Assessment methods used by english teachers in assisting under achiever readers in secondary schools in catanauan, quezon an impact analysis
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Assessment methods used by english teachers in assisting under achiever readers in secondary schools in catanauan, quezon an impact analysis

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Unpublished, undergraduate thesis

Unpublished, undergraduate thesis

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Assessment methods used by english teachers in assisting under achiever readers in secondary schools in catanauan, quezon an impact analysis Assessment methods used by english teachers in assisting under achiever readers in secondary schools in catanauan, quezon an impact analysis Document Transcript

  • CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM: RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND Reading is the most crucial skill of every learner. It is a vehicle to learn, discover and to be aware in everything happen in one’s environment. According to (Howes, 1999), Reading can be one of man’s deepest pleasures. It extendsone’s experiences, giving glimpse of a world’s excitement, pleasure and wisdom. It is also subtle and complex process that involves sensation, perception, comprehension, application and integration. Therefore, it is also the most significant skill the students must be acquired. Categorically speaking, in daily life of a teacher in a four-sided classroom they cope up with the diversity of learners in terms of ability, skills and fluency in reading that teacher should address their needs and do assistance for them. Since individual differences areexisted,Coliredge advocatedfour kinds of readers. The first is like an hour-glass, and their reading being as the sand, it turns out and leave not a vestige behind. A second one is like a sponge, which imbibes everything and returns it nearly in the same state only a little dirtier. The third is like jelly-bag, allowing all that is pure to pass away and returning only the refuse and dregs. The last one is like the slaves in diamond mines of Golconda, who cast aside all that is worthless and retain only pure gems. Many students read satisfactorily. They read well for their purpose but some do not read well. They make omissions, reversals substitutions or addition and Page 1 of 131
  • inversions.Common factors of those reading problems are their motivation, intelligence, interest, language facility, auditory discrimination, motor-ocular coordination, attitudes of/toward parents, siblings, teachers and peers and home background. If a student lacks some of these, one’s reading performance becomes low. Researcher have shown that pupils who were read to when they 2-5 years often became successful readers. Those who are under- achiever in reading are usually educationally disadvantaged—those who come to school far less ready for normal performance because of conditions in their environment. This group includes students suffering from malnutrition, disease and inadequacies in the basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter. Students with broken homes, with unstable family ties, with parents who are indifferent to educational goalsor with limited innate abilities coupled with lack of interest and ambition from remedial reading. They are also the restricted to those whose reading performance is not below age and standards but who are judged to be functioning significantly below their own potential level in reading. It used broadly to designate the slow learners, the disabled reader, the bright-under achiever, the reluctant reader, and the culturally or socially deprived learner. According to the study ofDorotea B. Milo undertaken on 1996 entitled Common Reading Disabilities conducted at Manila. Diagnostic silent and oral reading tests, observations, questionnaire, and interviews were used to gather data. The results of the study shows that the under-achiever readers arethe students that has oral reading disabilities as follows: inadequacy of phrasing, word-by-word reading, ignoring punctuation, habitual repetition, omissions, lack of expression, poor enunciation, strained Page 2 of 131
  • voice,stammering, reversed and confused symbols and substitution of words. (Villamin, 1999) Statement of the Problem The main focus of this study is to know the assessment method are used by English teacher in uplifting the ability of under-achiever in reading students in Grade Seven students among Private and Public Schools in Catanauan, Quezon. Enthusiastically, the researcher aims to fully understand the reason of teachers on paying less attention in the students that are under achiever in reading. Specifically, the study aims to answer the following sub problems: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in the terms of: a. age; b. sex; c. marital status; d. years of teaching English; and e. educational attainment. 2. What are the factors affects students’ achievement in reading? 3. What are the common problems of English Teachers in assisting under achiever in reading? 4. What are the assessment methods used by English teachers in assisting under achiever in reading? 5. What is the reading recovery activity that teacher undertaken to enhance the performance of under achiever readers. Page 3 of 131
  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Through the result of the study the researcher sincerely hoped to identify and evaluate the assessment methods used by English teacher in untangling and assisting under achiever in reading on Grade Seven students in Catanauan, Quezon Specifically the researcher should be able; 1. To assess the demographic profile of the respondents in the terms of their; a. age; b. sex; c. marital status; d. years of teaching English; and e. educational attainment 2. To recognize the factors that affect students’ achievement in reading. 3. To cite the common problems of English teachers in assisting under achiever readers. 4. To evaluate the effectiveness assessment method used by English teachers to struggling readers. 5. To reveal the times were English teachers conduct reading recovery activity recover Page 4 of 131
  • IMPORTANCE OFTHE STUDY As the researcher mentioned in the background of this study; when the students lack some major factor that affects reading performance that one would be difficultly having low reading performance or the reader that we may called under achiever readers. Unfortunately, in the real English classes those groups of students have been subsisting. In the conduct of this study the researcher hopes to gather significant data that could be used as a basis for the improvement of effective assessment methods of English teachers in handling untangling under-achiever in reading students. Significantly, the following will stand benefit from the findings of the study. For the Teachers: This study would help them in modification of assessment method they implemented for under achiever in reading. It can also provide assessment methods that would let teacher reach the meaningful teaching experienced. It may also lead them to determine the attainability and effectiveness of the present assessment method coupled with interpersonal relationship. It may also a toolin assessingperformances and to ensure maximum learning. For the Students: This study may encourage them to improve their reading ability and strengthen Page 5 of 131
  • their skills through avoiding the factors that may affect their reading ability and imply the suited assessment to assess their reading performance through self-learning For the Parents: This study may open the minds of parents that the home support, home background and the way student’s life go on in the home greatly affect their reading ability. It can serve as an eye opener to realize that they play very significant role in teaching and encouraging the students to enhance their reading ability. It may also lead them to know the effective assessment method used by the teachers in mentoring the reading skills of the students. For the Future Researchers: It establishes the basis for future researchers about the assessment method of English teachers in reaching the under achiever in reading. It may give the ideas on the problems of teachers with regards on those students that the reading performance is below to standard educational levels. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Thestudy focusedon the assessment method used by the English teachers of private and public secondary schools on untangling and assisting under achiever in reading. The researcher intends to conduct research study on private and public schools in Catanauan, Quezon. The researcher’s target respondents are twenty-five English teachers of the municipality. Page 6 of 131
  • THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY Zone of Proximal Development According to Vygotsky (1978), Zone of Proximal Development refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. Although the implication is that the More Knowledgeable than Others (MKO) is a teacher or an older adult, this is not necessarily the case times, a child's peers or an adult's children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skilful tutor. The tutor may model behaviours and/or provide verbal instructions for the child.Many children lack of parental supportVygotsky refers to this as co-operative or collaborative dialogue. The child seeks to understand the actions or instructions provide by the teacher then internalizes the information, using it to guide or regulate their own performance. Page 7 of 131
  • Figure 1. Illustration of Lev VigotskyZone of Proximal Development The figure I in the previous page shows the important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner. Cohen (1999), Retrieve from http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP3.html) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs This hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep, and warmth. Once these lowerlevel needs have been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security. As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship, and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. Like Carl Rogers, Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a person in order to achieve individual potentials. Page 8 of 131
  • Figure 2.Maslows Paradigm of Hierarchical Needs Maslowbelieved that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behaviour. Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings orconsequences. Retrieved from (http://umg5.mail.yahoo.com/neo/launch?rand=2d8dfvj4pjled#mail) Page 9 of 131
  • Schema Theory Schema theory was developed by R. C. Anderson, a respected educational psychologist. This learning theory views organized knowledge as an elaborate network of abstract mental structures which represent one understands of the world. The term schema was first used by Piaget in 1926, so it was not an entirely new concept. Anderson, however, expanded the meaning.Context Understanding some principles from schema theory can help in your work. Here are some principles to apply: It is important to teach general knowledge and generic concepts. A large proportion of learner difficulties can be traced to insufficient general knowledge, especially in cross-cultural situations. Schemata grow and change as new information is acquired. Learners feel internal conflict if they are trying to assimilate schemata which contradict their previous suppositions. Here are some characteristics of schemata according to Anderson (1977:418--419); it is always organized meaningfully, can be added to, and, as an individual gains experience, develop to include more variables and more specificity. Each schema is embedded in other schemata and itself contains subschema. Schemata change moment by moment as information is received. They may also be reorganized when incoming data reveals a need to restructure the concept. Page 10 of 131
  • The Universal Grammar Theory Noam Chomsky advocate of this theory, he is said to be the best known and the most influential linguist of the second half of the Twentieth Century. He provokes number of strong claims about language: in particular, he suggests that language is an innate faculty, which is to say that we are born with a set of rules about language in our heads which he refers to as the 'Universal Grammar'. The universal grammar is the basis upon which all human languages build. If a Martian linguist were to visit Earth, he would deduce from the evidence that there was only one language, with a number of local variants. Chomsky gives a number of reasons why this should be so. Among the most important of these reasons is the ease with which children acquire their mother tongue. He claims that it would be little short of a miracle if children learnt their language in the same way that they learn mathematics or how to ride a bicycle. This, he says, is because children are exposed to very little correctly formed language. When people speak, they constantly interrupt themselves, change their minds, and make slips of the tongue and so on. Yet children manage to learn their language all the same. Children do not simply copy the language that they hear around them. They deduce rules from it, which they can then use to produce sentences that they have never heard before. They do not learn a repertoire of phrases and sayings, as the behaviourists believe, but a grammar that generates infinity of new sentences. Among theories of language acquisition, Universal Grammar (UG) has recently gained wider acceptance and popularity. Though noted among L2 acquisition theories, Page 11 of 131
  • the defenders of UG are not originally motivated to account for L2 acquisition, nor for first language (L1) acquisition. However, UG is more of than L1 acquisition theory rather than L2. It attempts to clarify the relatively quick acquisition of L1s on the basis of 'minimum exposure' to external input. The 'logical problem' of language acquisition, according to UG proponents, is that language learning would be impossible without 'universal languagespecific knowledge' (Cook, 1991:153; Bloor & Bloor: 244). The main reason behind this argument is the input data: "…Language input is the evidence out of which the learner constructs knowledge of language – what goes into the brain. Such evidence can be either positive or negative. … The positive evidence of the position of words in a few sentences the learner hears is sufficient to show him the rules of a language." (Cook, 1991: 154) The views and supports the idea that the external input per se may not account for language acquisition. Similarly, the Chomsky view holds that the input is poor and deficient in two ways. First, the input is claimed to be 'degenerate' because it is damaged by performance features such as slips, hesitations or false starts. Accordingly, it is suggested that the input is not an adequate base for language learning. Second, the input is devoid of grammar corrections. This means that the input does not normally contain 'negative evidence’; the knowledge from which the learner could exercise what is 'not' possible in a given language. Retrievedfrom:(http://www.vobs.at/ludescher/Ludescher/LAcquisition/Nativist/nativist% 20theory.htm) Page 12 of 131
  • Hilgard Fourteen Principles of Learning and the Reading Process 1.In deciding who should learn what, the capacities of the learner are very important. Brighter people can learn things less bright one cannot learn; in general older children can learn more readily than younger ones ; the decline of ability with age, in the adult years depends upon what it is that is being learned. 2. A motivated learner acquires what he learns more readily than one who is not motivated. Learning proceeds more effectively and tends to be most permanent when learner is motivated, that is when he has a stake, as it were, as the activity being undertaken. 3. Motivation that is too intense maybe accompanied by distracting emotional states, so that excessive motivation may be less effective than moderate motivation for learning some kinds of task, especially those involving difficult discrimination. 4.Learning under control of reward usually preferable to learning under control of punishment. Correspondingly learning motivated by success is preferable to learning motivated by failure. 5. Learning under intrinsic motivation is preferable to learning under extrinsic motivation. 6. Tolerance for failure is best thought through providing a backlog of success that compensates for experienced failure. Page 13 of 131
  • 7. Individuals need practice in setting realistic goals for themselves, goals neither so low as to elicit little effort nor so high as to foreordain failure. 8. The personal history of theindividual for example, his reaction to authority may hamper or enhance his ability to learn from agiven teacher. 9. Active participation by a learner is preferable to passive reception when learning, for example, from a lecture or motion pictures. 10. Meaningful materials and meaningful task are learned more readily than nonsense materials an more readily than task not understood by the learner. 11. There is no substitute for repetitive practice in the over learning of skills. 12. Information aboutthe nature of a good performance, knowledge of hisownmistake and knowledge of successful results, aid learning. 13. Transfer to new task will be better, if, in learning the learner can discover relationships ofhimself, and if he has experience during learning of applying the principles within a variety of tasks. 14. Spaced or distributed recalls are advantageous in fixing material that is to be long retained. 15. Learning is encouraged when it takesplace under condition that enhances the personality adjustment of the learner.(As cited by Erlinda Galero Tejero, 2010.) Page 14 of 131
  • In the Section III of Philosophical Perspectives in Education it provokes that the epistemological frame focuses on the nature of knowledge and how we come to know, there are four major educational philosophies, each related to one or more of the general or world philosophies just discussed. These educational philosophical approaches are currently used in classrooms the world over. This educational philosophies focus heavily on WHAT educator should teach. Perennials is educational philosophy is advocate by Robert Maynard Hutchins and Mortimer Adler, (1963) they state that the aim of this philosophy is to ensure education that students acquire understandings about the great ideas of global civilization. These ideas have the potential for solving problems in any era. It’s focus is to teach ideas that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human worlds at their most essential level, do not change. Teaching these unchanging principles is critical. Humans are rational beings, and their minds need to be developed. Thus, cultivation of the intellect is the highest priority in a worthwhile education. The demanding curriculum focuses on attaining cultural literacy, stressing students' growth in enduring discipline. Essentialism, theproponents of this philosophy is James D. Koerner (1959), H. G. Rickover (1959), Paul Copperman (1978), and Theodore Sizer (1985). They believed Essentialists supposed that there is a common core of knowledge that needs to be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way. The emphasis in this conservative perspective is on intellectual and moral standards that schools should teach. Page 15 of 131
