significant marine areas: a national...
Identifying ecologically or biologically significant marine areas: a national...Identifying ecologically or biologically significant marine areas: a national...
Identifying ecologically or biologically significant marine areas: a national...pensoftservices
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Annett Möhner
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Annett MöhnerCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Annett Möhner
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Annett MöhnerOECD Environment
 
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategiesPlanning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategiesJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Watcharin Boonyarit
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Watcharin BoonyaritCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Watcharin Boonyarit
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Watcharin BoonyaritOECD Environment
 
https://www.facebook.com/people/Proper-Keto-Capsules-UK/61557989683758/
https://www.facebook.com/people/Proper-Keto-Capsules-UK/61557989683758/https://www.facebook.com/people/Proper-Keto-Capsules-UK/61557989683758/
https://www.facebook.com/people/Proper-Keto-Capsules-UK/61557989683758/dikjog
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Manjeet Dhakal
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Manjeet DhakalCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Manjeet Dhakal
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Manjeet DhakalOECD Environment
 
human computer interaction of movie booking system project
human computer interaction of movie booking system projecthuman computer interaction of movie booking system project
human computer interaction of movie booking system project201roopikha
 
Issues regarding the provision of the Convention. Introduction to the Text an...
Issues regarding the provision of the Convention. Introduction to the Text an...Issues regarding the provision of the Convention. Introduction to the Text an...
Issues regarding the provision of the Convention. Introduction to the Text an...pensoftservices
 
CCXG global forum, April 2025, Key takeaways
CCXG global forum, April 2025, Key takeawaysCCXG global forum, April 2025, Key takeaways
CCXG global forum, April 2025, Key takeawaysOECD Environment
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi Menon
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi MenonCCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi Menon
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi MenonOECD Environment
 
Discussing how the scientific mechanisms of the CBD work. CBD mechanisms, pro...
Discussing how the scientific mechanisms of the CBD work. CBD mechanisms, pro...Discussing how the scientific mechanisms of the CBD work. CBD mechanisms, pro...
Discussing how the scientific mechanisms of the CBD work. CBD mechanisms, pro...pensoftservices
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, David Mutisya
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  David MutisyaCCXG global forum, April 2024,  David Mutisya
CCXG global forum, April 2024, David MutisyaOECD Environment
 
Get inspired by SYMBA Project: promoting Industrial Symbiosis
Get inspired by SYMBA Project: promoting Industrial SymbiosisGet inspired by SYMBA Project: promoting Industrial Symbiosis
Get inspired by SYMBA Project: promoting Industrial Symbiosissymbaprojecteu
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CCXG global forum, April 2024, Thomas Spencer
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Thomas SpencerCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Thomas Spencer
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Thomas Spencer
 
Biopesticide. pptx.
Biopesticide. pptx.Biopesticide. pptx.
Biopesticide. pptx.
 
The KM-GBF monitoring framework –status & key messages. Joachim Töpper and Ha...
The KM-GBF monitoring framework –status & key messages. Joachim Töpper and Ha...The KM-GBF monitoring framework –status & key messages. Joachim Töpper and Ha...
The KM-GBF monitoring framework –status & key messages. Joachim Töpper and Ha...
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, MJ Mace
CCXG global forum, April 2024,   MJ MaceCCXG global forum, April 2024,   MJ Mace
CCXG global forum, April 2024, MJ Mace
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara Falduto
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara FaldutoCCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara Falduto
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Chiara Falduto
 
Broiler SBA.docx for agricultural science csec
Broiler SBA.docx for agricultural science csecBroiler SBA.docx for agricultural science csec
Broiler SBA.docx for agricultural science csec
 
Poly-_and_perfluoroalkyl_substances_-sources_pathways_and_environmental_data_...
Poly-_and_perfluoroalkyl_substances_-sources_pathways_and_environmental_data_...Poly-_and_perfluoroalkyl_substances_-sources_pathways_and_environmental_data_...
Poly-_and_perfluoroalkyl_substances_-sources_pathways_and_environmental_data_...
 
