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Copia de understanding learning final 1(1)
 

Copia de understanding learning final 1(1)

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    Copia de understanding learning final 1(1) Copia de understanding learning final 1(1) Presentation Transcript

    • Comprehending how we learn language Understanding learning Learning how to learn........ HAZEL ACOSTA, PhD
    • Activity 1 Do I know the wisdom in these movies? 1. Cinderella Story 2. A Knight’s Tale 3. Equilibrium 4. The Last Samurai 5. Kingdom of Heaven
    • Focus Question 1 What is learning (for you)? When do you say you have learned?
    • Lecture Presentation (1) on Understanding Learning
    • Theories on Learning Theory Proponent(s) Key Concepts, Tenets a. Developmental Theories 1. Cognitive Development Theory Jean Piaget - schema - assimilation - accommodation - equilibration - Stages of Cognitive Development - cognitive abilities 2. Psycho-Social Theory Eric Erikson - Eight Psychosocial Stages - malignancy - maladaptation - psychosocial crisis 3. Socio-Cultural Theory Leo Vygotsky - scaffolding - Socio-Cultural Theory of Development - social interaction - language - zone of actual development - zone of proximal development 4. Moral Development Theory Laurence Kohlberg - Stages of Moral Development
    • Theory Proponent(s) Key Concepts, Tenets b. Behaviorist Perspective 1. Classical Conditioning Theory Ivan Pavlov - stimulus generalization - extinction - spontaneous recovery - discrimination 2. Connectionism Theory Edward Lee Thorndike - Law of Effect, Exercise, Readiness 3. Stimulus-Response Associations through Conditioning John B. Watson - experiment on Albert - fears, phobias, prejudices 4. Operant Conditioning Buurhus Frederick Skinner - reinforcement - positive reinforcer, negative reinforcer - shaping behavior - behavioral chaining 5. Neo-Behaviorism Bridging the gap between behaviorism and cognitive theories 5.1 Purposive Behaviorism/Sign Learning Theory Edward Chance Tolman - cognitive/mental maps - trial and error (behavioristic) - latent learning - intervening variable 5.2 Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura - social context - modeling (live model, symbolic model) - attention - conditions for modeling: attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation
    • Theory Proponent(s) Key Concepts, Tenets c. Cognitive Perspective 1. Gestalt Theory Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, Kurt Koffka - sensory wholes and visual perception - gestalt pprinciples: law of proximity, law of similarity, low of closure, law of good continuation, law of pragnanz, law of figure/ground 1.1 Insight/Discovery Learning Wolfgang Kohler -discovery or insight learning through the coordination of thinking to create new organizations 1.2 Life Space Kurt Lewin - inner space and outer forces that affect perceptions and learning 2. Information Processing - - encoding, storage, retrieval - executive control processes - sensory register - role of attention 3. Constructivist Theory Jerome Bruner - representation: enactive, iconic, symbolic - spiral curriculum - discovery learning - categorization - cognitive maps - categories: identity, equivalent, coding systems 4. Meaningful/Verbal Learning David Ausubel - advance organizers - subsumption - meaningful learning: derivative subsumtion, correlative subsumption, superordinate subsumption, combinatorial learning 5. Conditions of Learning Robert Gagne - role of instructional technology - conditions of learning - category of learning
    • 1. What is Learning? Definition – any process in living organisms that leads to change and which is not solely due to biological maturation (learning and non-learning) D E V E L O P M E N T
    • 2. Basis of the Understanding of Learning ©mesothelioma-lawyersblog.com ©fi.edu © crystalinks.com ©georgetown.edu psychology brain science economics
    • 3. Modern views on learning ©postville7.pbworks.com • learning evolves • learning is highly cultural • all learning events are mediated by bodily events just like the learning of language
    • 4. Impetus to the new concept on Learning  increasing orientation towards lifelong learning  Rising demand of companies and nations of global competitiveness  Rising awareness of the concept, `competence`(traditional and up-to-date knowledge + orientation and overview + professional and everyday skills + broad range of personal qualities (flexibility, openness, independence, responsibility , creativity)
    • Activity 2 What is the story all about? Structure the events in a timeline.
    • Lecture Presentation (2) on the Structure of Learning
    • 5. 2 basic processes of learning 1. External interaction process between the learner and his cultural or material environment  How does a young child learn English? 2. Internal psychological process of acquisition and elaboration  How does a child absorb the first words and process them in his/her mind
    • COGNITION EMOTIONacquisition INDIVIDUAL inter action ENVIRONMENT Figure 1. The fundamental processes of learning
    • 6. The 3 dimensions of learning COGNITIVE SOCIAL EMOTIONAL/ PSYCHODYNAMIC What could be the various resistance to language learning like English?
    • COGNITION EMOTIONacquisition inter action ENVIRONMENT FUNCTIONALITY acquisition SENSIBILITY SOCIALITY integration Figure 2. The processes and dimensions of learning
    •  Mental resistance - a psychological mechanism which may block or distort relevant learning.  Difficult to distinguish between non-learning caused by defense and non-learning caused by resistance.  Defense mechanisms exist prior to the learning situation and function re-actively.  Resistance is caused by the learning situation itself as an active response
    • Focus Question 2 In learning a foreign language, what process is involved? What dimensions are more influential?
    • Activity 1 What rule/aspect/area in learning English that you have mastered through the years?
    • Lecture Presentation (1) on Typology of Learning