  • The core of the curriculum is essential knowledge and skills and academic rigor. Although this educational philosophy is similar in some ways to Perennials, Essentialists accept the idea that this core curriculum may change. Schooling should be practical, preparing students to become valuable members of society. It should focus on facts-the objective reality out there--and "the basics," training students to read, write, speak, and compute clearly and logically. Schools should not try to set or influence policies. Students should be taught hard work, respect for authority, and discipline. Teachers are to help students keep their non-productive instincts in check, such as aggression or mindlessness. This approach was in reaction to progressivism approaches prevalent in the 1920s and 30s. William Bagley, took progressivism approaches to task in the journal he formed in 1934. Progressivisms believe that education should focus on the whole child, rather than on the content or the teacher. This educational philosophy stresses that students should test ideas by active experimentation. Learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise through experiencing the world. It is active, not passive. The learner is a problem solver and thinker who make meaning through his or her individual experience in the physical and cultural context. Effective teachers provide experiences so that students can learn by doing. Curriculum content is derived from student interests and questions. The scientific method is used by progressivism educators so that students can study matter and events systematically and first hand. The emphasis is on process-how one comes to know. The Progressive education philosophy was established in America from the mid 1920s through the mid 1950s. John Dewey was its foremost proponent. Page 16 of 131
  • `Deconstructionism/Critical Theory,social deconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Reconstruction educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education. Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) was the founder of social reconstruction, in reaction against the realities of World War II. He recognized the potential for either human annihilation through technology and human cruelty or the capacity to create a beneficent society using technology and human compassion. George Counts (1889-1974) recognized that education was the means of preparing people for creating this new social order. Ehri Murray's Interactive Theory This theory postulates that reading is an interaction involving the reader and text being read. Meaning is not only on the mind of the person during the reading act nor is it only on the text being read. It is instead the interaction between the text read and readers various sources that determine the amount and type of comprehension that take place. This theory also states the following facts: Knowledge of language which enables the reader to recognize sentences, syntax or the way which words are put together to form phrases,clauses,sentences, harmonious arrangement of parts or elements. Knowledge of the world background knowledge including both encyclopaedias and experiential knowledge which supply readers with background for understanding ideas and filling in parts that are left implicit rather than stated explicitly in the text. Page 17 of 131
  • Knowledge of the alphabetic-phonemic systems represents speech, including how to transfer graphemes into phonemes, the smallest unit of sound. Lexical knowledge refers to the reader’s dictionary of words held in memory including words known by sight. All of this knowledge can contribute to comprehension. Memory is important for linking the meaning of a text to previously read text as well as for integrating it with information from other knowledge source Conceptual Framework The researcher prudentlyanalyzed all the theories presented in the theoretical framework and assured its relevance with the study. The educational philosophies such as perennials, essentialism, progressivism and reconstructivismwhich could be serve as the curriculum instructionalpattern of a teacher in assessing students learning,assessment, and progress. The teacher should flexibly shift to the four educational philosophies whenever needed to address the needs of students. Lev Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) theory was linked with the behavioural problems of under achiever in reading due to the fact that under achiever in reading students should need someone else that is more knowledge than them that can guide and encourage them their enhance their reading skill. Moreover, Maslow’s theory of hierarchical needs congruent to the enhancement of student’s skills. It strongly shows the concept that the self-actualization of individuals is use to uplift one’s ability to push to the limit through the use of potentials. The five basic needs express that individual should be motivated to achieve something through attaining the progressive level of needs. Page 18 of 131
  • It also included the R.C. Anderson Schema Theory wherein the teacher can use as a basis in helping students to build their prior knowledge and make connections between the past standard skills in reading and the skills that must be attain in the present level. The Universal Grammar Theory(UG) has generated valuable predictions about the course of interlanguage and the influence of the first language. Also, it has provided invaluable information regarding L2 teaching as to how L2 teachers (or educational linguists) should present vocabulary items and how they should view grammar. As Cook (1991:158) puts it, UG shows us that language teaching should deal with how vocabulary should be taught, not as tokens with isolated meanings but as items that play a part in the sentence saying what structures and words they may go with in the sentence. The evidence in support of UG, on the other hand, is not conclusive. If the language module that determines the success in L1 acquisition is proved to be accessible in L2 acquisition, L2 teaching methodologists and methods should study and account for how to trigger this language module and redesign their methodologies. The UG theory should, therefore, be studied in detail so as to endow us with a more educational and pedagogical basis for mother tongue and foreign language teaching. The researcher included Murray's interactive theory as because it is clearly interrelated with this study becausetheory postulates that reading is an interaction involving the reader and text being read. Meaning is not only on the mind of the person during the reading act nor is it only on the text being read.It is instead the interaction between the text read and readers various sources that determine the amount and type of comprehension that take place. Page 19 of 131
  • Since this study is about assessment method used by English teachers in assisting under achieve in reading the researcher strongly relate the Hilgard fifteen Principles of Learning and the Reading Process is clearly related to this present study because it states that reading is a process that must be learned. The laws of learning and the facts concerning such topics as motivation, and conditioning apply to learning to read. The next page shows the conceptual framework of this study. Page 20 of 131
  • Research Paradigm Input DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF Teacher’s Respondents in terms of a. age; b. sex; c. marital status d. years of teaching English; and e. educational attainment. Analysis of the demographic profile of the respondents Administering Survey Questionnaire Tabulating gathered data through the following  Percentage,  Ranking,  Weighted mean,  Average weighted mean Output Effective assessment used by English teachers in assisting under achiever in reading among grade seven students. Impact Analysis for its effectiveness Process Research Paradigm of the Study Page 21 of 131
  • The figure on the previouspage represents a foregoing discussion about the concept that can be derived from study. This emphasizesthe assessment method used by English teachers in assisting under achiever in reading and output to the effective assessment method used to assess struggling readers. Hypothesis of the Study Ho1 There is confusion for English teachers in stating effective assessment method to use in teaching under-achiever readers. Definition of Terms Artefacts- are collections of records that reflect the reader’s strengths, weaknesses, growth, and goals. Assessment is the process of documenting usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. Retrived from:(http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Definition_Assessment_Tools.htmlhttp://www .selfgrowth.com/articles/Definition_Assessment_Tools.html) Reading Readiness-refers period when the learners getting ready to read. Under achiever Readers- those whose reading performances not below age and grade standards but who are judged to be functioning significantly below their potential level in reading.It is also called struggling readers. Retrieved from:(http://www.ldonline.org/article/6354/) Page 22 of 131
  • CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES This chapter shows the literature and studies considered because these provide guidelines for the conduct of the said research. RELATED LITERATURE Reading has been value in studying from the earliest writings and subsequent documents, progress throughout the ages down to the complex uncertain present—how the backward races are suffering many deficiencies and enduring much hardship which literate people have eliminated. Similarly illiterate individuals are handicapped because they cannot read adequately the materials which would refine their lives and improve their work. Even today, perhaps a million youth, many of these are school dropouts who cannot read; live in hopelessness because they failed to learn to read meaningfully in school, or rather because the school failed to teach them to read successfully. Their plight is pitiful unless students in the school learn to read the pertinent books and materials which necessary to their work and which enhance the appreciation of our culture, heritage, they will fall behind their associates and be harassed by failure and disappointment throughout their live thus value of reading should place on education. According to (Cassareo, 2006) reading is an interesting past time or hobby for those who like it. It broadens one’s knowledge. Letters in the books talk to the reader. Reading teaches a child many things. It may be good or it may be bad. It should be guided learning. Page 23 of 131
  • Therefore being an avid reader gives an opportunity to every individual to inform and entertain through reading. In the schools, reading as a subject should be given emphasis for it is the springboard in learning other areasreading in is open to a lot words for learners (Casareo, 2006) In the real teaching-learning situation students must be skilful reader in order for them to benefits in the teaching. It is also the fundamental skills of students to cope up in the complex lessons. Early childhood cognitive development will not develop building blocks of language for learners, unless parents know the importance of good reading. Learners, whose parents are not aware that reading plays a role in the child’s development, are not disposed to learn reading. Their opportunities in learning are limited.(Casareo, 2006) Parents plays vital role in teaching their child to read during early childhood. Otherwise the building blocks of language will slowly develop or else it will not develop. Reading to every citizen is a new civil right. A child should be ready to get a clear understanding of what he sees and reads in order to provide him a good early experience. Early language and early pre-learning reading activities contribute to the development of feeling of a child. Absence of this development will stifle learning and understanding sounds, letter, and language. Language in reading is the building block of speech. (Casareo, 2006) Likewise, the child’s ability to grasp ideas and sounds has a linkage in learning to read letters. Knowing how to read is important in interactive learning. It affects the Page 24 of 131
  • heart and soul of learners. A learner should have strong language and a good pre-reading education For learners learning to read is a challenge posed to parents and educators. No matter how busy parents are, they should have time left their children. Parents should develop good relationship at their early stage of learning. Education begins before birth. Thus, the most important word that should be learned and practised by a learner is credibility according to the First Lady of US President Bush, who was one a teacher herself. High quality teachers are needed in the classroom to guide and teach students to learn. One important aim of reading is to learn to choose, analyse, and read good materials. There are teachers who change a student’s life negatively or positively. Subsequently, teachers should teach a child to be a worthy citizen in thought, in word and in deed. To make teaching reading more effective, it should be integrated with subjects like art and music education, character education, non formal education and all other subject areas in the school curriculum. In short, reading is the right key to spiritual, social, intellectual, esthetical, mental, moral, and academic success. It is also one of simple way for an individual to become a worthy, responsible and deed. Teachers should be creative in integrating reading into more interesting ways that can motivate students to read a lot. Reading is one of the complex tasks accomplished by students. Paradoxically one can learn to read by reading. One significant point of learning to read is to understand how written language and oral language correspond. The English writing stem is based on the alphabetic principle that written words are made up of letters that that have Page 25 of 131
  • approximate matches with the sounds heard in the words we speak. Therefore, to understand the alphabetic principle, one must recognize that spoken words consist of a sequence of sounds and his understanding is called phonemic awareness. Based on (Kang, 1999) phonemic awareness is not reading. It does not deal with alphabetical letters. It is not phonics. It does not replace the school’s reading program and it is not an all-out cure for reading problems. Phonemic awareness is recognizing sounds within words. It is the ability of the learners to focus on sounds of words. It is an understanding that speech is composed of individual sound called phonemes. Phoneme is the smallest unit of speech that carries a definite meaning when put together. The phonemic awareness task requires children to analyse, manipulate the units of speech rather than focus on meaning; and the reader’s task is to understand the relationship of the letter in the writing system to the phonemes in the language. Readers should also recognize that speech could be segmented into smaller units—the readers to become phonemically aware. This gives learners functional practice phonemic segmentation or breaking word down into component sounds. The four basic skills of Phonemic awareness rhyme, sounds, matching sounds, and segmenting words. Such skills are building block for reading. Therefore, in order to benefit from formal reading instruction, learners must have a certain level of phonemic awareness. (Yopp, 1992) Page 26 of 131
  • In short, phonemic awareness is one of the fundamental skills to attain fluency of reading. In reading instruction students would be benefited if they are achieved phonemic awareness skills. In enhancing phonemic awareness of students (Kang, 1999) suggest the following guidelines in order to become more inclined in practicing phonemic awareness (a) Skills should be taught in specific lessons.(b) Try to practise phonemic awareness about 10-15 minutes a day, three to four time a week. (c) The more consistent the lesson structure is, the more improvement you will observe in or young learners. (d) Regroup children upon getting to know their skills. Place in one group those who are successful in phonemic awareness and sustain their skills with lessons once a week. Phonemic awareness is a possible reason why many learners struggle in reading (Rasinski&Padak, 2000). It is fact that when we speak we only rarely pay conscious attention to the sound we make, rather we are simply concerned with getting our messages across. Therefore, the concept that words are made up of sounds is not necessarily an easy for students to grasp. Phonemic awareness is not really critical to our purposes in spoken language but rather central in learning to read.(as cited by Salandangan) A large body of research conducted in the U.S. and other countries indicate that one of the most significant discriminator between good and poor readers is poor readers’ lack phonemic awareness(McCornick, 1999). This holds true regardless of the intelligence level of socioeconomic status of the students. Phonemic awareness is a cause of reading disabilities in a large portion of students whose difficulties lie with word recognition. Page 27 of 131
  • Research studies indicate that one aid to the development of adequate phonemic awareness occurs when yond children listen to storybook read aloud by their parents, an advantage enjoyed by some children, but not all.Other suggests that good or poor phonemic awareness may have a genetic origin. Direct evidence indicates lack of phonemic awareness is a major cause of word identification difficulties. According to (McCornick, 1999) phonemic awareness permits students to use letter-sound correspondences, employ phonic strategies and identify unknown words more quickly. It also may have a bearing on whole-word learning. In addition, it is prerequisite to spelling and writing which also require hearing and matching sound. Further research shown that phonemic awareness is more powerful determiner than intelligence in predicting whether students will succeed in reading a stronger predictor of ―general‖ language proficiency (McCornick, 1999) and a very powerful predictor of later reading achievement (Griffith, et al, 1992). Phonemic awareness is now viewed as a critical variable in emergent literacy and beginning reading acquisition.(McCornick, 1999). Recognizing that words can be broken into phonemes and syllables, and being able to manipulate these, has a high correlation with reading achievement. Thus, it is a central factor in learning to read and a prerequisite in learning to read‖ (as cited by Fernandez) Reading has so many facets that a simple definition cannot adequately cover all of them. Reading means different things to different people. For example, the psychologist is interested in reading as a thought process; a semanticist is concerned with meaning and considers the printed page only as far as it is the graphic representation of speech; the Page 28 of 131