Identifying ecologically or biologically significant marine areas: a national...
Identifying ecologically or biologically significant marine areas: a national...Identifying ecologically or biologically significant marine areas: a national...
Identifying ecologically or biologically significant marine areas: a national...
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Annett Möhner
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Annett MöhnerCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Annett Möhner
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Annett Möhner
 
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategiesPlanning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
Planning and Designing Green buildings-.issues, options and strategies
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Watcharin Boonyarit
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Watcharin BoonyaritCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Watcharin Boonyarit
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Watcharin Boonyarit
 
https://www.facebook.com/people/Proper-Keto-Capsules-UK/61557989683758/
https://www.facebook.com/people/Proper-Keto-Capsules-UK/61557989683758/https://www.facebook.com/people/Proper-Keto-Capsules-UK/61557989683758/
https://www.facebook.com/people/Proper-Keto-Capsules-UK/61557989683758/
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Manjeet Dhakal
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  Manjeet DhakalCCXG global forum, April 2024,  Manjeet Dhakal
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Manjeet Dhakal
 
human computer interaction of movie booking system project
human computer interaction of movie booking system projecthuman computer interaction of movie booking system project
human computer interaction of movie booking system project
 
Issues regarding the provision of the Convention. Introduction to the Text an...
Issues regarding the provision of the Convention. Introduction to the Text an...Issues regarding the provision of the Convention. Introduction to the Text an...
Issues regarding the provision of the Convention. Introduction to the Text an...
 
CCXG global forum, April 2025, Key takeaways
CCXG global forum, April 2025, Key takeawaysCCXG global forum, April 2025, Key takeaways
CCXG global forum, April 2025, Key takeaways
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi Menon
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi MenonCCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi Menon
CCXG global forum, April 2024, Surabi Menon
 
Discussing how the scientific mechanisms of the CBD work. CBD mechanisms, pro...
Discussing how the scientific mechanisms of the CBD work. CBD mechanisms, pro...Discussing how the scientific mechanisms of the CBD work. CBD mechanisms, pro...
Discussing how the scientific mechanisms of the CBD work. CBD mechanisms, pro...
 
CCXG global forum, April 2024, David Mutisya
CCXG global forum, April 2024,  David MutisyaCCXG global forum, April 2024,  David Mutisya
CCXG global forum, April 2024, David Mutisya
 
Get inspired by SYMBA Project: promoting Industrial Symbiosis
Get inspired by SYMBA Project: promoting Industrial SymbiosisGet inspired by SYMBA Project: promoting Industrial Symbiosis
Get inspired by SYMBA Project: promoting Industrial Symbiosis
 

