Week 8 landscape architecture


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Week 8 landscape architecture

  1. 1. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE WEEK 8 AED1313 INTRODUCTION TO BUILT ENVIRONMENT Compiled by Department of Architecture and Environmental Design Centre for Foundation Studies International Islamic University Malaysia
  2. 2. ContentsContents Introduction Definitions  Landscape  Landscape Design  Profession Hard and Soft Landscape A. Hard Landscape B. Soft Landscape Sustainable Landscape  Sustainable Landscape
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction  Landscape architects have become increasingly important as people desire their living and work spaces to be not only functional, but also beautiful and environmentally sound.  Landscape architects use equal parts of design, mathematics, horticulture, and environmental studies to plan parks, golf courses, and the outdoor areas of building complexes.  Landscape architects may also work to reclaim land, such as at former landfills and strip-mines, and at sites of historical restoration. Video 1 Video 2
  4. 4. DefinitionDefinition  Landscape  Exterior spaces and /or settings for planned groupings of structures and spaces (courtyards, malls, parks; sites for homes or other structures; farms, countryside, national forests, etc)  Is combination of both natural and built environment  Landscape Design  The art of changing the natural feature of the outdoor with the intention of making the environment more attractive and functional.  It is meant for human physical needs, mental health and divine comfort. A farm Sutera Harbour Resort, Kota Kinabalu
  5. 5.  Profession A landscape architect is a person involved in the planning, design and sometimes oversight of an exterior landscape or space. Their professional practice is known as landscape architecture. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects states that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Chinese landscape English landscapeIslamic landscape Landscape ArchitectLandscape Architect
  6. 6. Being A Landscape ArchitectBeing A Landscape Architect  Landscape architects create places for people to live, work and play and places for plants and animals to thrive. Landscape architects also speak up for and care for our landscapes.  Landscape architects study, plan, design and manage spaces which are both sustainable and aesthetically pleasing.  Landscape architects design landscape areas so that they are not only functional but also beautiful and harmonious with the natural environment.
  7. 7.  Increasingly, landscape architects are working in environmental remediation, such as preserving and restoring wetlands or managing storm-water runoff in new developments.  They are also increasingly playing a role in preserving and restoring historic landscapes. Being A Landscape ArchitectBeing A Landscape Architect
  8. 8.  Landscape architects plan the locations of buildings, roads, and walkways. They also plan where to plant flowers, shrubs, and trees.  Many landscape architects specialize in a particular area, such as beautifying or otherwise improving streets and highways, waterfronts, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers.  Landscape architects work with architects, town planners, civil engineers and a host of other professionals. They are leading the way in tackling climate change and also helping to regenerate towns and cities across the world. Being A Landscape ArchitectBeing A Landscape Architect
  9. 9. Being A Landscape ArchitectBeing A Landscape Architect  Landscape architects typically do the following:  Confer with clients, engineers, and building architects to understand a project  Prepare site plans, specifications, and cost estimates  Coordinate the arrangement of existing and proposed land features and structures  Prepare graphic representations and drawings of proposed plans and designs  Analyze environmental reports and data on land conditions, such as drainage  Inspect landscape work to ensure that it adheres to original plans  Approve the quality of work that others do  Seek new work through marketing or by giving presentations
  10. 10. Landscape Architect ProfessionLandscape Architect Profession More on landscape architecture ? Visit http://asla.org/design/index.html
  11. 11. The Landscape Architecture profession in Malaysia was initially formed under the name Angkatan Landskap Arkitek Malaysia (ALAM) on 24 September 1981. ALAM was represented by various professions and privates individuals. With the increasing number of graduates from local and aboard, there was a need to move the association forward, hence then ALAM became Institute of Landscape Architects Malaysia (ILAM). In 1984, ILAM gained international recognition by becoming a member of the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA) and the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and also accepted as a member of the Malaysian Professional Centre (BIM) in 1992. Professional BodyProfessional Body
  12. 12. Hard Landscape ElementsHard Landscape Elements  Definition The term hard landscape is used by practitioners of landscape architecture and garden design to describe the construction materials which are used to improve a landscape by design. Hard landscape can also describe outdoor furniture and other landscape products. A wide range of hard landscape materials can be used, such as brick, gravel, stone, concrete, timber, bitumen, glass, metals, etc.
  13. 13. A. Hard Landscape Elements  Functions of Hard Landscape Elements  to provide physical visual interest, i.e. texture, colours, materials  to satisfy practical needs of user, i.e. seating, safety, comfort  to protect landscape plantings, i.e. retaining walls, for example, can help prevent erosion and porous paving material limits water runoff.