  • linguist studies the relationships between the sounds of a language and its written form; the sociologist studies interaction of reading and culture; the lover of literature reacts to the artistic patterns of the words he reads. According to Holdanto the reading specialist reading is total response –physical, mental and emotional that a person makes to printed symbols. It involves one’s attitude toward and understanding of the material being read. They are concerned with the fact that the act of reading involves the whole personality; the more or personality grows the more we like to read. (as cited by Villamin,1999) Reading is really perceptual, although it starts out sensory process, and includes more than a mere recognition of words. For example, a student takes a book. His sense of sight reveals the size, shape, and texture which his sense of touch also confirms. As his eyes go over the print of the book, he sees graphic which, by themselves, do not mean anything to him. The words generation gap, for instance, can be read by anyone who has learned how to spell and read correctly. However, because reading is actually more than perception of these symbols because it is more the relating of the graphic symbols to the totality of the reader’s personality the words encompass entire sociological and psychological concepts. Once the word is recognized, the reader brings to them the wealth—or dearth of his cultural, biological and social inheritance, so that the abstract idea symbolized by words generation gap being concretize in an argument with one’s father about long a college boy may grow. Each reader has his own unique reaction to each word because no two person are exactly the same cultural, biological and social background. A student activist may think Page 29 of 131
  • of generation gap in terms much like the young woman who couldn’t understand why her mother got so mad when she ―brought home a grocery bag filled with ―molotobs bombs‖. A sociologist may thinks of it in terms of differences in social orientation. A teenager react it simply by shrugging his shoulders –attesting to the fact that there is generation gap. Every reading brings a specific reaction to every word because reading is actually the bringing of meaning to, rather than gaining of meaning from printed page. Perception, adorned by reader’s imagination and aided by memory and association, determines his total response to the material and his reception of what author is trying to tell him. It is redundant, then, to say that the person who has experienced more gets more satisfaction in reading, as from other activities in life, because his interpretation of the graphic symbol is unavoidably richer, deeper and more meaningful. He is stimulated by the author’s printed words, but he in turn vests with his own meaning, an interpretation chosen from the many which from the wealth of his experience, he can give depending on his present mood and other circumstances. Horn, a reading specialist, points out that the author ―does not really convey ideas to the reader; he merely stimulates him to construct them out of his own experiences. The critical element in reading act is this meaningful response to the written symbol. Reading is a subtle act, a process that must be learned. An understanding of the laws of learning and the facts concerning motivation, reinforcement, practice, interference, transfer and conditioning will greatly help one attain greater proficiency and skill in this important tool. (Howes, 1999) Page 30 of 131
  • Few adults would question the importance of reading to effective functioning in our complex, technological world. Educators have long made reading instruction a priority in the school curriculum, especially in the primary grades. As students enter the middle grades, their exposure to a systematic approach to reading instruction often decreases, although it should not. To develop reading strategies and higher-order thinking skills, students need instruction in appropriate reading skills and strategies at all levels. Strategies are deliberate actions designed to allow readers to decode and comprehend text. When repetition of a good strategy occurs enough to makes its application effortless, a reader has acquired a reading skill. One task that teachers face is to help students see the importance of acquiring reading abilities for performing everyday tasks effectively and the value of reading as source of information, enjoyment and recreation. To accomplish this task effectively, teachers needs to know something about reading act, some useful principle to reading instruction, and some of the theories on which instructional practices in reading are based. Teachers should understand the needs for a comprehensive balanced approach to reading instruction and the place of reading instruction in the over all language arts curriculum. Teacher must be knowledgeable about many approaches and strategies so that they can much approaches and teaching strategies so that they can match approaches and teaching strategies to the needs of the students. Research repeatedly that teachers have more influence in the learning of students in their classrooms than does any particular method. (Blair,Rupley &Nichols,2008) Page 31 of 131
  • According (Valle,2003) there are four levels of reading are independent level in this level the learners needs no help in reading materials. One’s understood the ideas presented. He pronounces accurately 99% of the words passage. There are no signs of poor reading habits or tension such as finger pointing, frowning, or lip movement in silent reading. The reader is fun to enjoy the story content or reflect and evaluate as his purpose dictates. Dependent level in these level learners is challenged by new ideas and unfamiliar words but meet these challenges effective with only moderate help. Understanding of ideas of presented satisfactorily—75% when measured by factual inferential questions. He has difficulty pronouncing no more one word in twenty running words. He shows no signs of interfering tension or poor reading habits. Frustration level earners has difficulty coping reading task. One’s understanding of the ideas is limited. He is not pronouncing 10% or range of words. Signs of tentative and faulty reading habits are inherent. Rate of silent reading is poor. One’s moves his lips and may do whisper. Oral reading is characterized by word-by-word reading or poor phrasing. One’s make meaningless, word substitutions, repeat words, insert and words, or omit words. Capacity level in this level the learners understands materials read to on this level. He pronounces the words accurately and uses the words precisely in describing facts. Learners are able to supply permanent information from his existence. This gives measures of level which he can hope to comprehensive level. Page 32 of 131
  • An informal reading inventory can be ―teacher-made‖ from a set mood of reading books. It is completed by two selections—one for oral and one for silent—at each level of series. The student reads orally, silently and re-reads to questions posed by the teachers as this test is given on an individual basis. After the teacher given this type of test teachers exactly know how well the child and what his different level procedure. Teachers should flexible to teach every child where he is, challenge and help him to grow until he reach the full his full capacity level of reading.(Valle,2003:224-225) Mary Jane D. Bedasua of Old Mirapao Elementary School in Dinas, Zamboanga Del Sur,enumerated four reading approach in her contribution in the November 2006, journal issue of Modern Teacher journal entitled Nature of Reading those are the following: Bloomfield Approach advocated by Dr. Bloomfield because he finds faulty with the phonic methods on two grounds: (a) the inventor of phonic method confused writing with speech and (b) Phonics methods isolate the speech sounds.Irregularities of English demand careful handling to avoid confusion. Regular spelling should be presented in the early stages before teaching words with semi-irregular patterns like cake, bread, etc. And those with complete irregularities or irregular forms such as cough, bough.This may be the complete person of the actual reading phase after learning the letter shapes and names. Eventually with increasing speed, the child works through the page of the teaching materials such as bat, cat, fat, hat, mat, rat, sat, vat, pat, a fat cat, a fat rat, etc. The second approach is dimensional approach it is deals firstly, with the dimensions of personalities which states that ―No two individuals have the same personality so we give suited material to each pupil‖. It also deals with several Page 33 of 131
  • dimensions such as Dimensions of materials, levels of comprehension, literal comprehension, interpretation and reasoning, critical evaluation, application and integration. The third one is language experience approach uses listing language experiences that promote productive thinking, allows freedom of expression, satisfies curiosity and promotes personal satisfaction. Some of the language experiences are Listening and telling the story, developing awareness of common vocabulary and expanding them reading of variety of symbols, improving comprehension, outlining, summarizing, integrating and assimilating ideas and reading critically. The last approach is what we called Fries approach, in this approach basic concept of reading is pre-dominant. This approach believes Learning to read is one’s native language is learning to shift, to transfer from auditory signs for the language signals of the same language. This approach states stages in transforming auditory signs to language signals. Transfer stages the transfer from the familiar auditory signals to the graphic or written symbols of the same language. It suggest alphabetical order, the stroke letters: I T F L H A N M K Z V W X Y, the letters combining strokes and parts of circles P B R D J U, the round letters: O Q G and S Then this is followed by a large amount of practice in the recognition of letter patterns. Letters combinations in column like visual discrimination test. As IF IF IT FIT TIF IT IF IT FIT Page 34 of 131
  • The second stage is the productive reading- this period during which the reader’s responses to the visual patterns become habits so automatic that the significant features of the graphic shapes sink below the thresholdconsciousness. Lastly, the vivid imaginative realization –this begins when the reading process has become automatic for the reader that he uses reading equally with the live language of speech in acquiring and assimilating new experiences. Those approaches in reading suggested above will be useful tool in teaching struggling readers for any age range. It encourages educators that face reading problems to their students. Francis Bacon, a 16th century scholar, foresaw the need for flexibility and versatility in reading when he stated, ―Some books are to be tasted, some are to be chewed, and some are to be digested.(Salandangan, 2006) Bacon stated that could effective and skilled depending on the aim of reader to the printed materials. The efficient reader know how to adjust and vary his reading techniques in accordance with his purpose, the nature and difficulty of the reading material, and his proficiency in manipulating his reading skills with the demands of printed matters in different ways. According to (Atilano, 2006) besides being a versatile reader, one’s is also an independent thinker. They can sense what he wants from the reading material and reads for their primary purpose. If they find the reading material inadequate, theyknow where to refer for more comprehensive knowledge on the subject they want.(as cited The efficient reader reads selectively. He does not limit his reading tastes to one type of author or subject matter. They can read current events in newspapers, magazines, Page 35 of 131
  • and weekly periodicals. For personality development, he reads books that inform him on how to become a better person. At the same time, he does not neglect his academic or professional growth: one’s reads to keep up with the latest in his fields of endeavour. When an individual reads there are of course, specific skills which they must develop through practice. Individuals shouldalways keep in mind the main idea of whatever they arereading. As one’s read along, they should observe and remember the important items and related them to the main idea or to significant subordinate ideas. Further, one’s should go through the mental process of drawing conclusions on the basis of the facts you have learned. Finally, one’s should relate what you have read to what you already know about the subject or to what you know about related subjects.(Salandangan, 2005) If one’s do not apply what you read to the background of knowledge you now possess, one’s are reading in a vacuum. Skilful reading is really an art. But unlike other arts, it does not demand an extremely high degree of artistic talent to be successful. Reading is like the other arts, however, in that more intelligently you practice it, the more proficient you become. After one’s finish with the elementary grades, most of individuals never again have aformal reading lesson and the ability to learn increases with maturity. Therefore, when one’s you are now a slow reader does not mean that you must remain a slow reader all your life. If one’s posses strong and determined will to improve, you can. If you are now good reader, you always become a better reader.(Holdan, 2010) Here in our country, we have AndressBonifacio who was too poor to go through formal schooling, but who educated himself through reading. There is no royal road to Page 36 of 131
  • skilful reading. But there are no instrumental obstacles to it either. Be firm in your belief that you can really learn to read well and you will achieve success People young and old, now live in a paced and highly computerized society. The demands are great and keeping up with them requires greater effort and time. The ability of man to conquer space and cyber space has grown even more intense as years go by. However, all these things would not have been possible if people did not know how to read. Frederick Thomas, who has always been avid readers, said that when he was in Grade 5, he looked forward to watching the Ateneo children’s presentations of Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings. He said that he got sick that day of the play and had to stay at home. . His curiosity of the story piqued. When his aunt who was going to the States asks him what he wanted Tolkien’s trilogy. When his ant came back, he handed him three books with bright colours of red, blue and green.(Valle, 2003) Each book had on its own cover paintings, which he assumed were scenes room the story. He eagerly devoured each volume, and his journey into the realm of fantasy was launched.Many reading enthusiasts would be thrilled about knowing this fact. However, simply remains as one of those chores that need to be done in school. Reading is essential to man’s existence. It is then equalled with air, water, food an exercise. It is interesting to note that if this is the case, reading gives security, belongingness, status, and ultimately self-actualization (Chiang,1995). Chiang may be seeing the world of clearly reality that reading is one of weapon of human beings to survive in this fastest pre-dominant technology today. The ability to read and understand printed materials especially these written in English is an indicator of success. According to (Chiang,1995) students who can read Page 37 of 131
  • fluently make better progress. Those who have reading difficulties are reminded of this weakness. Like ordering at the restaurant, following street signs, assembling an object are all poignant reminders of this experience. (Gray& Rogers, 1965) expressed this more vividly when they said ―Reading is an indispensable factor in modern life, interwoven with work, recreation, and other activities of young people and adults. If a person wishes to be well informed, enjoy his existence and relationship with others, he must know how to read. Francis Bacon give emphasis to this when he said that ―Reading makes a full man‖...a quotation that up to this time has become a favourite of the adherents of the famous sayings. (Deboer and Dallman, 1965) define reading as an activity which involves comprehension and interpretation of ideas symbolized by written and printed page. Hence, it is clear that hand and hand with reading is the necessity to know and interpret the meaning of the symbols read. This is so in order to appreciate what one reads to bring him closer to his environment regardless of distance. Reading does not only entail knowing the meaning of the word by recalling the meaning of words. It is also an activity wherein the reader tries to organize said meanings. According to (Bond, 1994), the organization of meanings is governed by purposes that are clearly defined by the reader. In short, the reading process involves both the acquisition of meaning intended by the writer and the readers own contributions in the form of interpretation and evaluation Page 38 of 131
  • (Kembo,1996) also states that in reading one has to build concepts of the printed symbols that he/she reads. This is fortified when skills learned through reading are transfer to other areas of language such as speaking and writing (Kembo, 1996). That is why when one reads he/she has to make a lot of associations to comprehend experiences, emotions, failures and successes shared by the writer.(as cited by Fernandez,2003) Throughout one’s life, one has to do a lot of reading. It is therefore necessary that one knows how to apply these reading skills appropriately. Understanding words, sentences, and paragraphs is essential to comprehending a reading selection. A student learning a new language like English must be prepared in order to meet the varied task in the future. The Ghana Association of French Teachers (GAFT) Report cited in Wright’s (1993) article, pointed out the students must be encouraged to read and enjoy literary works so that the habit that acquired may stand a chance of being maintained after formal studies have ended. (Doctor, 2004:p.237) The ability to readis vital functioning effectively in a literate society. Many children come to school with a sense of the importance reading in their lives. Unfortunately not all students arrive at school with this vision, and those who do not have this vision need to be helped to acquire it before they wll be motivated to learn. Learning to read takes effort and children who fail to see the value of reading in their personal activities will be less likelyto exert this effort than those who do see benefits. Fortunately, teachers should have little trouble demonstrating to students that reading is important. Every aspect of life involves reading. Road signs direct travelers to Page 39 of 131
  • particular destinations, inform drivers of hazards, and alert people to traffic regulations.Other useful items to read include mens in restuarants, abels on can, printed advertisement, newspapers and magazines. Reading situation are inescapable. Even oung children can be helped to see need to read the signs on the restroooms, the labels of desk in their classrooms, and the labeled areas for supplies. In fact, these young children are often eager to learn to read and are ready to attack task enthusiastically.(Roe B.& Smith S.,2012) Reading task become increasingly complex as students advance through grades, and continual attention must be given to these task. For example, teacher can introduce middle-grade students to many needs for literacy skills through career-education activities. Students can choose occupatioms that interest them and analyze the reading skills that each occupation requires. Taking field trips to works environments and listening to resource people speak can help students see how people in different professions se reading in their jobs. Students may also analyze reading demands in a wide variety of recreational and functional activities. In many cases, the reading activities involve se of the Internet, including social network websites, search engines, and email. Although functional reading is important to everyday reading is important to everyday living, reading for enjoyment is also an important goal. Tecaher must attempt to show students that reading can be interesting to them for reasons other than strictly utilitarians ones. Students may read foir relaxation, vicarious adventure, or aesthetic pleasure as the emmerse themselves in tales of other times and places or those of here and now. They may also read to obtain information abotv areas of interest or hobbies to fill Page 40 of 131