Introduction to Environmental Studies Chapter 1

  • 2. The term environment is derived from a French word environner which means ‘surrounding’. It refers to an aggregate of all conditions that affect the existence, growth, and welfare of an organism or a group of organisms. Environment is the sum total of all social, economical, biological, physical, and chemical factors which constitute the surroundings of humans, who are both creators and moulders of the environment. Definitions Environment is the sum total of influences which modify and determine the development of life and its associated characteristics. The elements of environments are interconnected to each other in a complicated way (spider web) : disturbance of one element will affect the other one. The elements of environments are interconnected to each other in a complicated way (spider web) : disturbance of one element will affect the other one.
  • 3. Components of Environment The components of environment are broadly classified as abiotic and biotic components. Abiotic or non-living components of environment include all the physical and chemical factors that influence living organisms. Examples of abiotic components are air, water, soil, rocks, etc. Biotic or living components are the living components of environment and include microbes, plants, animals, and human beings.
  • 6. Types of Environment Natural Environment Man-Made Environment
  • 7. •Lithosphere: Crust: < 1% (Thin) Everest: 8.85 km Mantle, Cores •Hydrosphere: (oceans, sea, rivers) •Atmosphere: ~1%: 30 km (99% of air) extends to 120 km •Biosphere: All life Planet Earth: Segments of Environment
  • 8. Environmental Studies Environmental Studies refers to the study of the environment. It is not restricted to the point of view of one particular discipline but involves all disciplines that may affect the environment in any possible way. It involves the study and understanding of the fact that even a single phenomenon can affect the environment in a variety of ways with varying degrees of complexity, and each of these effects can be understood from different perspectives rooted in different disciplines.
  • 9. Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental Studies Environmental Studies requires skills that encompass a range of disciplines including chemistry, biology, earth sciences, atmospheric science, statistics, mathematics, and geography.
  • 10. Importance of Environmental Studies  Environmental Studies is useful in checking environmental pollution and related solutions.  It helps in maintaining ecological balance.  It helps to gain skills to assess the environmental impact of human activities. Environmental study will help to protect biodiversity.  It gives us basic knowledge of environment and associated problems.  It helps to achieve sustainable development .  It helps to educate people regarding their duties towards the protection of environment.  The knowledge of environmental science will be applied to the study of agriculture.
  • 11. Need for Public Awareness  Earth’s resources are dwindling and our environment is being increasingly degraded by human activities and hence something needs to be done.  Government alone cannot perform all the clean-up functions.  Individual/group efforts in their own every possible way has to be made to protect our environment.  Mass public awareness: newspapers, radio, television strongly influences public opinion on conserving our environment.
  • 12. Methods for Public Awareness  Environmental education  Through media  Through organizing seminars & conferences  Entertainment  Science centers  Involvement of youth  Through print, broadcast and internet
  • 13. ECOLOGY How does “Environment” differ from “Ecology”
  • 14. Ecology (Greek word: Okologie; meaning: “place to live”) “Physical, biological and socio cultural adaptations” Branch of science that deals with the scientific study of the interrelationships between living organisms with respect to each other and to their surroundings.
  • 15. Sustainable Development The concept of sustainable development can be interpreted in many different ways, but at its core is an approach to development that looks to balance different, and often competing, needs against an awareness of the environmental, social and economic limitations we face as a society. All too often, development is driven by one particular need, without fully considering the wider or future impacts. We are already seeing the damage this kind of approach can cause, from large-scale financial crises caused by irresponsible banking, to changes in global climate resulting from our dependence on fossil fuel-based energy sources. The term sustainable development refers to the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.
  • 16. Measures for Sustainable Development Effective planning for population control Reducing per capita demand of natural resources Using efficient technological devices Following the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycling) approach Promoting environmental awareness through education Effective planning for regeneration of natural resources
