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Theories of Learning and Development

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Theories of Learning and Development

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Theories of Learning and Development

  1. 1. EV681 – session 1 Julie canavan (jc145@brighton.ac.uk)
  2. 2. To date….. • Week 1 teaching and learning – dispositions to learning and characteristics of effective learning. • Blog post 1 • Paul Dix - behaviour lecture- feedback
  3. 3. Session1 where • 1) Introduce EYFS docs, key principles/EPPE , observation of the unique child • 2) analysis of observations, formative and summative assessment , planning quality, inclusive environments; SEND task • 3) Theoretical frameworks for inclusion, completing the planning cycle • 4) management and leadership • 30/9 11-1pm BE102 • 11/11 1-3pm A402 • 25/11 1-3 A402
  4. 4. Key web sites and documentation • Department for Education educationhttps://www.gov.uk/search?q=early+years • Foundation Years Statutory framework for EYFS (2014) • Early education Development Matters (2012)
  5. 5. Why study child development? • Time of most rapid growth and change • Milestones • Informs our role • Understanding learning • Interpretation of theorists • Teaching style . . . and research tells us that teachers with a sound knowledge are good teachers!
  6. 6. EYFS (DCSF, 2008) Effective Practice: Child Development “Development is the process from conception to birth and beyond, in which the body, brain, abilities and behaviour of the infant, child and adult become more complex, and continue to mature through life” “Learning is the acquisition of knowledge, abilities and skills; early learning is closely linked with growth and development”
  7. 7. Holistic Development – The whole Child Emotional Development Language Development Physical Development Social Development Spiritual Development Intellectual Development
  8. 8. The genetic theory Socio-cultural theory • born with a personality • determines how we respond and behave • our temperament, sociability, emotional responses and intelligence are inherited, • Our disposition and development are pre- determined • We learn, and develop, according to our experiences • The environment is of the greatest importance in determining how children develop emotionally
  9. 9. Powerful maturational timetables Emergence of language Powerful internal force to learn Attachment, temperament? Diet, exercise, exploration, safe environment Stimulation and encouragement Influence of the environment, relationships, security, basic needs Motor Cognitive Affective NurtureNature Research recognises both
  10. 10. Emotional Regulation... babies cannot manage their own feelings, they just feel. rely on primary carer to met needs, learn ways to wait for awhile increasing need for independence- test the boundaries different expectations around how to express emotions in different contexts (home/school)
  11. 11. and links to the development of attention • Stage 1 – 1st year – high level of distractibility towards dominant stimuli. • Stage 2 – 2nd year – rigid attention on task of their own choice. Resistant to interference. • Stage 3 – 3rd year (Single channelled attention). Attention must be fully obtained to shift to a different task. • Stage 4 – 4th year (Early integrated attention). Children can control their own focus of attention – need to look towards the carer to listen. • Stage 5 – 5th year (Mature integrated attention) Can perform an activity while listening to the carer/teacher giving instructions
  12. 12. Understanding others’ feelings • Requires both cognitive skill and social information • Need to identify body signals, including facial expressions • Need to understand various kinds of emotions and that it’s possible for people to feel several emotions at the same time
  13. 13. Behaviour - Key principles • Behaviour can change • Behaviour has a function • What we do affects what children do
  14. 14. Challenging behaviour or . . . ? • Anxiety - almost always present within children who present as a challenge • Speech and Language Difficulties - 95% of challenging children will have a speech and language difficulty • Mental Health Difficulties – increase in diagnosis in under 5s • Alienation - a young child who feels that they are different or do not belong will find it very hard to form solid friendships.
  15. 15. Attachment (see Bowlby; Ainsworth; Main; etc) Key factors Attachment Proximity maintenance Safe haven Secure base Separation distress
  16. 16. Attachment • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PnFKaaOSPmk &feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=js2XdP9FL5Q&f eature=fvwrel
  17. 17. Resilient children “Resilient children are better equipped to resist stress and adversity, cope with change and uncertainty, and to recover faster and more completely from traumatic events or episodes.” (Newman and Blackburn, 2004) DCSF (2008) pp27-36
  18. 18. “If we want children to develop . . . a strong moral code for themselves then their behaviour must come from the pull of their own conscience rather than simply from complying with being told to do something.” Dowling, M (2000, p89) p27
  19. 19. Development matters • DCFS 2008 - look listen note , early learning goals • Early Education (2012) – characteristics of learning and prime areas and specific areas P4, • literacy and numeracy • DfE Early years outcomes (2013)- ELG’s only • Have a look at pp27-36 – are these principles reflected in the DM?
