Ethos

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Ethos

  1. 1. Ethos (or why should I listen to you?)
  2. 2. Kairos: The moment
  3. 3. Kairos
  4. 4. 1. Exigence: What happens or fails to happen? Why is one compelled to speak out? 2. Persons: Who is involved in the exigence and what roles do they play? 3. Relations: What are the relationships, especially the differences in power, between the persons involved? 4. Location: Where is the site of discourse? e.g. a podium, newspaper, web page, etc. 5. Speaker: Who is compelled to speak or write? 6. Audience: Who does the speaker address and why? 7. Method: How does the speaker choose to address the audience? 8. Institutions: What are the rules of the game surrounding/ constraining numbers 1 through 7.
  5. 5. 1. Exigence: What happens or fails to happen? Why is one compelled to speak out? 2. Persons: Who is involved in the exigence and what roles do they play? 3. Relations: What are the relationships, especially the differences in power, between the persons involved? 4. Location: Where is the site of discourse? e.g. a podium, newspaper, web page, etc. 5. Speaker: Who is compelled to speak or write? 6. Audience: Who does the speaker address and why? 7. Method: How does the speaker choose to address the audience? 8. Institutions: What are the rules of the game surrounding/ constraining numbers 1 through 7. Every Person Realizes Lions Should Always Move Indoors
  6. 6. Three Categories of ethos • phronesis - practical skills & wisdom • arete - virtue, goodness (disinterest) • eunoia -goodwill towards the audience
  7. 7. Phronesis This moment in American history demands honesty and leadership. Ultimately we are all in this together. By working together, we can restore optimism in the business community and grow this economy by controlling spending and enacting common sense reforms. John King -- Republican Member of Congress
  8. 8. Arete But for those making more than $1 million — there were 236,883 such households in 2009 — I would raise rates immediately on taxable income in excess of $1 million, including, of course, dividends and capital gains. And for those who make $10 million or more — there were 8,274 in 2009 — I would suggest an additional increase in rate. My friends and I have been coddled long enough by a billionaire-friendly Congress. It’s time for our government to get serious about shared sacrifice. Warren Buffett
  9. 9. Eunoia
  10. 10. If you could master one element of personal communications that is more powerful than anything we’ve discussed, it is the quality of being likeable. I call it the magic bullet, because if your audience likes you, they’ll forgive just about anything else you do wrong. If they don’t like you, you can hit every rule on target and it doesn’t matter. --Roger Ailes
  11. 11. Jonathan Haidt pronounced “Height”
  12. 12. Values Care/Harm Fairness/ Cheating Liberty/ Oppression Loyalty/ Betrayal Authority/ Subversion Sanctity/ Degradation
  13. 13. Liberals Conservatives
  14. 14. Code Grooming Using terms, phrases, allusions, and ideas that your audience recognizes
  15. 15. Code Grooming I don't want to say that Rick is dumb, but he still uses UPVC in non-drainage piping applications.
  16. 16. Using references that a general audience believes are innocuous but that signal certain groups that you are one of them. Dog Whistling
  17. 17. Mitt Romney, not one of us. --Ad from President Obama Dog Whistling
  18. 18. "We are part of an Anglo-Saxon heritage, ...The White House didn't fully appreciate the shared history we have." --Aide to Gov. Romney Dog Whistling
  19. 19. Invoking an audience’s identity
  20. 20. Reminding the audience of a particular role or membership.
  21. 21. Possible Roles Parent/Child American/Nationalistic Occupation The “Good” Side Male/Female Age Education Knowledgeable
  22. 22. Final thoughts
  23. 23. "According to Aristotle, rhetors can invent a character suitable to an occasion--this is invented ethos. However, if rhetors are fortunate enough to enjoy a good reputation in the community, they can use it as an ethical proof--this is situated ethos." (Sharon Crowley and Debra Hawhee)

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