  • 18. Green buildings Green building (also known as eco buildings or sustainable building) refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation. Objective of green buildings Designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21. Environmental benefits Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems Improve air and water quality Reduce waste streams Conserve and restore natural resources Economic benefits Reduce operating costs Create, expand, and shape markets for green product and services Improve occupant productivity Optimize life-cycle economic performance Social benefits Enhance occupant comfort and health Heighten aesthetic qualities Minimize strain on local infrastructure Improve overall quality of life Potential benefits of green building Why Build Green? merits of green building
  • 22. Classification of Natural Resources Resources whose continual harvest is possible with proper planning and management, such as plants, animals, solar energy, wind energy, etc., are known as renewable resources. (They can renew themselves, provided they are not over harvested). Renewable Resources Those resources which once gone have very little chance of recovery or resynthesis are called non-renewable resources. Examples of non- renewable resources are coal, minerals, and petroleum. (Total stock is limited). Non-renewable Resources
  • 23. Our natural resources  water  forest  energy  land  food  minerals
  • 24. The rainforest in Fatu-Hiva, in Marquesas Islands is an example of an undisturbed natural resource. Forest provides timber for humans; food and shelter for flora and the fauna. The nutrient cycle between organisms form food chains and biodiversity of species.
  • 25. The Carson Fall in Mount Kinabalu, Malaysia is an example of undisturbed natural resource. Waterfalls provide spring water for humans, animals and plants for survival and also habitat for marine organisms. The water current can be used to turn turbines or hydroelectric generation.
  • 26. The ocean is an example of a natural resource. Ocean waves can be used to generate wave power which is a renewable energy. Ocean water is important for salt production and providing habitat for deep water fishes. There are biodiversity of marine species in the sea where nutrient cycles are common.
  • 27. Wind is a natural resource that can be used to generate electricity, as with these 5MW wind turbines in Thorntonbank Wind Farm 28 km (17 mile) off the coast of Belgium
  • 28. Natural ResourcesNatural Resources UsesUses Air (Wind)Air (Wind) Required for all living things for breathing, Use toRequired for all living things for breathing, Use to produce wind energy.produce wind energy. Animals / PlantsAnimals / Plants Provide food, cloth, shelter, medicine. Used as modeProvide food, cloth, shelter, medicine. Used as mode of transport. Animal dung can be used asof transport. Animal dung can be used as fuel/fertilizer.fuel/fertilizer. SoilSoil Used as the primary nutrient source for plants. It isUsed as the primary nutrient source for plants. It is the habitat of many organisms.the habitat of many organisms. Solar LightSolar Light Provide light, energy and help to plants for makingProvide light, energy and help to plants for making their foodstheir foods Wood / TreeWood / Tree Used as construction material. Used to makeUsed as construction material. Used to make utensils, furniture and sporting equipments.utensils, furniture and sporting equipments. WaterWater Used in household, agriculture and transportation.Used in household, agriculture and transportation.
  • 29. Examples of Renewable Resources solar energy
  • 30. Hybrid Of Wind And Solar energy
  • 32.  COAL  OIL  NATURAL GAS  OIL SHALE AND TAR SANDS  NUCLEAR POWER Over 85% of the energy used in the world is from non- renewable supplies Most developed nations are dependent on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels (coal and oil) and nuclear power. Industrialized societies depend on non-renewable energy sources. Examples of Non-renewable Resources
  • 33.
  • 34. Land Resources The Importance of Land  The human civilization has thrived on land.  Land is used for agriculture.  Land contains huge amount of mineral deposits.  It also contains water in the form of underground water.  Most of the animals find their habitat on land.  Land directly or indirectly provides all the resources required to fulfil the basic needs of humans: food, cloth, and shelter.
  • 35. Soil profile  Soil profile is a vertical cross section from surface down to the parent materials. A well- developed soil profile shows distinct horizons.  The three major horizons are A, B, and C horizons. Horizons are sometimes also called zones.
  • 36.  The soil profile is important tool for nutrient management and soil fertility.  Decomposition of weathers and organic matter, profile of the soil changes.  The soil profile is made of distinct layers , known as horizons.  Five most common horizons are collectively known as master horizons.  Study of soil profile is essential for proposed the soil structure and for technical descriptions.
  • 37. Horizons in Soil profile