  20. 20. behaviourists • Pavlov • Experiments with Dogs saliva and the digestion of food • ‘classical conditioning’.. Learning is equated with changes in behaviour – stimulus - response • Skinner • Pigeons ..light switches and food . • Here the learning is based on a reaction to the environment and as such has more useful links to a learning situation • Thorndike • Cats learning to escape from a box ‘Trial and error’ learning • Extinction occurs when a response decreases in frequency because it no longer leads to reinforcement (Ormrod, 2008,p67) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1b-NaoWUowQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yhvaSEJtOV8&feature=related
  21. 21. Summary • Environment is key to learning • Reinforcement is achieved by rewarding appropriate/desired behaviour • Concept of reinforcement central to Behaviourist approaches and likened to motivation • Therefore in a behaviourist world motivation by definition is external where learning gets encouraged by an external reward i.e. extrinsic motivators • Can you think of examples ? • What might be some problems with this approach?
  22. 22. Skinner - frequency of reinforcement Reinforcement pattern of praise Likelihood of repetition continuous Praise given with each utterance Low/moderate Fixed ratio Praise given every 4th/6th time Low/moderate Fixed interval Praise given if ‘please said within fixed period e.g. 10 mins Low/moderate Intermittent/variable Praise follows no set pattern Moderate/high (Gray and Blain 2012;p37) DWECK
  23. 23. Creating a positive learning environment Rewards Respect Routines Rules Relationships Dweck: intrinsic motivation Rewarding effort rather than outcome
  24. 24. Social Learning Theory • How much of what we learn, do and feel is influenced by other people close to us? • Albert Bandura (1961) was a social psychologist who was interested in this process and set about trying to explain it. • http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers /p/bio_bandura.htm
  25. 25. Social Learning Theory • behaviour is learnt from the environment through the process of observational learning. • Bandura documentary and explanation of Bobo doll experiment: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zerCK0lRjp8 • MODELLING - examples?
  26. 26. Constructivist overview • Active learner who participates in the learning process • Acknowledgment of learners prior knowledge • Use of teaching strategies to organise learning • New ideas introduced through series of building blocks
  27. 27. Cognitive developmental psychologist • For Piaget, assimilation, accommodation and equilibration are the “engines” of intellectual development • Assimilation – children absorb experiences into what they already know • Accommodation – children need to change and adjust what they already know in order to take in something that does not fit (Bruce, 2005) Piaget (1896 – 1980)
  28. 28. Developing schema Beaver p133 assimilation & accommodation Adaptation Equilibrium disequilibrium Adaptation Accommodation & assimilation Disequilibrium Schema Equilibrium Schema Equilibrium Bricks are wooden & cuboid Arch shaped bricks Experiments with arch Shaped bricks Includes arch shaped bricks in play Bricks are wooden, cuboid & arch shaped Plastic bricks Experiments with plastic bricks in play Includes plastic bricks in play Bricks are wooden, Arch shaped,cuboid & plastic
  29. 29. • More recent neuroscience studies have shown how the brain is more active when mistakes are made – more learning taking place?
  30. 30. Stages of Development The sensorimotor period birth to about 24 months Pre-operational thought 24 months to 7 years Concrete operational period 7 to 12 years Formal operational period 12 years onwards
  31. 31. Vygotsky • Vygotsky believed play has a central role in the transmission of culture through social interaction and communication • He saw learning in early childhood as a complex process • Unlike Piaget he believed learning leads development • Social interaction between peers and adults serves to create meaning, making sense and conveying culture • Central to learning is language!
  32. 32. …every function in a child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level and later, on the individual level; first between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological)’ . (Vygotsky, 1978: 57)
  33. 33. THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT difficultyoftask competence of the child
  34. 34. Piagetian model V’s Vygotskian model? For Piaget the child is a little scientist measuring and assessing the world. For Vygotsky the child is an apprentice, learning to do things in the social sphere with teachers and peers and later internalising this knowledge. While Piaget’s emphasises independent development, Vygotsky emphasises the social nature of development and sees learning as a collaborative process
  35. 35. Bruner • This man is not merely one of the foremost educational thinkers of the era; he is also an inspired learner and teacher. His infectious curiosity inspires all who are not completely jaded. Gardner, H. (2001) • “scaffolding”.