  • their leisure time. ―Putting It into Practice: Reading for Enjoyment provides additiona; ways teachers can promote a joy of reading in teir classrooms‖(Roe B.& Smith S.,2012). Learning to read is a complex continous process from the years the child develop and contining throghout life time. As a basic tool for learning, reading facilitates difficulty to reason, think, discriminate, judge, evaluate what has been read, and solve problems. Reading is indeed an encompassed tool in assisting the learners to learn. It would seem that no single of reading instruction should be advocated, but that evidence of teacher of reading should seek process which offers the great of assessing individual’s nique nature and ability. A knowledge of their internal needs and growth patterns program for individuals is important. The effective diagnosis of the child’s varied characteristic will determine the time when reading should begin, the materials needed for a flexible reading program to develop his highest level of achievement expectancy.The concept of the teacher of instructing reading as a diagnotician is not new idea. However, it is a view of instruction which need to be manually restated‖. (Valle, 2003) Mass communication is one of man’s more successful attempts to cope with the knowledge explosion. But even the most sophisticated mass communications system does not negate the necessity of knowing how to read. Reading is the primary avenue to knowledge. The world history of man—the story of creation, his conquest, his achievements, his ideals, thoughts and aspirations, his hope for the future—is contained in books. To advance in knowledge, one must constantly learn more, study more, reason more. Reading helps accomplish this. In college for instance, about 85% of all study Page 41 of 131
  • involves reading. If, as it certainly does, progress comes through study, then reading is perhaps the student’s chief means to academic progress. Reading, in fact, is the first step to any field of study. How do you study algebra or chemistry or sociology or theology—if not by reading? Reading, too, has a great influence on personality. Gates, a famous reading specialist, suggests that ―in wholehearted reading, the reader does more than understand and contemplate: his emotions are stirred, his attitudes and purposes are modified, and indeed his innermost being is involved. The act of reading may also have special therapeutic values. It can mirror life and the reader may come to see himself as others see him. It can, however, be superior to a life situation in that the reader can accept unsavoury appraisals of his weaknesses since the mirror image does not directly threaten his ego. The man who cannot read extensively is deprived of a means for satisfying his needs for new experiences, for filling his leisure time, for learning more about himself and others, for promoting his emotional and social adjustment, thus blocking him from adequate communication with an important portion of his world. A person who reads more achieves more because he has wider perspectives of life and can easily adjust himself to different situations which he has previously read or learned about in books. The man who reads emerge ―the full man‖ (Holdan, 2010). We all know that reading has to do with process of attaching meaning to certain written symbols and achievement is a result brought about by efforts or quality and quantity of a pupil’s work. Page 42 of 131
  • The teaching of reading involves three distinct entities, the students, the teacher and the method used. Problems in the teaching of reading may be also be classified into three categories, the students, the teacher and the method or material involved. For reading purposes, problems which cluster around the learner will make up one group, while problems related to the teaching of reading which canter upon the teacher will make up one group will be those problems related to the materials and the methods in the teaching of reading. Socio-Economic level students from home that provide a rich background of experiences generally are ready to attack the planning stage. These are the children who come from families of higher socio-economic status. Children who had that experience with books and magazines tend to develop an interest in reading. Their potential for concept and meaning is greater than that student who lacks this background, students who grew up in homes devoid of facilities and opportunities conducive to reading readiness. Sometimes they do not have books in their homes. These students particularly require understanding and need guidance in their pre-reading and reading programs. Environment the student home background has much to do with his predisposition to reading process. Homes from which children come from differ as to the high socioeconomic status, the youngsters receive affectionate care and come to school with good habits and listening. They have acquired excellent conversational practices and alert habits of thinking with care favourable for learning to read. On the other hand, some students coming from low socio-economic status are left to shift for themselves because these may parents have insufficient time and energy to help them appropriately. So the Page 43 of 131
  • greater majority of school students, on the other hand depend to a large measure if not totally, on the schools for their pre-reading experiences. Reading is necessary for the enrichment of living in our society. Through reading, civilization has improved its perspective because individuals have been able to learn about people of ancient time and of succeeding eras, how the lived, how they worked and how they struggled to solve problems of environment, hunger, disease, inadequate shelter and faulty communications. Language or languages used language skills are basic to express himself is the concern of first year English teachers. Before the give any formal reading attention to the development the child, his vocabulary should be attended to first, because of this particular need of our school learners. Teachers should begin promptly from the first day of school, to develop the child’s listening and speaking vocabulary. Finally, it should be borne in mind that no formal reading instruction is to be given to the beginners until after they have sufficiently developed vocabulary skills through speaking and listening in anticipation of their reading vocabulary and when they have acquired the ability to express themselves orally with ease and facility. Goals of teachers for children one of the goals in the teaching of reading is to help the child attain the optimum development of his reading ability. Every teacher knows however those developmental differences occur among children. Students in a class may differ in mental ability, emotional maturity, language power, and interpretation skills. Aside from these, they may differ in experiences problems, and needs. All these Page 44 of 131
  • differences fall on the ability of each student to know how to read, each individual is expected to grow reading ability at his own rate‖. (Cestina,2006:239-240) The major reading tasks of word recognition, fluency, and comprehension are so challenging to some students that they struggle with reading and fall behind their in peers in achievement. For decades, researchers and teachers have tried to identify the factos and issues that appear to place some students at risk for reading difficulties. Two fundamental reasons underlie this search for at-risk factors and issues. The first reason is based on the belief that if something within the child is an at-risk factor, intervention could be aimed at fixing the problem. For example, if poor visual acuity is an at-risk factor, the problem could likely be corrected through medication, surgery, eyeglasses, or contacts. The second reason is based on the belief that is something within the child is at-risk factor, and correcting the visual problem itself is not an option, the child could be taught to read with large print or Braille books. What researchers and teachers have found is that it is rarely as straightforward as addressing the issue of visual acuity. As you consider these at-risk factors, it is important to recognize that the influence of these factors on reading performance will vary from student to student. We know that the presence of any one of these factors, let alone several, places the child at risk for reading difficulty. Alternatively, we know that their presence does not ensure that the child will have difficulty and that some students who struggle with reading do not exhibit any of these at-risk factors. Most important, we know that none of these factors predetermines reading failure. Page 45 of 131
  • Understanding the potential influence of these factors on reading performance will enable you to carry out two important activities. The first is to take these factors into consideration when you assess the student’s reading abilities. The second is to adapt instruction appropriately. For example, if poor visual acuity is an at-risk factor, the problem could likely be corrected through medication, surgery, eyeglasses, or contacts. The second reason is based on the belief that is something within the child is at-risk factor, and correcting the visual problem itself is not an option, the child could be taught to read with large print or Braille books. What researchers and teachers have found is that it is rarely as straightforward as addressing the issue of visual acuity. (Reed, 2007) As you consider these at-risk factors, it is important to recognize that the influence of these factors on reading performance will vary from student to student. We know that the presence of any one of these factors, let alone several, places the child at risk for reading difficulty. Alternatively, we know that their presence does not ensure that the child will have difficulty and that some students who struggle with reading do not exhibit any of these at-risk factors. Most important, we know that none of these factors predetermines reading failure. Understanding the potential influence of these factors on reading performance will enable you to carry out two important activities. The first is to take these factors into consideration when you assess the student’s reading abilities. The second is to adapt instruction appropriately. (Red, 2006) A cognitive factor according to Reed (2007), cognition is defined as the acquisition and use of knowledge. With this definition in mind, the relationship between Page 46 of 131
  • cognition and language developments is interdependent. As an aspect of language, reading development is both dependent on cognitive ability and, in turn, contributes to cognitive development. Intelligence is associated with reading ability. That is, the relationship between intelligence and reading ability is positive. However, lower intelligence does not cause reading disability just as higher intelligence does not cause reading ability. Students with lower intelligence are likely, however, to have more difficulty encoding, storing, and retrieving words in memory. They are also likely to have more restricted background knowledge to apply to new text topics, a smaller vocabulary, more difficulty with complex English sentence structures, and less ability to employ cognitive strategies in reading than students with average or high intelligence Linguistic factors three linguistic factors are related to reading ability: learning disability, language disability, and second language learning. Learning disabilities involve significant difficulties in acquiring, understanding, and using spoken and written language, reasoning, and mathematical abilities. According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (1998), it is presumed that these difficulties are due to central nervous system dysfunction. Difficulty with reading is the most common feature of students with learning disabilities (Kavale&Forness, 2000). The reading problems of these students are characterized by poor phonological awareness, inadequate use of letter-sound relationships for identifying words, and weak performance in a task called rapid naming speed, which is the speed with which the Page 47 of 131
  • reader can name visually presented letter, numbers, or pictures. (Lovett, Steinbach, & Frijters, 2000) The term dyslexia is currently used to refer specifically to children and adults with exceptional difficulty in developing phonological awareness and who, thus, have great difficulty mapping letters to spoken words (Shaywitzet.al.2000). According to (Dykman& Ackerman, 1991; Shaywits, Fletcher, &Shaywits, 1995).Some students with learning disabilities have persistent difficulty in attending to tasks and are diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder. Others display high rates of purposeless or inappropriate movement along with difficulty in attending. These students are diagnosed as having attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In order to be diagnosed with ADHD, the determination must be made by a physician who uses the diagnostic criteria found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Americal Psychiatric Association, 2000). Symptoms include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Not all students with learning disabilities have ADHD and not all students with ADHD have learning disabilities. Reading problems can stem from the reader’s difficulty in giving close attention to reading material and sustaining attention through extended written passages. Reading disability and ADHD co-occur at relatively high rate with approximately one-third grade one children and over half of grade nine students having a dual diagnosis.(as cited by Tejero,2012) Language disability often accompanies learning disability. The proportion of students with learning disabilities who also experience language delays and difficulties may be as high as 80 percent (Wiig, 1994). Language disability may include any or all of Page 48 of 131
  • the four components of language: syntactic, semantic, phonological, and pragmatic development. Semantic development involves learning how morphemes are combined into words and how words are combined into sentences. The child with delayed syntactic development will have difficulty comprehending sentence structures and using structural analysis, analogy, and context for word recognition. Pragmatic development involves learning how to use language for interacting with others. For example, learning the ―rules‖ for opening, maintaining, and closing a conversation are part of pragmatic development. The child with delayed pragmatic development may have difficulty using cognitive strategies such as predicting, inferring and interpreting.Students for whom English is a second language, or English language learners (ELLs), may also experience difficulties in becoming readers. Research shows that it takes the average English language learner two years or less to use English easily in conversation but at least five years to be at grade level in English proficiency (Cummins, 2001). Given that reading material requires English proficiency rather than simple conversational proficiency, English language learners are likely to spend at least one-third of their school years with language abilities well below what is required for reading at grade level. As Cummins, noted, ―Every year native English-speaking students gain more sophisticated vocabulary and grammatical knowledge and increase their literacy skills. Therefore students must catch up with a moving target‖ (Cummins, 2001:120) Page 49 of 131
  • Social and cultural factorsstudents from socially and culturally diverse background may experience difficulty in school because of incongruence of expectations and norms between the child’s home culture and the school environment, which can result in a mismatch between the child’s preferred learning and interactive style and the teacher’s (Au, 2000; Barrera, 1995). Culturally responsive teaching involves instructional practices aimed at affirming the culture of students and reflecting the student’s culture in the teaching process. It is clearly states that cultural environment greatly affects reading achievement of students but teachers have strategies, technique, and approach to address these problems. According to (Gollnick and Chinn,2009), culturally responsive teaching mitigates against learning problems because it involves high teacher expectation, reflects students’ cultures in academic subjects, includes multiple perspectives on issues and events, involves positive and caring student-teacher interactions, and incorporates effective cross-cultural communication between students and teachers. ―Creating culturally responsive classrooms that include developing culturally competent teachers is a transformative process of the American educational system. . . . Assessments that are culturally fair should inform teachers about the quality and integrity of their instruction and should enable them to make changes for increasing students’ outcomes, a coveted end goal of education in America (Cartledge &Kourea2008) Teachers are the responsible to create a culturally responsive classroom in order for the students to cope up with the reading problems due to Page 50 of 131
  • Carnineand colleagues (Carnin, Silbert, Kame’enui.& Tarver, 2004; Carnine, Silbert, Kame’enui, Tarver, &Jungjohann, 2006) distinguish between students who struggle with reading because they have adequate general language ability but weaknesses in translating between oral language and printed language from students, largely form families of lower socioeconomic status, who struggle because they have inadequate oral language and knowledge and literacy-related knowledge. Educational factors the research on effective reading instruction is extensive. Thus, it seems obvious to identify inappropriate reading instruction as a reason that some students struggle with reading. Strategies and materials that are appropriate for one student may be inappropriate for another. No simple one-size-fits-all reading program works for every student. The student’s educational program is an at-risk factor is the same strategies and materials are used regardless of the progress he or she makes. (Cartledge &Kourea,2008) Educational factors could be an integral part of learning of students not only in learning to read but in all learning areas. The teachers must have habitual reflection after teaching they must ask their selves the following. Have i assessed the student’s abilities?, Do my instructional strategies and materials make sense based on what I learned about the student’s abilities and needs through my assessment?, Am I differentiating instruction?, Are my strategies ones that are evidence-based practices?, Have these strategies been found to be successful with readers who have similar abilities and needs as my student?, Am I willing to adapt or change my strategies if the student is not succeeding? Page 51 of 131