  • 38. Functions of Soil Role in nutrient cycles In agriculture Regulate the water Regulate the emissions of gases Degrade pollutants and filter ground water Producing clay Provide the structural material as brick, cement etc. Sequester carbon as organic matter.
  • 39. Land Degradation The fertility of land supports the growth and productivity of natural vegetation and agricultural crops. A number of natural and man-made factors lower the quality of land. This is commonly referred to as land degradation.
  • 40. Causes of land degradation Natural factors Heavy rains High speed wind and storms Natural disasters like earthquakes ,floods, prolonged drought, etc. Anthropogenic factors Mining. Urbanization The indiscriminate and uncontrolled removal of trees Excess use of fertilizers Industrial discharges Overgrazing, soil erosion, etc..
  • 41. Soil Erosion Soil erosion is removal of top soil from its resting place by various physical agencies like wind and water. It can be defined as “the detachment and transport of the fertile layer of soil by water or air.” It is also known as the creeping death of land. The detachment and transportation of the fertile layer of soil by water or air.
  • 42. Causes of Soil Erosion  Large-scale deforestation for meeting commercial as well as day-to-day needs  Heavy floods in rivers  Overgrazing by cattle  Dry violent winds  Improper agricultural techniques
  • 43. Effects of Soil Erosion  Desertification of land  Decrease in productivity of land  Reduction in the agricultural land at the banks of rivers  Deposition of soil in river beds and canals causing diversion of their natural flow and hence leading to disasters
  • 44. Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning. Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning. Contour farming is the farming practice of planting across a slope following its elevation contour lines Contour farming is the farming practice of planting across a slope following its elevation contour lines Strip farming is defined as alternating crop rows between heavy- rooted plants and loosely-rooted plants to minimize erosion. Strip farming is defined as alternating crop rows between heavy- rooted plants and loosely-rooted plants to minimize erosion. Terrace cultivation is method of growing crops on sides of hills or mountains by planting on graduated terraces built into the slope. Terrace cultivation is method of growing crops on sides of hills or mountains by planting on graduated terraces built into the slope.
  • 45. Methods of Controlling Soil Erosion  Reduced tillage  Contour cultivation  Strip cropping  Terracing  A forestation on barren land  Control of overgrazing  Construction of small check dams  Promotion of equitable use of water resources  Prevention of excavation of rocks
  • 46. Strip cropping Contour banding Terracing Methods to control Soil Erosion Afforestation Construction of small check dams
  • 47. Desertification Causes of Desertification Natural Factors Very low rainfall High salinity of soils Excessive evaporation Vast difference in diurnal temperature extremes Anthropogenic Factors Overgrazing Over irrigation Excessive ploughing Excessive use of fertilizers Continuous cutting of trees Conversion of fertile land into an infertile desert land is called desertification.
  • 48. Effects of Desertification  Poor soil quality  Rapid soil erosion  Unfavorable climate  Huge economic losses  Low water table, salty and hard water
  • 49. Control of Desertification  Promoting large-scale plantation of trees  Changing agricultural practices and promoting dry land farming  Development of pasture lands (suitable for Grazing) and control of overgrazing  Promoting equitable use of water resources  Development of water catchment areas The desertification is increasing significantly in Bhuj in northern Gujarat due to over usages of ground water for last 20 years. Water tables going down by 3m/year.
  • 50. Forest Resources A forest is a biotic community with a predominance of trees; it is an important renewable resource. Forests restore oxygen in our atmosphere through photosynthesis and also provide solvents, medicines, fuels, and many other products that are important for our health and comfort. India is rich in forest resources with a great diversity of flora and fauna.
  • 51. The effect of desertification in Northern Gujarat  The desertification is increasing significantly in Bhuj in northern Gujarat due to over usages of ground water for last 20 years.  Water tables going down by 3 m/ year  According to the Experts, it is spreading to nearby villages  Parameters such as groundwater level, vegetation, soil and rain are showing an alarming decline and rapid degradation  Every ecological and political bodies are warned to people about this degradation.
  • 52. Importance of Forests  Forests provide timber for construction of buildings and furniture.  They provide raw material for a number of large- and small-scale industries. (bee keeping, Furniture, beedi, sal seed oil, bamboo sticks)  They provide a variety of edible products for human beings and animals.  They provide natural habitat to tribal people. Direct Benefits