  14. 14.  Gazebos/Pavillions A. Hard Landscape Elements Japanese Chinese English Islamic
  15. 15. A. Hard Landscape Elements  Sculptures Chinese English Japanese Japanese English
  16. 16. A. Hard Landscape Elements  Other Elements Pergola (English) Bridge (Japanese) Moon Gate (Chinese) Fountain (Islamic) Bollard
  17. 17. B. Soft Landscape Elements  Definition The term soft landscape is used by practitioners of landscape design, landscape architecture, and garden design; and gardeners to describe the vegetative materials which are used to improve a landscape by design. The range of soft landscape materials includes each layer of the ecological sequence: aquatic plants, semi-aquatic plants, field layer plants (including grasses and herbaceous plants) shrubs and trees.
  18. 18. B. Soft Landscape Elements  Ground Covers & Grasses  Some ground cover plants make good alternatives to turfgrasses in some locations, especially in the xeriscaped landscape.  They provide variety of texture and color, reduce soil erosion, and serve as a transition between grass areas and shrub or flower beds.  Grasses add variety to many types of gardens, including water, Japanese, rock, wildlife, craft, xeriscape, container and others.  Ornamental grasses add two elements to the garden experience that are not readily obtained from many other plants: movement and sound.
  19. 19. B. Soft Landscape Elements  Shrubs  Shrubs are the primary way gardeners can diversify the garden horizontally.  Shrubs are also a useful source for food and cover for wildlife on a smaller scale, often down to ground level.  Shrubs provide cover for some smaller shade-loving plants.  Some flowering shrubs attract birds with their fruit and some shrubs even provide colorful fall foliage rivaling any tree.
  20. 20. B. Soft Landscape Elements  Trees  Besides the economic value a quality tree can add, it also provides shade, privacy, and beauty.  Trees provide dramatic vertical layering within the landscape and garden.  Trees create shady microclimates in the landscape, protecting shrubs and groundcovers from direct exposure to the natural elements.
  21. 21. B. Soft Landscape Elements Fragrant and flowering shrubs
  22. 22. B. Soft Landscape Elements Ornamental Garden (English & French) Pattern using evergreen shrubs called parterres and knots. Shape of geometry, box, yew are frequently trimmed. Topiary As an art form it is a type of living sculpture
  23. 23. B. Soft Landscape Elements Annual Plant Plants that lasting only for a few months and normally planted at the strategic location.
  24. 24. SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPESUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE  Sustainable landscaping encompasses a variety of practices that have developed in response to environmental issues.  These practices are used in every phase of landscaping, including design, construction, implementation and management of residential and commercial landscapes.  Sustainability issues for landscaping include:  Carbon Sequestration  Global Climate Change  Air Pollution  Water Pollution  Pesticide Toxicity  Non-Renewable Resources  Energy Usage  Native plant
  25. 25. SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPESUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE  Non-sustainable practices in landscape design include:  Soil contamination  air and water contamination  persistence of toxic compounds in the environment  non-sustainable consumption of natural resources  Greenhouse gas emissions  Invasive species
  26. 26.  Some of the effects of non-sustainable practices are:  Severe degradation of the surrounding ecosystem;  harm to human health, especially in the case of degraded drinking water supplies;  harm to flora and fauna and their habitats;  sedimentation of surface waters caused by stormwater runoff;  chemical pollutants in drinking water caused by pesticide runoff;  health problems caused by toxic fertilizers,  toxic pesticides, improper use, handling, storage and disposal of pesticides;  air and noise pollution caused by landscape equipment;  invasion of wild lands by non-native weeds and insect pests;  and over-use of limited natural resources. SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPESUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE
  27. 27. SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPESUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE  Some of the solutions being developed are:  Reduction of stormwater run-off through the use of bio-swales, rain gardens and green roofs and walls.  Reduction of water use in landscapes through design of water-wise garden techniques (sometimes known as xeriscapingTM )  Bio-filtering of wastes through constructed wetlands  Landscape irrigation using water from showers and sinks, known as gray water
  28. 28. SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPESUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE  Creating and enhancing wildlife habitat in urban environments  Energy-efficient landscape design in the form of proper placement and selection of shade trees and creation of wind breaks  Permeable paving materials to reduce stormwater run-off and allow rain water to infiltrate into the ground and replenish groundwater rather than run into surface water
  29. 29. SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPESUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE  Use of sustainably harvested wood, composite wood products for decking and other landscape projects, as well as use of plastic lumber  Recycling of products, such as glass, rubber from tires and other materials to create landscape products such as paving stones, mulch and other materials  Soil management techniques, including composting kitchen and yard wastes, to maintain and enhance healthy soil that supports a diversity of soil life  Integration and adoption of renewable energy, including solar-powered landscape lighting
  30. 30. SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPESUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE Explore more on sustainable landscape and sample of case studies http://www.asla.org/sustainablelandscapes/index.html
  31. 31. Discussion In groups of 3, read through the article provided and share your findings/thoughts with the class. Article 1
  32. 32. THE END