  • Physical factors three causes of reading disabilities is related to reading ability: hearing, vision and neurological factors.Similar to intelligence, there is a direct relationship between hearing loss and reading ability. Degree of hearing loss is correlated with reading achievement level; the greater the hearing loss, the more likely it is have lower reading that the child will achievement. The average student who is deaf gains one third of a grade equivalent change each school year and the average reading level is fourth grade at high school graduation (Gallaudet Research Institute, 2003). The cause of low reading achievement appears to be related to oral language development. For children to learn language, they need a considerable amount of experience in conversation with adults. Through these interactions, children discern the underlying rules of the language used by adults. Children who are deaf and hard of hearing are exposed to inconsistent and incomplete language models because they do not hear English without some distortion. The amount of distortion depends on their degree of hearing loos, ability to benefit from amplification, and use of visual modalities, such as American Sign Language (Schirmer, 2000). Thus, students who are deaf and hard of hearing are likely to experience difficulty with phonemic awareness, phonic analysis for word recognition, and English sentence structures. They may also have less background knowledge than hearing students who benefit from the incidental information available through overhearing others talking, listening to the radio while driving in the car, and the myriad other daily opportunities to hear what is happening without looking. Page 52 of 131
  • Vision is not directly related to reading difficulties unless a visual problem is diagnosed. The reading process of students with low vision is not qualitatively different from the reading process of students with normal vision (Bosman, Gomple, Vervloed, &VonVon, 2006). Visual problems is not a problem in reading process, the students with normal vision and students with having visual problems is not qualitatively different they are both able to read well. According to (O’Shea & O’Shea, 1994).Students with blindness and low vision do not have a higher prevalence of reading problems than students with normal vision although they are likely to have less background knowledge than students with normal sight who gain this knowledge from the ongoing stream of visual information within everyday experiences. They also have difficulty connecting and organizing their experiences, understanding abstract concepts, and comprehending figurative language (Kingsley, 1997).―Beyond visual acuity per se, visual perception and visual discrimination received a great deal of attention by researchers during the last quarter of perception or discrimination problems cause reading disabilities or that visual training or visual tracking exercises improved reading ability‖. Neurological disorders can result from diseases and toxic substances during pregnancy, birth, and childhood. Other neurological issues have been proposed as causes of reading difficulties including preferred learning style, dominance of left and right brain hemispheric functioning, and the concept of multiple intelligences. None of these issues have been found to have a direct bearing on reading ability and instruction aimed at these Page 53 of 131
  • domains has not been found to influence reading achievement (McCormick, 2007; Riccio& Hynd, 2012). Recent research on brain function, particularly the use of magnetic resonance imaging technology, has show that individual brain differences are present in many individuals with reading disabilities but it is unclear whether brain differences cause reading disabilities or are the result of years of poor reading (Catts&Kamhi, 2005). New technologies hold great promise for learning about the influence of brain structure and neural networks on learning to read. With regards to those factors why students has difficulties in reading there are also factors that affect teachers in teaching struggling readers specifically in grade seven students today. Cestina state that the second problems in the teaching of reading centres on the teachers. As for personal characteristics, the writer thinks that a teacher must be an endless patience, a basic fairness, much ingenuity and a sense of humour. Beside the general characteristics mentioned, the most important characteristic of a reading teacher is a real liking for learners. Aside from these characteristics, teacher must have training and experience. As part of this education teacher should have taken the curses such as psychology of reading, the techniques of teaching anddevelopmental and remedial reading and guidance. As part of their experience his experience, they should have served successful as a classroom teacher. Page 54 of 131
  • They should have the ability to work well with other people. Then, there are those who would make every teacher a reading teacher. Certainly, all teachers should help a student learn to read better—thus, every teacher is a reading teacher. Teachers will find many helpful suggestions for dealing classroom problems, but to utilize them most effectively, they must be incorporated into the instructional programs of the entire school. A place for a definite reading program should be provided in the curriculum of every school. The initiative for introducing a developing a well planned reading program comes from the administrator. Besides those programs teachers must also have an assessment in measuring the ability and competency of students. Assessment is the process of collecting and analyzing data for the purpose of identifying and understanding student learning. Assessment is important because it enables teachers to discover each student’s strengths and weaknesses, to plan instruction accordingly, to communicate student progress, and to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching strategies. Assessing student learning is essential for effective teaching and should be an integral part of all instructional procedures. Assessment should not simply be equated with testing. It should involve the collection of data from multiple measures – such as day-to-day observation, student conferences and interviews, and analysis of samples of student’s work, as well s formal means. Profiles of student’s capabilities than do single assessments, and they facilitate differentiated instruction for all students.(Walker-Dalhouse, Risko, Esworthy,Kaisier, and Macllavain, 2009.) Assessment is simply process of gathering data to uplift the technique used by teacher and develop more effective approach to produce productive individuals. Page 55 of 131
  • An understanding of the principles and uses of assessment is essential for all teachers, and in particular for teachers of reading.(Snow, Griffin,& Burns 2005:179) Reading assessment has great power to inform researchers, teachers, administrators, and policy makers. Assessment practices can significantly benefit the learning environment or they can inflict great harm. Reading assessment therefore, needs to be treated with great care, attention, and respect. It is used for many purposes, but all appropriate uses begin from an understanding of the reading construct, an awareness of the development of reading abilities, and an effort to reflect the construct in assessment task. It can be assessment can be intimidating and sometimes overwhelming for many teachers and administrators. The role assessment in teaching happens to be a hot issue in education today. This had led to an increasing interest in ―performance-based education.‖ The performancebased education poses a challenge for teachers to design instruction that is tasks oriented. The performance-based task requires performance-based assessments in which actual student’s performance is assessed through a product such as a completed project or work that demonstrates levels of task achievement. Performance-based assessment using rubrics requires actual demonstration of observable skills in creation of products that are grounded in real world context and constraints. One example is that psychomotor skills with a product will be a form of performance-based task among students in their laboratory classes. The department of Education (DepEd) and other State and Private Universities responding to the need for an assessment and evaluation system that truly reflects student performance are now moving the student evaluation process away from the misleading Page 56 of 131
  • effects of the transmutation tables towards a performance-based grading system that provides a more reliable measure of what the students are actually learning in their classes. According to (Buns &Griefth, 2007) reading assessments are meant to provide feedback on the skills processes, and knowledge resources that represent reading abilities. It is important to note different assessment practices may assume different theories of reading and reading development. Assessment in general can be categorized in a number of ways, and all assessment frameworks serve important purposes. Commonly assessment frameworks serve important purposes. Commonly, assessment has been categorized in terms of norm-reference and criterion- reference testing, formative and summative assessment, formal and informal (or alternative) assessment, proficiency, achievement, placement, and diagnostic assessment. Reading assessment is organized and described in terms of five basic assessment such as reading-proficiency assessment (standardized test), assessment of classroom learning, assessment for learning(supporting student learning is the purpose), assessment of curricular effectiveness and assessment for research purposes.(as cited by Valdez,2003:232-233). There is an inevitable overlap among specific test uses across these categories, nonetheless, serve as a useful framework for organizing reading assessment. There are several types of assessment used depending on the necessity of the students to be assessed. Assessment of reading proficiency is important as a way to understand students’ overall reading abilities (based on some assumed construct of reading) and to determine Page 57 of 131
  • if students are appropriately prepared for further learning and educational advancement. Commonly, this type of assessment is referred to as standardized testing, although local groups and researchers also develop proficiency tests of different types. In most respects, proficiency assessment represents high-stakes testing because decisions are often made about students’ future educational goals and opportunities. Alternatively, this type of assessment may lead to special education or reading-disability designations labels that, once applied, are hard to remove from a student’s record. Readingproficiency assessment is also sometimes used for student placement, for policy decisions, for curriculum changes, or for program, teacher, or institutional evaluations Assessment of reading improvement in classroom settings involves the measurement of skills and knowledge gained over a period of time and commonly referred to as summative or achievement testing. Sometimes, proficiency assessment are used to measure student progress from year to year, but this type of reading assessment does not capture ongoing student gained made in reading skills in the classroom. Yearend testing actually measures growth in proficiency from year to year rather than measuring gains reading abilities based on what was taught in class. Much more commonly, assessment of classroom learning uses tasks that reflect the material taught in class and skills practiced. Typically the teacher, teacher groups, or curriculum groups (or textbook material writers) develop these tests, and they are responsible for deciding what steps to take as a result of assessment outcomes. Teachers have multiple opportunities to assess student learning at several points in any semester using common techniques e.g., end-of-unit tests quizzes of various types, post reading comprehension questions, etc. But some classroom assessment Page 58 of 131
  • alternatives are less obvious. Informal and alternative assessment options are central for the effective assessment of learning e.g. student observation, self reporting measures, progress, charts, engagement and group work, group outcome assessment , interviews.), an the usually provide converging evidence overtime for the appropriate summative test at the end of school year. Assessment of learning can be either normative—how students compare to each other or criterion-based how well the student perform on curriculum standards and establish goals. These two testing purposes should lead to somewhat different tests and different scoring. To give simplest example, normative testing would discourage ever student to receiving an ―A‖ but a criterion-based may include all students in receiving an ―A‖. Assessment for learning involves a type of reading assessment that is not commonly discussed and somewhat innovative in discussions of Language assessment. This assessment purpose is intended to support and promote student learning, in this case, the improvement of reading abilities. Performance abilities or a record of outcomes is not the goal; instead, the goal is to provide immediate feedback on task and to teach students to engage in more effective learning. In many respects, this approach appears to overlap with the assessment of classroom learning, but this is true only with respect to many of reading task performed, not to follow up feedback and interaction between teacher and the students. Assessment for learning engages students in their own learning and responds to indicators of no understanding or weak performances with ongoing remediation and fine-tuning instruction. There are two general type of assessment for learning practices. One involves the use of recognizable classroom assessment activities Page 59 of 131
  • to provide helpful feedback for learning; the second involves specific assessment for learning practices to support students directly in their day-to-day learning. Houghton C. Mifflivorus and Roe Russ 2010:84-89), describe current educational trends toward increased assessment of student progress through standardized tests that attempt to measure attainment of knowledge and skills mandated by state and national curriculum standards. In addition to these forma assessments we also discuss a wide variety of informal assessment measures that teachers can use to gather information on a day-to-day basis. Formative assessment provides information in a timely fashion so as to inform and direct instruction. Formative assessment is continuous and ongoing. It provides relevant feedback for both the learner and the educator (Popham, 2006) useful information when working with struggling readers, and should include self-assessments completed by students. Short-term assessments administer at key points provide immediate feedback and allow for a direct focus on specific strategy implementation or skill development. (as cited by Borabo,2008) The connection between assessment and instruction makes it imperative that teachers not only routinely connect assessment data, but also engage in conversations with colleagues regarding the analysis of the data. Summative Assessments are administered at the end of an instructional unit or time period. The results summarize the progress of students as they complete their involvement in the learning task. The most powerful summative assessments are Page 60 of 131
  • supported by results from a number of formative assessments. Formal Assessments are most often summative. (Anderson, Grant, and Speck, 2008). The gathering of the results of multiple assessments should be a continuous process that forms the basis of designing appropriate intervention plans for all students. Intervention plans address the instructional needs of students, include the conditions of the learning environment, and are implemented through selected techniques. The Response to intervention (RTI) approach, described later in this chapter, provides a framework for creating a classroom environment where continuous assessment and intervention are merged. A number of appropriate intervention techniques that teachers can use to address instructional needs are described in this chapter and throughout the text. As an authentic assessment tool, a rubric measures student performance or output (product) based on real-life criteria. Rubric is derived from the Latin word ―red.‖ Long ago, a rubric was asset of instructions for a law or liturgical service typically written in red. Thus, rubric instructs people on how to ―lawfully‖ judge a performance. A good rubric allows a valid reliable criterion reference discrimination of performance. A rubric then is a printed set of guidelines that distinguishes performance or products of different quality. A rubric has descriptions that define what to look for at each level of performance. Rubrics also often have indicators providing specific examples or tell-tale signs of things to look for in work. Rubrics then are an authentic assessment tool that measure students’ performance or output based on real- life criteria.(De Guzman, A.2008) Page 61 of 131
  • .Holistic scoring is more global and does little to separate the tasks in any given product, but rather views the final product as a set of interrelated tasks contributing to the whole. Holistic scoring proves to be efficient and quick. One score provides an overall impression of ability any given product/work. It is most commonly used with writing products, but can be used just as effectively with other subject areas. The disadvantage of holistic scoring is that it does not provide detailed information about student performance in specific areas of content or skill Analytic scoring breaks down the objective or final product into component parts and each part are scored independently. In this case, the total score is the sum of the rating for all of the parts that are being evaluated. When using analytic scoring, it is necessary to treat each component or part as segment to avoid bias toward the whole product. A rubric may be qualitative or quantitative. It is qualitative if its sole purpose is to provide feedback to the students. If the teacher intends to use a rubric in giving grades or scores, quantitative rubric is appropriate. The teacher may assign scores or weights to the different gradations of performance of each particular task or criterion. First teachers need to define the learning outcome or objective that students are expected to achieve. From that point, begin to work backward defining possibly demonstrate. These levels wound range from the possible highest performance to the lowest performance that can be expected from the students on any given task and wouldprovide descriptions of performance for each level. Each level should be directly observable. Page 62 of 131
  • To determine how to describe each level, use ―anchor products‖ that represent various performances that can be evaluated as high quality, average, and low. Have at least three samples to evaluate all of the students’ products.The change in quality from score point to score point must be ―equal.‖ The deeper different between a 5 and 4 should be the same as between 2 and 1. The descriptors should reflect this continuity.Each descriptor should be constructed parallel to all of others, in terms of the critical language used in each sentence. The rubric must focus on the same criteria throughout. While the descriptor for each point on the scale will be different from the ones before and after, the changes should refer to the variance of quality for the criteria, not language that explicitly or implicitly introduces new criteria or a shift in the importance of the various criteria. With multiple rubrics there must be an apt, not arbitrary weighing of each criterion in reference to the others.The rubrics permit valid inferences about performance to the degree that what is scored is what is central to performance, not what is merely easy to see and score. The proposed differences in quality should (a) reflect task analysis and be based upon samples of work across the full range of performance; (b) describe qualitative, not quantitative differences in performance; (c) not confuse merely correlative behaviours with actual criteria (e.g. many speakers use note cards or not using cards should not be a criterion in judging relative success in speaking effectiveness. Rather, the rubrics should enable assessment of the relative smoothness and in formativeness of the presentation).The rubrics enable consistent scoring judges and time. Rubrics allow reliable scoring to the degree that evaluate language (―excellent,‖ ―poor‖) and comparative language (―better than,‖ ―worse than‖) is transformed into highly Page 63 of 131