  • 53.  They make manure (organic matter used as organic fertilizer in agriculture) and fuel wood available to humans.  They are an important source of national income.  They provide various medicinal plants.  They increase the beauty of landscape and attract tourists.  They are extremely helpful in generating employment opportunities.
  • 54. Indirect Benefits  Forests help in minimizing natural hazards.  They help in reducing soil erosion and siltation of downstream water bodies.  They help in reducing desertification and land degradation.  They help in maintaining biodiversity by providing habitat to wild animals.  They help in regulating hydrological cycle.  They help in regulating the gases in atmosphere.
  • 55.
  • 57. Indian top five states with largest area under forest cover According to India's 2013 forest survey report, thus obtained and published by the Government of India suggests the top five states with largest area under forest cover: Madhya Pradesh: 7.75 million hectares Arunachal Pradesh: 6.73 million hectares Chhattisgarh: 5.6 million hectares Maharashtra: 5.06 million hectares Odisha: 5.03 million hectares The seven north-eastern States of India have nearly 1/4th of the country’s forest cover.
  • 58. Deforestation Causes of Deforestation  Encroachment of forest land for agricultural use to meet the growing demands of foods.  Expansion of cities to accommodate the growing population  Construction of dams, canals, and highways  Establishment of industrial areas  Demand for firewood  Mining The term deforestation refers to the removal or reduction of forest cover.
  • 59.
  • 60. Causes of Deforestation Population explosion: Population explosion is the root cause of all the environmental problems, vast area of forests are cleared for human settlement Shifting Cultivation: It is a traditional agroforestry system in which felling and burning of forests followed by cultivation of crop for few years and abandon of cultivation allow forests for re-growth cause extreme damage to forest.
  • 61. Growing food demand: To meet the food demand of rapidly growing population more and more forests are cleared off for agricultural purpose. Fire wood: Increasing demand of wood for fuel increases pressure on forests. Raw material for wood based industry: Increasing demand of wood for making furniture, plywood, paper, match box etc results into tremendous pressure on forests.
  • 62.
  • 63. Infrastructure development: Massive destruction of forest occurs for various infrastructure development like, big dams, highways projects etc. Forest fires: Forest fires may be natural or man made cause a huge loss of forest. Over grazing: Overgrazing of land by cattle result into soil erosion, desertification. Natural forces: Floods, storms, heavy winds, snow, lightening are some of the natural forces
  • 64. Human activities have a very adverse impact on forests
  • 66. Mountain ecosystems provide vital ecosystem services, but they are facing severe degradation due to climate changing.
  • 67. Effects of Deforestation  Loss of natural habitat of wild animals and plants  Increased intensity and frequency of floods  Land degradation  Loss of forest products  Change in climatic conditions  Siltation of rivers and lakes  Loss of revenue  Change in hydrological cycle and reduced rainfall  Increased socio-economic problem in the long run
  • 68. Cherrapunji was famous because it received the largest volume of rainfall in the world It still does but ironically, experiences acute water shortages. This is mainly the result of extensive deforestation (no trees to hold the water and the water run off to rivers. Because proper methods of conserving rainwater are not used. There has been extensive soil erosion. Only rain water harvesting can sort out the problems of the world's wettest town. Scientists point out the example of Jaisalmer, one of the driest towns in India in Rajasthan, with rainfall levels as little as 100 mm of water per year, where it was found that if you harvest water on just one hectare of land, you have captured as much as one million litres of water --enough to meet drinking and cooking water needs of 182 people at 15 litres per day for one year.
  • 69. Control of Deforestation  Mining activities should be prohibited in areas declared as protected forests.  Cutting of trees should be followed by massive plantation.  The environmental laws and legal provisions should be strictly enforced.  Public awareness should be created regarding medicinal and other economic and environmental significance of forests.
  • 70. . The story of Wangari Maathai Nobel Prize for noble work First woman in Africa to get a Ph.D. Green Belt Movement (GBM) in 1977. Empower the people
  • 71. Participation of locals in forest conservation
  • 72. The story of Chipko: The local women who saved the trees  
  • 74. Functions of Forests The functions of forest may broadly classified into following categories •Protective Function •Productive Function •Regulative Function •Accessory Function
  • 75. Protective Functions  Forest Provide protection against • Soil erosion • Droughts • Floods • Noise • Radiations Soil erosion FloodsSoil erosion Droughts