  36. 36. Bruner The Spiral Curriculum: • Learning is not a forward progression • Young children have bursts of learning and progress and may then plateau or even regress • Learning is impacted by capabilities, intentions and needs
  37. 37. Sustained Shared Thinking (SST) • ‘Sustained shared thinking’ occurs when two or more individuals ‘work together’ in an intellectual way to solve a problem, clarify a concept, evaluate an activity, extend a narrative etc. Both parties must contribute to the thinking and it must develop and extend the understanding. http://eppe.ioe.ac.uk/eppe/eppepdfs/RBTec1223sept0412.pdf
  38. 38. Goswami 2015 Current research from Neuroscience has highlighted that learning takes place in four ways; 1. Statistical learning- visual, auditory (Piaget calls sensory learning) Prototype/schema 2. Analogy – comparisons with other types for similarities and differences (Piaget: accommodation and assimilation- schema development) 3. Imitation – watching and repeating what others do (social learning theory) 4. Causal – problem solving
  39. 39. Connectionist • All four are important for learning - how they interact with each other varies from person to person (genetics, experience) • Learning is unique to each individual
  40. 40. Observation “Observation is the foundation of education in the early years. It is through recording and reflecting on children’s activities and interests that we can gather the information necessary for the construction of an appropriate curriculum for them. Observation is also the way in which we can gather the material from which to make informed professional judgements about children’s progress, and about how to help them best. Observation, assessment and the development of an appropriate curriculum all fit together” Hurst, 1991
  41. 41. revised EYFS 2012 On-going formative assessment is at the heart of effective early years practice. Practitioners can: • Observe children as they act and interact in their play, everyday activities and planned activities, and learn from parents about what the child does at home (Early Education, 2012)
  42. 42. EE (2014) P3
  43. 43. What do you think is important to record?
  44. 44. • Observe AVA, 35 months, in nursery • What did you notice ? • using DM - 3 prime areas- • Group 1 PSE p 27-36 • Group 2 CLL p 42-49 • Group 3 physical p 93-96 • Key issues?
  45. 45. What to record ‘the focus of the assessment depends on its purpose’ (Dunphy 2008: p3) • Accountability – govt, school league tables, parents/carers, • Raising standards • Children’s progress
  46. 46. Katz (2011) • Knowledge and understanding • Skills • Dispositions • Feelings
  47. 47. Keating (2002): p153 • recording Significant achievements – where a child has achieved something for the first time • has consolidated a concept after demonstrating proficiency on several occasions • Demonstrated clear understanding of a process • What the child him/herself feels is significant
  48. 48. What sort of observations? • Narrative observation – observing and recording a particular child • Tracking – use a plan of the environment to record a child’s movement from one activity to another • Frequency/event sampling – observing and recording a particular behaviour when it occurs • Time sampling – observing and recording at regular intervals over a set period of time • Group observation – observing and recording a group of children taking part in an activity – and the learning taking place
  49. 49. Observations... • Should be for a reason – are purposeful • Should focus on what a child CAN do • Should record what actually happens • Should be objective and unbiased – the observer should stand back from personal values and beliefs (avoiding value-laden emotional language) • Observers should try to avoid ‘influencing’ the child/interpreting behaviours • Needs to be ethical and respectful (Nutbrown)
  50. 50. Presenting an observation for University assignments • Always include the context – where, when, whom, child(ren’s) age, gender(s) how long the observation is • Include a brief analysis/evaluation at the end (ways forward/next steps) • Try to put separate speech on separate lines e.g. Annie: ‘How are you going to make the cat?’ C1 picks up a toilet roll tube and the brown paper. C1: ‘With this tube and this paper’ Annie: ‘That will make a very big cat.’ • Try to write it all in the same tense (usually the present tense) ALWAYS PRESERVE ANONYMITY OF CHILDREN, ADULTS AND SETTING!
  51. 51. What do you see? The power of our language... • ‘He was kicking-off as always because he wanted his own way.’ • ‘His mum just threw him in the door because she’s a working mum.’ • ‘She was whining.’ • ‘She’s arrived dirty in the same clothes she always wears.’
  52. 52. • Conclude: • summary of what you see ‘spent a lot of time outdoors’, ‘played alone for much of observation’, ‘talked confidently to adult about a range of topics’ • Analyse: why??? • Following friend, enjoys physical? • Shy? New? Content? Self regulating? • Next steps? How will I confirm my analysis? • Observe outdoors? • Plan an activity with one other-observe
  53. 53. references • Gray and Blain (2012) How Children Learn London:Sage
  54. 54. Some useful research links • http://www.education.gov.uk/childrenandyoungpeople /earlylearningandchildcare/evidence/a0068162/effectiv e-provision-of-pre-school-education-eppe EPPE 2004 • http://www.ttrb3.org.uk/effective-pre-school-and- primary-education-3-11-project-eppe-3-11-influences- on-childrens-cognitive-and-social-development-in-year- 6/ EPPE 2008 • http://www.dwp.gov.uk/docs/early-intervention-next- steps.pdf Allen report • http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110120090 128/http:/povertyreview.independent.gov.uk/media/20 254/poverty-report.pdf Field report • http://www.teachingexpertise.com/articles/attachment -supporting-young-childrens-emotional-wellbeing-2358 Attachment theory
  55. 55. Some useful reading • Gerhardt, S (2006) Why Love Matters • Bomber, L (2007) Inside I’m Hurting • Dowling, M (2010) Young Children’s Personal, Social and Emotional Development • SEAL materials: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/2011080 9101133/nsonline.org.uk/node/87009 • SEAD materials: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/2011080 9091832/teachingandlearningresources.org.uk/coll ection/24946

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