  • descriptive language which helps judges recognize the salient and distinctive features of each level of performance. Reading assessment involves the process of gathering information about the student’s reading knowledge and abilities and using this information to make judgments about instruction and intervention. In this view of reading assessment, the connection between assessment and instruction is direct. The connection is also iterative. Assessment information is used to plan instruction, and the student’s performance during instruction provides assessment information for the subsequent instruction According to (Cohen &Spenciner, 2007;Hargis, 2004; Kilby, 1995; Salvia.Ysseldyke,Bolt,2007;Taylor,2006)There are seven major sources of assessment information: observation, recollections, tests, artefacts, diagnostic teaching, extant information and professional judgements (Cohen &Spenciner, 2007;Hargis, 2004; Kilby, 1995; Salvia.Ysseldyke,Bolt,2007;Taylor,2006) (as cited by Alcantara,2006) Observations involve watching the student during reading activities and noting behaviours,characteristics, and interactions. Observation can be information can be informal or structured. In informal observations, you simply notice and notate behaviours that indicate the reader’s acquisition and application of new knowledge and skills. In structured observations, you predetermine behaviours and activities to observe, as well as how to record the observations. In recollections, the teacher, parents, child, and other familiar with the child are asked to provide information from memory. Typically, this information is gathered from interviews or questionnaires. Formats for obtaining recollections include publish versions Page 64 of 131
  • that incorporate developmental milestones as well as created questions tailored to specific classrooms and students. A test is simply a set of questions or tasks. The questionnaire predetermined and results are scored in a consistent manner across all test takers on preset criteria and standardized scoring procedures. In one type of standardized scoring procedure, normative standards are used. These are typically referred to as norm-reference or standardized tests. The key characteristic of norm referenced tests is that the student’s performance is compared to the performance of a group of individuals considered to be peers. By understanding the match between the group on which the test was standardized and the student being tested, you can judge the relevance and value of the test results. In a second type of standardized scoring procedure absolute standards is used. These are typically referred to as criterion-referenced tests. The key characteristics of criterion referenced tests are that the student’s performance is compared to a predetermined level of mastery. By understanding the match between the level of mastery expected on the test and the student being tested, you can judge the appropriateness of the test and value of the results. Although norm reference tests are virtually always published tests, criterion-referenced tests may be published or developed by the teacher. Artefacts are collections of items that reflect the reader’s strengths, weaknesses,growth, and goals. Artefacts are a major component of portfolio assessment, which is a system for gathering student work over time to reflect changes in skills and knowledge. Page 65 of 131
  • Diagnostic teaching, in diagnostic teaching, you conduct a mini-lesson for the purpose of identifying the strategies and skills used by readers, assessing how effectively they incorporate these strategies and skills used by readers, assessing how effectively they incorporate these strategies and skills, determining which ones they do not utilize, and ascertaining whether they can learn a new strategy or skill. Extant Informationthat has previously been gathered and is available to be reviewed is typically in the form of school records. For example, cumulative school records regularly include report cards, results of standardized tests, attendance records, individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students being served under the Individuals with reading Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and reports from specialists such as speech language pathologists and school psychologists extant information might also include the artefacts and anecdotal records kept by the student’s previous teachers. Professional judgement, all of the assessment information is interpreted by the teacher, who exerts professional judgement about its meaning and importance. The information gathered from observations, recollections,tests,artefacts,diagnostic teaching, and extant records is as valuable as the teacher is skilled. According to (Salvia, Ysseldyke and Bolt 2007p.32).Judgements represent both the best and worst assessment data. Judgements made by conscientious, capable and objective individuals can be invaluable aids, in the assessment process. Inaccurate, biased, and subjective judgements can be misleading at best and harmful at worst‖.(as cited by Tamepopham W.M) Page 66 of 131
  • According to the column made Dr. Maria Claythe session is typically intimate wherein the teacher and the students sit side by side, reading/writing collaboratively. This allows oral interaction and close intervention of the student.(as cited by Valle N.N.,2003) Re-reading familiar books, the students read aloud books he has read before. This gives the child the chance to engage in fast fluent reading. He does not have to work so hard so that the reading process breaks down; an he has a feeling of success. Re-reading yesterday’s book, the students re-read the book they read for the first time the day before. They are not expected to read it with complete accuracy, but he does not have a single struggle anymore. This also gives the teacher to do running records. Letter identification activity, if the student has very low letter knowledge, they are encouraged to used plastic letters and a magnetic board to form words and engage in word analysis. Other time, is spent on writing. Writing a story, the student composes one or two sentences. Assisted by the teacher, the students write on the lower half of a blank sheet. The top half is use for working on words they misspells. The teacher invites the students to say the words slowly and predict the letters that represents the sounds. He learns to make links between letters an sounds. Then, they has to read their own story aloud. Arranging cut-up story, the child may dictate another sentence, as the teacher quickly writes it on strip of paper, the cut it apart for the student to re- assemble. They ma be asked to paste the pieces on the sheet of paper. The written message is read aloud. They may be asked to reassembled sentences. Page 67 of 131
  • New book introduced, everyday new book is introduced to the child. Teacher and student talk about the content, page by page. Through oral language the students get to know the story line, important ideas, and some of the language of the story. New Book Attempted. The child now is encouraged to read the new book aloud. This is placed at the end of the teaching session because each preview activity should have encouraged him to work his own problems and engage in problem-solving. RELATED STUDIES We cannot deny the fact that non-readers are a perennial problem in the educational system. Teachers must be aware of this because they are the central figures in all teaching activities. The challenge for a brighter future of our school children depend on the teachers. So teachers must accept the challenge and perform our duties and responsibilities honestly and devotedly‖(Villacortes,2008:329). Angelito R. Alcantara of Faigal Elementary School Nueva Ecija, Philippines conducted an assessment conducted with regards to the quality of English reading instruction under the ―NO READ, NO PASS‖ policy of DepEd. It is a stringent measure to upgrade the quality of instruction in our country. For this reason, greater responsibility has been placed on teachers to develop all pupils to become good readers in their perspective grade level at the end of the school year. The action research premise was conceptualized in order to determine the quality of English reading instruction in the aforementioned place. The researcher set up the study based on the reading skills and comprehension of pupils. Page 68 of 131
  • The researcher and his co-teacher in the school compose the members of English Reading Evaluation Committee. The purpose of the study was to find out the percentage of the reading index of Grades I-VI pupils in the school for the first semester of School Year 2003-2004, and how many in each grade level could understand what they read. The study also sought All Grades I-VI pupils will give oral reading Test in English using basic text for each grade level. After the sentences/paragraphs, several questions were asked to test pupil’s comprehension. To facilitate the conduct of the tests, the Standard of Evaluation was set: A pupil might be Good, Satisfactory, Moderately Satisfactory or Non-Reader according to his basic skill in oral reading comprehension. The pupil is considered as Good if he could read very well and could answer all given four question correctly; Satisfactory if he could read well and could answer two or three of the question ask; Moderately Satisfactory if he could fairly read and could answer at least one question asked; he was considered as a Non-Reader if he could hardly read and could not answer correctly any of the question asked. There is a study conducted by Ma. Ana M. Reyes entitled,Common Assessment Methods used by Elementary the learning disabilities of their pupils at Catanauan, Quezon with the supervision of Mrs. MelcaCabanggangan/ The study is primarily concerned in knowing and determining the common assessment methods used by Elementary Teachers in Diagnosing the Learning Disabilities. Page 69 of 131
  • Specifically, it sought to determine the profile of the teachers respondents in terms age, sex, educational attainment, subject taught, and years in teaching, common learning disabilities of the respondent’s pupils. The common problems usually encountered in diagnosing the learning disabilities of the pupils. The researcher conducted a survey involving to teacher’s respondents in Catanauan Central School. The descriptive type of research was used. The respondents were chosen through purposive sampling. The study was conducted with the used of prepared questionnaire was conducted, validated and used in gathering data. The data gathered were statistically treated analyzed using formulas to determine the common assessment method use by elementary teachers in diagnosing the learning disabilities of their pupils. A careful perusal of the responses gathered from 70 respondents carefully and readily revealed after they it were tallied, analyzed and interpreted, it clearly shows the following results. Majority of the respondents are female with the total number of 59 respondents out of 70 respondents, eleven are male within 41-45 age brackets with 13% or 19%. Majority of the respondents are BEED graduate with 57 or 81% while the other was 19% BSED graduated. Majority of teachers respondents are 16-20 years in teaching with 20 or 29%. Majority of the respondents answered that the common disabilities of their pupils was comprehension it obtain the frequency of 50,followed by mathematical reasoning got 33 frequency, followed by reading disabilities that obtain 31 frequency, and the lowest frequency obtained by auditory difficulties with only 9 frequency. Page 70 of 131
  • Majority of the teacher answered that they preferred to use teacher observation on their responses it obtain the highest frequency of 45 followed by selected response with frequency of 40. Majority of the teacher answered that the common problem that they encountered in diagnosing the learning disabilities of their pupils was the behaviours of pupils with the frequency of 44. The teacher must know that he proper process of diagnosing the learning disabilities. The teacher must suit the assessment method that they used based on the learning disabilities of their pupils. The parents must help teachers in controlling or discipline the behaviours of their child, especially during diagnosis process misbehaviours of the pupils can believed in misdiagnosed. The School Administration must establish a remedial program to help the pupils to overcome their learning disabilities. Based on findings, the researcher concluded on following: This study reveals at majority of teachers respondents in Catanauan Central School was female with age bracket of 41-45 years old with frequency of 22 or 31%. Majority of respondents are teaching for 16-20 years with the frequency of 20 or 29%. Majority of them is BEED graduated. Based on the respondents the Common Learning Disabilities of their pupils was comprehension Difficulties or Poor Comprehension. This means that most pupils of Catanauan Central School have problems in reading comprehension, They can’t recall basic facts, recall sequence or they can’t explain the order of events of the story, they Page 71 of 131
  • can’t recall the main theme of the story Probably they can’t easily understand what they read. The classroom assessment methods that usually used by the respondents in diagnosing the learning disabilities of their pupils was. Teacher observation, through this assessment method teachers constantly observe students informally of formally to assess pupils learning disabilities. Therefore, teacher observation assessment method was effective in diagnosing on it is appropriate methods in determining the learning disabilities of pupils. Majority of teachers respondents answered that the problem they usually encountered in diagnosing learning disabilities of their pupils is behaviour of the pupils. Therefore, the behaviour of the pupils is the main problem of the teacher in diagnosing leaning disabilities of students. The aforementioned study clearly states that problems in reading are predominant during elementary grades. It is closely related to this study due to it scrutinize the assessment used by teacher in elementary grades the researcher serve the said study as a source of information in conducting study at secondary level in diagnosing and addressing the needs of struggling readers through assessment method used by teachers. There is also comparative study conducted by Lora M. Garcia a terminal student of Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation Inc. entitled,Comparative study on the use of Authentic Assessment as Perceived by Selected Elementary Teachers in Public and Private Schools in Catanauan, Quezon. Based on the analysis the researcher found out the following statements. Page 72 of 131
  • The description of authentic assessment and traditional assessment by selected elementary teachers in public and private schools in Catanauan Quezon Statement showed that 14 or 28% of the respondents answered strongly agree while 35 or 70%, agree answered agree and only 1 or 2% answered disagree that authentic assessment is also known as performance assessment appropriate, direct or alternatives. Statement showed that 9% or 18% of the respondents answered strongly agree while 41% or 82% answered agree that authentic assessment is defined as a form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real – world task. Statement shoed that 14 or 28% of the respondents answered strongly agree while 34 or 68% answered agree and 2 or 4% were disagree that authentic assessment provides more direct evidence of meaningful application of knowledge and skills. Statement showed that 15 or 30% of the respondents answered strongly agree while 35 or 60% answered agree, 4 or 8% answered strongly agree disagree that traditional assessment is a common, method used in assessing student cognitive learning. With regards to the common types of authentic assessment and traditional assessment is which commonly used by selected elementary teachers in public and private school in Catanauan Quezon, the researcher found out the following reliable statements: Statement showed that 33 or 66% of the respondents answered always while 16 or 32% answered sometimes and only 1 or 2% answered never use portfolio/rubrics. Page 73 of 131
  • Statement showed that 24 or 48% of the respondents answered always while 26 or 52% answered sometimes that hey use art exhibit. Statement showed that 22 or 44% of the respondents answered always while 30 or 60% answered sometimes while 2 or 4% answered never used experiment. Statement showed 4 or 8% of the respondents answer always while 33 or 66% answered sometimes and 16 or 32% answer never use debate. Statement showed that 6 or 12% of the respondents answered while 33 or 66 % answered sometimes and 11 or 22% answer never use journal response. The study also sought the answer on what ways and how authentic assessment & traditional assessment measures pupils performance/ learning. The researcher found out the following statements. Statement showed that 42 or 84% of the respondents answered (AA and TA) authentic & 8 or 16% answered that TA provides full range of skills.(e.g; research writing, oral skills, debating) Statement showed that 40 or 80% of traditional assessment answered authentic assessment and 10 or 20% answered that TA gives students the chance to release critical thinking in achieving success in their future adult professional life. Based on the findings of the study the researcher conclude that On description of Authentic assessment the respondents beliefs that in AA is a form of assessment in which students are ask to perform real-world tasks. And for the description of TA the respondents agree that TA is valid for term is valid forming students ―actual knowledge. Page 74 of 131
  • On the type Authentic Assessment the respondents use portfolio/rubrics conduct above most of them are higher grade teacher. And for common types of TA the respondents use multiple choices and matching type. Never use diagram. On how to measures pupil’s performance learning and for Traditional Assessment the respondent believes that it can measure and give chance to pupils to recall and recognize facts & ideas and preparing in life. This study related in the present study due to the fact that, authentic assessment and traditional assessment is commonly used by teachers in assessing learning and skills of student on a certain topic or area specifically in reading. It serves as spring board in conducting the present study. Another assessment study conducted by Wilody D. Lasquery, a Bachelor of Elementary Education student of Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation Inc., entitled, The Reading Difficulties of Grade VI Pupils of Don Abadilla Elementary School as Basis for a Remedial Reading Program According to this study reading is so much a part of daily life for those of us who live in a literate community that much of the time uses hardly consider either the purposes of processes involved. Almost all of the things we do involve reading. Everywhere we look; there are signs, billboards and things with writings that we read whether intentionally or unintentionally. Reading is inescapable. This is the reason why the ability to read should be every person’s skill. Reading is a highly complex act. It involves two major components on process and product-each of which is also complicated. Teachers should be aware of the complexity of reading so that they could utilize proper strategies in teaching student to read or two remedy those readers who Page 75 of 131