  • 76. Productive Functions Forest Provide various products like, gum resins, medicines, honey, pulp, bamboo, timber, Vegetables and fruits.
  • 77.
  • 78. Regulative Functions  The Forest regulates the level of Oxygen and carbon dioxide in atmosphere.  The forests also help in regulating temperature conditions
  • 79.
  • 80.
  • 81. Accessory Function Forest provides aesthetics, habitat to various flora and fauna besides that it also has an recreational value.
  • 82. Ecological Importance of Forests Regulation of global climate and temperature Forest play a crucial role in regulation of global climate and temperature as forest cover absorb the solar radiations that would otherwise be reflected back into the atmosphere by bare surface of the earth. Transpiration of plants increases the atmosphere humidity which affects the rainfall, cools the atmosphere and thus regulate the hydrological cycle
  • 83. Reduction of Global Warming The main green house gas co2 is used by forests for photosynthesis process the forest act as a sink for co2 there by reducing the green house effect due to co2.
  • 84. Production of Oxygen During Photosynthesis process forest releases oxygen a very important gas for human survival thereby forests are called as lungs of earth.
  • 85. Conservation of Soil They prevent soil erosion by binding the soil particles tightly in their roots. reducing the velocity of wind and rain which are chief agents causing erosion
  • 86. Improvement in fertility of Soil The fertility of soil increases due to humus formed by the decay of forest litter (leaves, branches, stems roots etc.)
  • 87. Control of water flow The forest act as a giant sponge they slow down runoff, absorbing and holding water that recharges springs, streams, and ground water.
  • 88. Habitat to wild life They provide the habitat for high wild life species
  • 89. Absorption of Noise Forest cover absorbs the noise and helps in preventing noise pollution
  • 90. Absorption of air pollutants Forest absorbs many toxic gasses and air pollutants and can help in keeping air pure.
  • 91. Economical Importance of Forest Timber: Wood used for commercial purposes like for making furniture and other items like boats, bridges and other day to day uses. Fuel Wood: The wood is used as fuel for cooking and other purposes by poor people. Raw material for wood based industries: forest provide raw material for various wood based industries like paper and pulp, sports goods, furniture, match boxes etc.
  • 92. Food: Fruits, roots, leaves of plants and trees along with the meat of forest animals provide the food to the tribal people. Miscellaneous Products: Miscellaneous products like, resin, gums, oils, medicines, honey are provided by forests
  • 93. Water Resources Importance of Water  Water is the basic component of every living cell.  It is the basic input required for agriculture.  Hydel power can be used for generating hydroelectricity.  It provides habitat to aquatic flora and fauna.  Common salt can be obtained from water.
  • 95.
  • 96. Sources of Water Ground Water Surface Water Water that is hidden underground in spaces between soil and rock particles is known as ground water. This ground water is the source of water for wells, springs, and even to rivers. Rainwater seeps into the ground, some are clings to particle or to the root of the plants. This moisture is provided to the plants for their growth. Most water moves deeper into ground. Most usable water is at depth of 750 m. After precipitation, the amount of water that does not percolate down into the ground or does not return to the atmosphere by evaporation or transpiration and enters the rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, wetland, or artificial reservoirs constitutes surface water. Ground water is purer than surface water, the chance of pollution is less in ground water.
  • 97. Water Cycle Water never leaves the Earth. It is constantly being cycled through the atmosphere, ocean, and land.
  • 98. Effects of Over-utilization of Ground Water  Reduced flow of surface water  Lowering of water table  Water logging (saturation of the soil by groundwater)  Subsidence  Degradation of water quality  Increased salt content  Increased power costs
  • 99. Water Calamities: Floods and Droughts
  • 100. Floods Floods refers to the presence of unusually large amount of water at any place or more water that can be handled by the drainage of the area. The various types of floods are
  • 101.  Flash Floods (due to sudden heavy rain fall, dam failure)  River floods (when rain over large the catchment area slowly, melting of snow)  Coastal Floods (due to cyclonic activity like hurricanes, tropical cyclones)
  • 102. Drought A drought is a condition in which a region suffers from a severe scarcity in its water availability.
  • 103. Various kinds of drought Meteorological Drought (Actual rainfall is less than climatological mean of that area) Hydrological Drought (Running down of surface water leading to a very low stream flow and drying of lakes, rivers. Agricultural Drought (In adequate soil moisture result in fall in agricultural productivity)