    • 7. 4 Levels of Learning CUMULATIVE ASSIMILATIVE ACCOMMODATIVE TRANSFORMING
    • Activity 2 What are the factors that you considered barriers in learning/mastering English ?
    • Lecture Presentation (2) on Barriers of Learning
    • 8. Barriers to Learning 1. Barriers to participation to adult learning • Situational (depending on the person‟s situation at a given time) • Institutional (all practices and procedures that discourage adults from participation) • dispositional or psychosocial (person‟s attitudes about self and learning • Informational (person is not aware of the educational activities available 2. Social structure • Geographic conditions • Demographic factors • Socio-economic conditions • Education and cultural determinants Source: Merriam & Caffarella 1991 L E A R N I N GCite the tables of roger
    •  The Margin in Adult Learning (McClusky) P = L where P = power (motivation) L = load (barriers)  Implications:  motivation > barriers (emotive)  Cognitive ability in English > learning requirements set by the teacher (cognitive)  Environment > participation
    • The Adult Learning Funnel 1. The accumulation of power and load are funneled based on the learner‟s value placed on the different aspects of his/her personal, professional and social.
    • Figure 3. The Adult Learning Funnel
    • 9. The Challenge of Adult Learning an Education 1. Barriers to learning can be understood through the adult learner‟s life stages/need and certain dimensions of learning is involved in different barriers. 2. Adult learning funnel = adult learner‟s experience (life stage) + motivational factors + barriers to learning Multi-faceted life (personal, professional, social aspects)
    • 10.Learning Language  Start with bodily sensations – 5 senses  1ST stage in human learning – transform bodily sensations into the language of our brains and minds and learn to make them meaningful to ourselves. We are social beings and so the language we learn reflect the society we are born into.
    • Time The person takes the life-world for granted (1) Has sensation disjuncture (2) Give meaning to sensation/resolves disjuncture (3) Practices the resolution (4) The person takes the life-world for granted again (5) Time Figure 4. The transformation of sensations: learning from primary experience By Peter Jarvis Where children are – language -
    • Steps in Learning Sensation D I S J U N C T U R E Ex. A child who is trying to learn how to speak (conscious experience) Repetition The child asks. The child repeats the word(s) and ask more. For adults: just doing exercises in English but still lacks comprehension Mediation language culture ADULT LEARNING
    • Key insights 1. Children and adults learn differently. Is this true of language? 2. Learning arises when there is a disjuncture which is at the heart of our conscious experience. 3. Our answers become social constructs and through repetition they become part of our memory 4. The more opportunities we have to practice the answer to our initial question, the better we will commit it to memory
    • 5. In learning language, „conformity is not always correctness = trial and error learning 6. Do not be imprison behind the bars of our minds by Peter Berger 7. 2nd type of Learning – secondary experiences are mediated experiences of the world like language.
    • Activity 3 At what stage in schooling did you: start learning English improve learning English become fluent in English  become a master in speaking, reading, writing English
    • Lecture Presentation (3) on the Overview of the Human Life Span
    • 11. Lifelong Learning PRE-NATAL STAGE Toddlerhood Early Childhood Middle Childhood Adolescent Stage Young Adulthood Middle Adulthood
    • 12. Tool for Research Age Year 1980 1990 2000 2010 10 20 30 40 50 60
    • References Jarvis, Peter. (2009). Contemporary Theories in Learning. Retrieved from =http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=RPXF3QfaiosC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=learning+language+by+knud+illeris&source=bl&ots=3o7G8ipdlu&sig=L 6YYdW4YyZUUUWDL4UWYKcFoLXo&hl=tl&sa=X&ei=BiBaT_7XEM_dgQf9sciiCw&ved=0CBwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. On 9 March 2012 Thomson, R. (2009). Adult Learning Matters. Adult Learning. National Institute of Adult Continuing Education. Bisin, A. & Verdier, T. (2005). Cultural Transmission. New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. 2nd edition. Carey, J. (2003). Life Span: Evolutionary, Ecological, and Demographic Perspectives. Supplement to Population and Development Review. Vol. 29. Chao,R.(2009).Understanding the Adult Learner‟s Motivation and Barriers to Learning. European Society for the Education of Adults. European Society of Education Executives. What is Lifelong Learning. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/education/policies/lll/lll_en.htmlon 28 February, 2012 Hurlock, Elizabeth. Developmental Psychology. 5th edition. New York: McGraw- HillBook Company. ©1980. Illeris, K. (2007). How we learn: leaning and non-learning in school and beyond. London &New York: Taylor & Francis e-Library. Illeris, K. (2003) Towards a Contemporary and Comprehensive View of Learning. International Journal of Lifelong Education. Vol. 22 No. 4. pp. 396-406.
    • References Illeris, K. (2009). Transfer of Learning in the Learning Society: How can the barriers betweendifferent learning spaces be surmounted, and how can the gap between learning inside and outside schools be bridged? International Journal of Lifelong Education. Vol. 28 No. 2. pp. 137-148. Illeris, K. (2003). “Adult education as experienced by the learners”. International Journal of Lifelong Education. 22:1, pp. 13-23. Moore, E. (2006). Educational Identities of Adult University Graduates. Scandinavia Journal of Education Research. 50:12. pp. 149-163. Papalia, D. & Olds, S. (2009) Human Growth and Development. New York: McGraw-Hill. Rogers, A. (2003). How do Adults Learn. Adult Learning. National Institute of Adult Continuing Education.