  • have deficiency. Reading is universally recognized as one of the most important activities in the school program as well as life’s activities. It is a social tool to meet social needs. Reading is a key to success in school, to the development or out of school interests, to the enjoyment of leisure time and to personal and social adjustment. It helps him to adjust to his age mates, to become independent of parents and teachers, for an occupation to achieve social responsibilities. This conceptual definition of reading held many years, but still true today. Reading is the major key to success; if you love what you are reading or doing you will be successful. Compare this quotation to reading of one likes or loves reading he would gain knowledge and information on all things he will be successful. So the researcher found out the following findings: With the respect to the first indicator which is the ―visual defect‖ 37 or 74% of the respondents answered that they never suffered from visual defect while 13 or 26% answered that they sometimes suffering this defect. The second indicator which is about ―difficulty in recognizing symbols‖ shows that 33 or 66% of the respondents never experience difficulty in recognizing printed symbols while the other 17 or 34% answered that sometimes experience this. The third indicator is about ―difficulty in recognizing sounds of words‖ In here 41 to 82 percent answered never. The next indicator is ―difficulty in focusing on reading‖. With regard to this indicator is 60% or 30 respondents sometimes find it hard to focus their attention with what they read while 17 or 34% answered never other 6% or 3 respondents answered always. In terms of ―difficulty in pronouncing words well‖ 36 or 72% of the respondents answered never. With respect with the 6th indicator which is about ―knowing where to stop or pause Page 76 of 131
  • which reading‖ never obtain the highest percentage with 24 or 48% followed by sometimes with 22 or 44% and always with 4 or 8%. The next one is the respondent’s answers. The last indicator is the sociological factors, in here 32 and or 64% of the respondents answered disagree or 24% answered disagree then 5 or 10% answered agree while or 2% answered strongly agree. In terms of ―providing instruments to diagnose the reading difficulties‖ 41 or 82% of the respondents answered always being followed by never with 5 or 10% and sometimes with 4 or 8% with respect to ―encouraging students to use expensive activities‖ 47 or 94% of the respondents answered always while 3 or 6% answered never. The next one is ―encouraging student to respond to assignment actively‖ where always have 44 or 88% followed by never with and sometimes with either 30 or 60%. In terms of ―using various strategies in teaching reading 24 or 48% answered sometimes, this is being followed by always with 48% answered sometimes, this is being followed by always with 48% or 24 and with 4 response or 8%. In terms of ―setting purpose for reading‖ 36 or 72% of the respondents answered always while never and sometimes both obtain 7 or 14%.The next indicator is ―giving efficient reading instruction‖ where always obtain 88 or 44% of the responses while never has 4 or 8% and sometimes with 2 or 4%. The next indicator is ― including reading in classroom activities‖ where 41 or 82% of the respondents answered always while 5 or 10% answered never and 4 or 8% answered sometimes and 2 or 4% answered never, In terms of helping students understand difficult words‖ that they read 98% or 49 respondents answered always while 1 or 2% answered never. The last indicator is ―supporting students in their reading interest‖ where 40 or 80% answered always and 10 or 20% answered sometimes. Page 77 of 131
  • First is about ―reading regularly to develop good reading comprehension‖ In here 44 or 88% of the respondents answered sometime, while 5 or 10% answered never and always with 1 or 2 %. Next indicator is about ―reading materials at home‖. Majority of the respondents said sometimes with 24 or 48%, on the other hand never has 18 or 36% and always has 8 or 16%. The third indicator is about ―establishing at least 15-30 minutes reading with family‖. As seen from the table the result is the same with the second one. Another deals with ―readings an integral part of life‖. More than half of the respondents answered sometimes with 36 or 72% always with 13 or 26% and never the least with or 2%. The fifth indicator is about ―going inside the library during free time‖. 90% or 45 of them answered sometimes, while 4 or 8% answered never and the remaining 1 or 2% answered always. The next indicator is about ―getting different information because of reading‖. In here, majority of the respondents said sometime with 36 or 72% it is followed by always with 13 or 26%.While never has 1 or 2%. It shows that the information got by the students is limited because of not reading frequently. The seventh indicator deals with ―coping up with reading difficulties‖. More than 80% or 42 of them answered sometimes, while 7 or 14%. Said always ,the remaining 1 or 2% answered never. Another indicator about asking help from some reading problems ―The result shows that more than half of the respondents answered sometimes with 42 or 84% followed by never with 5 or 10% always with 3 or 6%. The second to the last is about using textbooks, computers and other materials to improve reading skills‖. In here 38 or 76% of the respondents said sometimes while 12 or 24% said never. The last indicator is about ―eagerness to read‖. Majority of the respondents Page 78 of 131
  • answered sometimes with 36 or 72% followed by 10 or 22% for always and never with 4 or 8%. Based on those findings the researcher concludes that the reading difficulties of the pupils, majority of the respondents do not have reading difficulties. There are some factors or indicators being used that could affect their reading abilities but it could be said that the pupils are able to read. The teachers have great help in improving the performance of the pupils in reading by means of teaching them and giving remedial classes. As a whole there are different ways on how the pupils could cope with different reading difficulties and those factors are effective tool in improving their reading abilities. This study is interrelated to the present study because it is about the reading difficulties of grade six students those few students that have reading difficulties in their elementary specifically in grade six will be accelerated on grade seven. This study serves as guides and source of information what common problems are of students in reading. The present study seeks to find out what are the common assessment methods used to address the difficulties of those students in grade seven. Page 79 of 131
  • CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURES This chapter presents the research methods, research locale and population, samples and procedures, research instrument, validation of questionnaire and statistical treatment of data that the researcher will have in the analysis of data. Locale of the Study The researcher will conduct the study in Catanauan, Quezon. This district is said to be one of the largest among other districts, due to the fact that it is composed of numerous private and public secondary schools namely Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation, Southern Luzon Academy, Parochial School of Catanauan,SanRoque National High School, DoonganIbaba National High School, San Jose (Anyao) National High School, TagbacanIlaya National High School, MatandangSabang National High School, TagabasIbaba National High School,San Vicente KanluranNational High School,San Isidro National High School and Catanauan National High School Page 80 of 131
  • NAME OF THE SCHOOL RESPONDENTS 1. Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation Inc. NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 3 2. Parochial School of Catanauan 2 3. Southern Luzon Academy 1 4. San Roque National High School 4 5. San Jose Anyao National High School 2 6. TagabasIbaba National High School 1 7. San Vicente Kanluran National High School 2 8. DoonganIlaya National High School 2 9. Catanauan National High School 2 10. MatandangSabang National High School 2 11. TagbacanIlaya National High School 1 12. San Isidro National High School 3 TOTAL SUM OF RESPONDENTS 25 The Respondents The respondents of this study are Grade seven English teachers of both public and private secondary schools in Catanauan, Quezon. Sampling Procedures This study used purposive method sampling for the selection of the teacherrespondents,where the total sample need to recognize to find out the related information needed for this study. Page 81 of 131
  • Research Design The researcher utilized the descriptive-survey method in employing questionnaire in gathering data. Descriptive-survey studies of great value in providing facts on which personal judgment may be use. This method of research will describe and find out the different assessment method used by English teachers in assisting struggling readers in Grade seven among private and public secondary schools in Catanauan, Quezon for the school year 2013-2014. Research Instrument In this study, the researcher uses a self-made questionnaire as the main tool for gathering necessary data. It formulates after reviews of several literatures and references. The questionnaire divided into five parts: Part I- Deals with the teacher-respondents’ profile. Part II- Deals with the assessment method used by English teacher in assisting students that are considered as struggling readers Part III- Deals with the problems faced by the teachers in teaching struggling readers in Grade Seven students. Part IV- Deals with the factors affecting students’ achievement in reading Page 82 of 131
  • Part V- Deals with the measures undertaken to address under achiever readers. Gathering data and Procedure In gathering crucial data, the researcher wrote letter of request that is already signed by the researcher adviser and went to each public and private schools in Catanauan, Quezon to ask for permission the principal to conduct and administer questionnaire. During the administration of questionnaire the researcher explained the matters that teachers misinterpreted with regards to the content of the questions to assume reliability of answer. Data gathered were recorded, tabulated and analyzed. The results of the study were interpreted and considered as findings. Statistical Treatment of Data The researcher will use the standard tools to analyze the data. The data that will gather based on the result of questionnaire will tabulate and analyze according to the purpose of the study. The responses will be treated statistically, specifically, through the use of frequency and percentage. The formula to find the percentage: Where: P= Percentage F= Frequency Page 83 of 131
  • The formula for Mean Where: WM= Weighted mean N= no. of respondents the sum of total products weighted frequency and the weight The formula for Purposive Sampling Slovin’s Formula where: n= no. of respondents Ne= number of identifica Page 84 of 131
  • CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter deals with the presentation and analysis of data. Tables and figures were used to ensure a systematic presentation of the data gathered. They were carefully classified, categorized and summarized. All data presented were based on the response of teacher-respondents. This chapter divided into five (5) parts: PART I- presents the profile teacher-respondents PART II- deals with the assessment method used by English teacher in assisting students that are considered as struggling readers Part III- deals with the problems faced by the teachers in teaching struggling readers in Grade Seven students. Part IV- deals with the factors affecting students’ achievement in reading Part V- dealswith the measures undertaken to address the students that are considered as struggling readers. Page 85 of 131
  • PART I: DEMOGRAPIC PROFILE OF TEACHER-RESPONDENTS FIGURE III Distribution of Data According to theAge of Teacher-Respondents 0% 0% 8% 4% 28% 20-25 26-30 28% 4% 30-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 28% 51-55 56-60 Figure III illustrates the distribution of data according to the age of teacherrespondents. The majority of the respondents are in the age bracket of 20-25, 30-35 and 36-40 with the frequency 7 in each age bracket or 28% in every age bracket. Some of them answered that they were in the age bracket of 46-50 with the frequency of 2 or 8% Page 86 of 131
  • while in the other age bracket such as 26-30 and 56-60, 1 or 4% of them answered on each age bracket and the rest levels got nothing. FIGURE IV Distribution of Data According to the Gender of Teacher-Respondents 8% Female Male 92% Figure IV shows the distribution of data according to the sex of the teacherrespondents. Majority of them were female with a frequency of 23 or 92% and the rest were males with a frequency of 2 or 8%. Page 87 of 131
  • FIGURE V Distribution of Data According to the Marital Status of the Respondents 0% 4% 32% 64% Single Married Separated Widowed Figure V replicates the distribution of data according to the marital status of teacher-respondents. Majority of the respondents are married with a frequency of 16 or 64% while 8 or 32% of them are single and 1 or 4% of them is widowed FIGURE VI Distribution of Data According to the Years in Teaching English of the Respondents Page 88 of 131
  • 0% 0% 0% 16% 32% 8% 0-5 years 6-10 years 11-15 ears 16-20 years 21-25 years 24% 20% 26-30 years 31-35 years 36-40 years Figure VI shows the distribution of data according to the years in teaching English of teacher-respondents. Majority of them were teaching 0-5 years with a frequency of 8 or 32%. Some of them were teaching English for 11-15 years with a frequency of 6 or 24%. 5 out 25 teacher-respondents or 20% were teaching English for almost 6-10 years. Four of them teaching English subject for almost 21-25 years with a percentage of 16% while in the 16-20 years options there was two respondents answered on it with a percentage of 8% and the rest options got 0%. FIGURE VII Distribution of Data According to the Educational Attainment of the Respondents Page 89 of 131
  • 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Bahelor of Secondary Eduacation Bachelor of Business and Teacher Education With Master’s Degree With Master’s Unit Figure VII shows the distribution of data according to the Educationalattainment ofEnglish Teacher-Respondents. Majority of them attained Bachelor of Secondary Education with a frequency of 12 or 48% while 11 or 44% of the respondents answered that they attained of Master’s Units. One out of 25 respondents attained Master’s Degree with a percentage of 4% and someone of the respondents attained Bachelor of Business and Teacher Education. The rest options got 0%. PART II: FACTORS AFFECTING READING ACHIEVEMENT STUDENTS TABLE II Distribution of Data According to the Teacher-Responses with Regards to the Factors affecting Reading Achievement of grade seven Page 90 of 131
  • students in both Private and Public Secondary Schools in Catanauan, Quezon SA (4) A (3) D (2) SD (1) ∑FW ∑WM Rank Statement F % FW F % FW F % FW F % FW 12 48% 48 13 52% 39 - - - - - - 87 3.48 1 13 52% 52 10 40% 30 2 8% 4 - - - 85 3.4 2.5 10 40% 40 15 60% 45 - - - - - - 85 3.4 2.5 10 40% 40 14 56% 42 1 4% 2 - - - 84 3.36 4 8 32% 32 15 60% 45 1 4% 2 1 4% 1 80 3.2 5.5 f. Linguistic Factors 7 28% 28 16 64% 48 2 8% 4 - - - 80 3.2 5.5 g. Social and Cultural Factors 4 16% 16 18 72% 54 3 12 % 6 - - - 76 3.04 7 h.SocioEconomic Status 5 20% 20 15 60% 45 4 16 % 8 1 4% 1 74 2.96 9 i.Socioemotional 5 20% 20 15 60% 45 4 16 % 8 1 4% 1 74 2.96 9 j. Physical Factor 6 24% 24 13 52% 39 5 20 % 10 1 4% 1 74 2.96 9 a. Language and Literacy Development of students b. Lack of Instructional Activities c. Cognitive Factors d. Integrating Language, Literacy, and Content for Adolescent Readers e. Goals of teacher for students AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN=3.2 Indicators: SA -Strongly Agree FW=Frequency Weighted Page 91 of 131
  • ∑FW= Summation of Frequency Weighted A-Agree D-Disagree ∑WM= Summation of Weighted Mean SD-Strongly Disagree The table above reveals the different responses of teachers to each statement of factors affecting reading achievementof grade seven students. This also shows that the majority of respondents agree in the given statements about reading achievement of grade seven. This was attested by attaining AWM of 3.50. Statement A is rank 1. Twelve (12) out of 25 respondents are strongly agreed or forty-eight48%. Thirteen of the respondents answered agree or 52% while five of them disagree with the percentage of 20 and someone of them answered strongly disagree with a percentage of 4. This was attested with obtaining 3.48 WM. This indicates that Lack of parental support greatly affects the performance of grade seven students. It indicates that language and literacy development of students predominantly affects the student’s performance in reading. According to the theory of Noam Chomsky, language is an innate faculty that is to say that we are born with a set of rules about language in our heads which he refers to as the 'Universal Grammar'. The universal grammar is the basis upon which all human languages build. Statement B and C are ranked 2.5 .In statement Bindicates thatlack of instructional activities. This was attested by obtaining WM of 3.4.Thirteen(13) or 52% of the respondents are Strongly Agree; 10 or 40% of the respondents are Agree, while 2 or 8% of respondents Disagree and no one of the respondents answered Strongly Disagree Page 92 of 131
  • or 0%.This indicates that lack of instructional activities greatly affects reading Achievement of students. According to Murray's Interactive Theory knowledge of the world/background knowledge including both encyclopaedia and experiential knowledge which supply readers with background for understanding ideas and filling in parts that are left implicit rather than stated explicitly in the text. On the C statement 10 or 40% of the respondents were Strongly Agree, 15 of them or 60% of the respondents were Agree and no one of them Disagree and Strongly Disagree or the rest indicators got zero per cent (0%). It indicates that a cognitive factor plays a vital role in reading achievement. According to Ehri Murray's Interactive Theory is ametacognitive knowledge which enable readers to monitor their own comprehension to ascertain whether the information make sense and meet specific purposes. With regards to the factors affecting reading achievementstatement D is rank 4. This was attested by attaining WMof 3.36 and 10 or 40% of the respondents Strongly Agree; 14 or 56% of the respondents were Agree; while someone of them or 4% were Disagree and Strongly Disagree got 0%. It indicates that integrating language, literacy, andcontent for adolescent readersare one of the reasons why students got in struggle when they are reading. Based on the aforementioned gathered data, it is evident that theory of R.C. Anderson truly existed. His theory is called schema theory; it states that it is important to teach general knowledge and generic concepts. A large proportion of learner difficulties Page 93 of 131