  • 104. Water Woes: Junagarh Junagarh in Gujarat, indiscriminate consumption of ground water has caused an alarming decrease in the water table. Reasons: Person that can afford to dig a bore-well, did so without adhering to any limit regarding its depth. Motors are used to withdrawn large amount of water. Reduction of water tables by 20% in every summer. Women have to move up to 4 km in search of water. Ingress of sea water is the another problems faced by villagers, increases the salinity in ground water and soil, health issues are increased. Hardness is increased in water.
  • 105. Energy Resources Renewable Energy Sources Renewable sources of energy or flow sources, rely on natural energy flows and sources in the environment and thus have the potential of being continually replenished. These include firewood, animal dung, solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, etc. Non-renewable Energy Sources Non-renewable energy sources are available in limited amount and develop over a longer period. Because of indiscriminate use they are likely to be exhausted in the near future. These include coal, mineral oil, natural gas, nuclear power, etc.
  • 106. Renewable Sources of Energy  Solar Energy  Wind Energy  Tidal Energy  Geothermal Energy  Biomass Based Energy (natural vegetation, animal waster)
  • 107. Non-Renewable Sources of Energy  Coal  Natural gas and oil  Nuclear energy (Controversial, because use of the radioactive substance but it does not emit any green house gas or toxic gases.
  • 108. Use of alternative source of energyUse of alternative source of energy  15 European union nations including Spain and Germany have committed that by 2020, they will generate 20% of the energy using alterative energy resources.  Alternative energy resources not only save the non renewable energy resources from being used up but also it’s a green and clean technology.  India has also taken several initiatives to promote the non renewable energy resources. Currently, India is in 4th position in the world in generating wind energy.  With the increasing price of petroleum, alternative energy resources are not optional but mandatory.  India plans to manufacture biodiesel from vegetable oil.  The cost of setting up a biomass plant is same as that of coal based power plant.  15 European union nations including Spain and Germany have committed that by 2020, they will generate 20% of the energy using alterative energy resources.  Alternative energy resources not only save the non renewable energy resources from being used up but also it’s a green and clean technology.  India has also taken several initiatives to promote the non renewable energy resources. Currently, India is in 4th position in the world in generating wind energy.  With the increasing price of petroleum, alternative energy resources are not optional but mandatory.  India plans to manufacture biodiesel from vegetable oil.  The cost of setting up a biomass plant is same as that of coal based power plant.
  • 109. Limitation of alternative energy sources  Alternative sources provide a ray of hope.  High installation costs and require maintenance.  Short in availability of material which may be used in designing and manufacturing, like as supply of silicon is short which is essential for photovoltaic cell.  Lack of human capital, affect the whole energy industry worldwide.  Still, the benefits are driving governments, businesses and individuals all-over the world to adopt this technology.
  • 110. Energy RecoveryEnergy Recovery  The concept is to get energy by burning the waste  By this principle the main benefits what we can get… 1. Longer availability of crude oil. 2. Reduction of waste volume by upto 90%. 3. Reduced number of coal fired power plants. 4. Slow climate change.  Waste to energy plants (which is much advanced today) extract energy from trash  This plant reduces the emission of green house gases  Disadvantages… 1.Proper care must be taken on choosing the trash which is to be burn. 2.Indiscriminate burning may promote air pollution and may release toxic gases. 3.Combustion of heavy metals are very harmful.
  • 111. Urban Problems Related to Energy The energy requirement in urban areas is many times greater than that in rural areas because of the following reasons:  Activities that require large amounts of energy (industries, institutions, transportation, etc.) are concentrated in urban areas.  Urban people have a higher standard of living compared to rural people and hence demand more energy for comfortable living.
  • 112. 112

Editor's Notes

  1.  2009 Jupiterimages Corporation
  2. Figure 7-1. The Main Regions of Planet Earth At the center lies our planet’s solid inner core, about 2600 km in diameter, and surrounding this is a liquid outer core, some 7000 km across. Most of the rest of Earth’s 13,000-km interior is taken up by the mantle, which is topped by a thin crust only a few tens of kilometers thick. The liquid portions of Earth’s surface make up the hydrosphere. Above the hydrosphere and solid crust lies the atmosphere, most of it within 50 km of the surface. Earth’s outermost region is the magnetosphere, extending thousands of kilometers into space.