  • can be traced to insufficient general knowledge, especially in cross-cultural situations. Schemata grow and change as new information is acquired. Learnersfeel internal conflict if they are trying to assimilate schemata which contradict their previous suppositions. Two of the statement is both rank 5.5, the statement E and F. It was attested through reaching the WMof 6.5. On the statement E, 8 or 32% of the respondents were Strongly Agree, 15 out of 25 or 60% of them were Agree while 1 or 4% of them were Disagree and also 1 or 4% Strongly Disagree. It indicates that goals of teacher for students affect the reading performance of the students. According to (James D. Koerner 1959, H. G. Rickover 1959, Paul Copperman 1978, and Theodore Sizer,1985).Educators shouldbecome an Essentialists because it supposed that there is a common core of knowledge that needs to be transmitted to students in a systematic, disciplined way. The emphasis in this conservative perspective is on intellectual and moral standards that schools should teach. The core of the curriculum is essential knowledge and skills and academic rigor. They also believed that education curriculum may change. Statement F got 7 out of 25 respondents or 28% were Strongly Agree, 16 or 64% of them was Agree while 2 or 8% of the respondents Disagree and no one of the respondents Strongly Disagree. It indicates that linguistic factor or the language of the reader may affect his ability to read. On the other hand statement G is rank 7, this indicates that Social and cultural factors as factors affecting reading, this was attested by reaching the WM of 3.04, 4 or Page 94 of 131
  • 16% of the respondents were Strongly Agree, 18 or 72% were Agree while 3 or 12% were disagree andthe rest of the indicators got zero percent 0%. Reading is a social process affected by attitudes, loyalties, conflicts and prejudices. Reading ability isenhanced by social acceptance, self-reliance and cooperation in a group. (Tejero.2010) Statement s H, I and J are rank 9; it was examined through attaining WM of 2.96. In statement H and I, 5 or 20% of the respondents were Strongly Agree, 15 or 60% them were Agreeand in the indicators Disagree and strongly disagree got 0%.It indicates that socio-economic level and socio-emotional factors greatly affects the reading achievement of the students. Based on the results gathered in the aforementioned statement, it is clearly congruence to the theory of Abraham Maslow, he advocated five needs of individual those are biological and physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs esteem and self-actualization. Abraham Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behaviour. Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences. On the statement J, 6 out of 25 respondents or 24% were Strongly Agree, 13 or 52% Agree, while 5 or 20% Disagree and 1 or 4% Strongly Disagree. It indicates thata physical factor is also an element in achieving reading achievement. Page 95 of 131
  • According to Salazar reading makesconstant use of the eyes shouldmove rhythmically and regularly along the printed line if reading isto be effective.He also cited that in reading English and the Philippine languages, the eyes move from the beginning of one line (L) to the end of the line(R), then make the return sweep.As the eyes move, they note likeness and differences in size shape and combinations of letters Likewise,the reader develops skills in auditory and visual discrimination, eye-hand coordination, and motor skills to perform all mechanical skills associated with reading.(as cited by Tejero,2010) PART III: COMMON PROBLEMS OF ENGLISH TEACHERS IN ASSISTING UNDERACHIEVER READERS TABLE III VSP (4) SP (3) MP (2) NPA (1) ∑FW ∑WM Statement F % F W F % F W F P F W F P F W Page 96 of 131 Rank
  • a. Lack of parental support. 11 44% 44 8 32% 24 6 24% 12 - - - 80 3.2 1 b. Lack of materials to be used in teaching struggling readers. c.Cognitive Factors 9 36% 36 9 36% 27 5 20% 10 2 8% 2 75 3 2 4 16% 16 10 40% 30 9 36% 18 2 8% 2 66 2.64 3 4 16% 16 9 36% 27 7 28% 14 5 20% 5 62 2.48 4 3 12% 12 7 28% 21 11 44% 22 4 16% 4 59 2.36 5 1 4% 4 8 32% 24 12 48% 24 4 16% 4 56 2.24 6.5 1 4% 4 8 32% 24 12 48% 24 4 16% 4 56 2.24 6.5 8 5 20% 15 12 48% 24 6 24% 6 53 2.12 8 9 d.Inconvenient classroom environment. e.Inappropriateness of study design précised by the curriculum goals. f. Lack understanding identity or understanding individual difference. g. Incongruence of instructional design in the enhancement of reading skills. h. Time allotted for each subject area. i. Confusion in the teaching method to be used. j. Educational qualification of teacher. 2 8% 1 4% 4 6 24% 18 12 48% 24 6 24% 6 52 2.08 2 8% 8 4 16% 12 12 48% 24 7 28% 7 51 2.04 10 AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN=2.44 Distribution of Data According to the Teacher-Responses with Regards to the Common Problems of English teachers in Assisting Under Achiever Readers of grade seven students in both Private and Public Secondary Schools in Catanauan, Quezon Indicators: VSP-Very Serious Problem SP- Serious Problem FW=Frequency Weighted ∑FW= Summation of Frequency Weighted MP- Moderate Problem∑WM= Summation of Weighted Mean NAPA-Not A Problem At All Page 97 of 131
  • The table III shows the response of teachers to each statement about their common problem in assisting under achiever in reading among grade seven students. The above mentioned table also shows that majority of the respondents were having Serious Problems in the given statement for the common problems in teaching struggling readers, this was attested by obtaining the AWM of 2.44. The statement A rank first, it was attested through reaching the WM of 3.2. 11 out 25 respondents or 44% of them were answered Very Serious Problem; 9 or 36% of them answered that the said statement is their Serious Problem while 6 or 24% answered Moderate Problem and the indicator Not a Problem at got 0% or nothing. It indicates that the teacher has a serious problem with regards to the parental support of the parents in their students in teaching struggling readers. According to Lev Vigotsky in his Zone of Proximal Development it states that much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skilful tutor. The tutor may model behaviours and/or provide verbal instructions for the child. Many children’s lack of parental support Vygotsky refers to this as co-operative or collaborative dialogue. The child seeks to understand the actions or instructions provided by the tutor (often the parent or teacher) then internalize the information, using it to guide or regulate their own performance. On the other hands, statement B rank two, this was attested by obtaining WM of 3. 9 out of 25 respondents or 36% answered Very Serious Problem; The indicator Serious problem also has also 9 or 36% of the respondents answered while 5 or 20% them serve this statement as their Moderate Problem and 2 or 8% of them were Not their Page 98 of 131
  • Problem at All. Based on the data gathered in the previous sentence it indicates that lack of materials to be used in teaching struggling readers is the second problem of English teacher. According to Ehri Murray meaningful materials and meaningful task are learned more readily than nonsense materials and more readily than task not understood by the learner.Materials that are within the level of the pupil's ability are more appealing and more meaningful to them thatdifficult and unfamiliar ones. The statement C rank 3, it was attested by attaining WM of 2.64. 4 out of 25 respondents or 16% answered that this statement is their Very Serious Problem, 10 or 40% of them states that this is their Serious Problem while 9 or 36% of them states that this is their Moderate Problem and 2 of them answered that this were not their Problem at all. It indicates that communication between parents about reading performance of students is one of burden of English teachers in teachers. One of principle of Ehri Murray states that learning is encouraged when it takes place under condition that enhances the personality adjustment of learner. The statement D rank 4, it was attested by attaining WM of 2.48. 4 out of 25 or 16% respondents answered that this statement is their Very Serious Problem, 9 or 36% of the respondents states that this is their Serious Problem while 7 or 28% stated that this is their Moderate Problem and 5 or 20% of them stated that this statement is Not their Problem at all. It replicates thatconvenient classroom environment is also a problem of English teacher in teaching struggling readers. Page 99 of 131
  • The statement E rank 5, it was attested by attaining WM of 2.36. 3 out of 25 or 12% respondents answered that this statement is their Very Serious Problem, 7 or 28% of the respondents states that this is their Serious Problem while 11 or 22% stated that this is their Moderate Problem and 11 or 44% of them stated that this statement is Not their Problem at all. It signifies that there are eleven English secondary teachers in Catanauan adopted our contemporary curriculum content with regards in teaching struggling readers inappropriateness of study design précised by the curriculum goals. The theory of Theodore Brameld (1904-1987) is congruence to the abovementioned data gathered because it emphasized the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Deconstructionist’s individual educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education. Statement F and G is both rank 6.5, it was attested by obtaining AWM of 6.5, In the same statements 1 or 4% of the respondents stated that those statements is their Very Serious Problem; 8 or 32% of them revealed that those are their Serious Problem while 12 or 48% them stated that those are their Moderate Problem and 4 or 16% of the respondents stated that this statement is Not their Problem at all. It clearly signifies that there is some teachers got struggle in teaching struggling readers because they lack understanding identity or understanding individual differences that there is some teachers got struggle in assisting under achiever readers. According to Hilgard the personal history of the individual, for example, his reaction to authority, may hamper or enhance his ability to learn from a given teacher.A pupil who, Page 100 of 131
  • in the past, has had a sad experience with a certain teacher will have a hampered learning than one whohas never encountered such an experience. The statement H rank 8, it was attested by attaining WM of 2.12. 2 out of 25 or 8% respondents answered that this statement is their Very Serious Problem, 5 or 20% of the respondents states that this is their Serious Problem while 12 or 48% stated that this is their Moderate Problem and 6 or 24% of them stated that this statement is not their Problem at all. It replicates that thetime allotted for each subject area is problem of most English teachers. Furthermore, statement I rank 9, it indicates confusion in the teaching method to be used. It was examine through obtaining WM of 2.08. It also shows that 1 or 4% of the respondents answered that they dole out this statement as their Very Serious Problem, 6 out of 25 respondents pertains that the said statement for them is their Serious Problem while 12 of them or 48% pertains it is their Moderate Problem and 6 or 8% of them stated that it is Not their Problem. The statement J rank10, is attested but attaining WMof 2. It also signified that 2 or 8% of the respondents divulged that this statement is their Serious Problem, 4 or 24% of them revealed that it is Moderate Problem for them and 2 or 28% stated that this statement is not their Problem at all. It indicates that educational qualifictaion is thier moderate problem in assisting under achiever in reading. According to the Zone of Proximal Development advocated by Lev Vygotsky, it stated that ZPD refers to someone that has higher ability than the learners. Therefore, teachers shall be skilful and knowledgeable in assisting under achiever in reading among grade seven students. Page 101 of 131
  • PART IV:COMMON ASSESSMENT METHOD TO ADDRESS UNDER ACHIEVER READERS OF GRADE SEVEN STUDENTS HE (4) Statement F % NVE (2) VE (3) FW F % FW F % NAPA (1) FW F % ∑FW ∑WM FW Page 102 of 131 Rank
  • FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT a.Questioning 15 60% 60 7 28% 21 3 12% 6 - - - 87 3.48 1 b. Discussion 10 40% 40 15 60% 45 - - - - - - 85 3.4 2 c.Anecdotal Notes 12 48% 48 11 44% 33 1 4% 1 1 4% 1 83 3.32 3 d. Constructive Quizzes 8 32% 32 16 64% 48 1 4% 2 - - - 82 3.28 4 e. Peer/ Self Assessments 6 24% 24 18 72% 54 1 4% 2 - - - 80 3.2 5 f. Anecdotal Notebook 3 12% 12 20 80% 60 2 8% 4 - - - 76 3.04 6 g. Anecdotal Note cards 4 16% 16 16 64% 48 5 20% 10 - - - 74 2.96 7 AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN= 3.24 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT a. Performance Task e. Written Product 15 60% 45 2 8% 4 - - - 81 2.04 1.5 36% 36 13 52% 39 3 12% 6 - - - 81 3.24 1.5 48% 48 11 44% 33 2 8% 4 - - - 85 3.4 3 6 24% 24 18 72% 54 1 4% 2 - - - 80 3.2 4 5 d. Oral Reading Test 32 12 c. Rubric 32% 9 b.Oral Product 8 20% 20 12 48% 36 8 32% 16 - - - 72 2.88 5 AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN= 3.19 CLASSROOM BASED ASSESSMENT PRACTICES a. a. Observation 15 60% 45 1 4% 2 - - - 83 3.32 1 7 28% 28 17 68% 51 1 4% 2 - - - 81 3.24 2 5 20% 20 19 76% 57 1 4% - - - - 79 3.16 3 20% 20 20 80% 60 - - - - - - 80 3.2 4.5 28% 28 16 64% 48 2 8% - - - - 80 3.2 5 c. Test 36 7 c.Extent Information 36% 5 b.Professsional Judgement 9 20% 20 15 60% 45 5 20% 10 - - - 75 3 4.5 d.Artefacts b.Recollection AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN= 3.19 Distribution of Data According to the Teacher-Responses with Regards to the Common Assessment Method to Address Under Achiever Readers of Grade Seven Students in Both Private and Public Secondary Schools in Catanauan, Quezon Indicators: HE-Highly EffectiveFW=Frequency Weighted Page 103 of 131 6
  • VE-Very Effective ∑FW= Summation of Frequency WeightedNVE- Not Very Effective∑WM= Summation of Weighted Mean NE-Not Effective The table IV showsthe responses of the teachers to each statement about assessment method used to assistunder achiever readers in grade seven in both public and private secondary high schools in Catanauan, Quezon. The table divided into three according to the classification of assessment method used in assisting struggling readers those are the formative assessment, assessment and classroom based assessment practices. On the three classification of assessment, majority of the respondents stated that formative assessment is Highly Effective. It was scrutinized through obtaining AWM of 3.24, and by attesting data gathered atthe AWM of 3.19 the respondents stated that both summative assessment and Classroom based assessment. Under the formative assessment the statement A rank 1, it was attested by obtaining WMof 3.48. 15 out 25 respondents or 60% answered that it is Highly Effective; 7 or 28% stated that it is Very Effect while 3 or 12% of them stated that it is Not Very Effective and no one of them answered that is Not Effective as a as assessment methods used in assisting struggling readers. It indicates questioning is the most effective assessment method in teaching struggling readers. According to Hilgard in his principle of reading, there is no substitute for repetitive practice in the over learning skills. Drill and practice are necessary for more Page 104 of 131
  • permanent learning. Repetitive practice in reading makes pupils more proficient in doing it. Also under the above type of assessment statement B rank 2, it was attested by obtaining WMof 3.4. 10 out 25 respondents or 40% answered that it is Highly Effective; 15 or 60% believed that it is Very Effective while the rest indicators got nothing . It indicates that discussion is highly effective as an assessment methods used in assisting struggling readers. According to Hilgard transfer to new tasks will be better, if, in learning the leaner can discover relationships for himself, and if he has experience during learning of applying the principles within the variety of task. Statement C under this type of assessment rank 3, it was scrutinized through attaining WM of 3.32. 12 out 25 respondents or 48% believed that it is Highly Effective; 11or 44% believed that it is Very Effective while both Not Very Effective and Not Effective got4% or 1 of the respondents believed that Anecdotal Notes is Very Effective as an assessment methods used in assisting under achiever readers. According to Hilgard the personal history of the individual, for example, his reaction to authority may hamper or enhance his ability to learn from a given teacher. A pupil who, in the past, has had a sad experience with a certain teacher will have a hampered learning than one who has never encountered such an experience. Statement D under this type of assessment rank 4, it was scrutinized through attaining WM of 3.28. Eight 8out 25 respondents or 32% answered that it is Highly Effective; 16 or 64% stated that it is Very Effective while 1 or 4 % of them stated that it Page 105 of 131
  • is Not Very Effective and no oneof them answered that is Not Effective as a as assessment methods used in assisting struggling readers. It indicates that Constructive Quizzes is Highly Effective as an assessment methods used in assisting struggling readers. Statement E under this type of assessment rank 5, it was scrutinized through attaining WM of 3.2.Six out 25 respondents or 24% answered that it is Highly Effective; 18 or 72% believed that it is Very Effect while 1 or 4 % of them stated that it is Not Very Effective and no one of them answered that is Not Effective. It indicates that peer/self assessment is highly effective as an assessment methods used in assisting struggling readers. According to Hilgard in his fifteen reading principles and in reading process learning is encouraged when it takes place under condition that enhances the personality adjustment of the learner. Majority of the respondents or 20 or 80% of them believed that statement F is Very Effective, 3 or 12% of them believed that it is highly effective and 2 or 8% of them believed that it is not very effective. It indicates that anecdotal notebook is highly effective i was attested through attaining WM of 3.04. One of the principle of Hilgard states that spaced or distributed recalls are advantageous in fixing material that is to be long retained. This why review is part of every lesson, before a new lesson is started a teacher conducts a review of past lessons to make connections and associations with the new lessons. Therefore, whenstudents are Page 106 of 131
  • writing in their anecdotal notebook the lesson may refresh to their minds leading to the students to experienced lifelong learning. Statement G under this type of assessment rank 7, it was scrutinized through attaining WM of 2. 96. Four out of 25 respondents or 16% answered that it is Highly Effective while 16 or 64% believed that it is Very Effective and 5 or 20% of them stated that it is Not Very Effective and no one of them believed that is Not Effective. It indicates that anecdotal note cards arevery effective as an assessment methods used in assisting under achiever readers. Under the summative assessment the statements A and Brank 1.5; it was attested by obtaining WMof 3.24. In the statement A 8 out 25 respondents or 32% answered that it is Highly Effective while 15 or 60% stated that it is Very Effective and2 or 8% of them stated that it is Not Very Effective and no one of them believed that it is Not Effective as an assessment methods used in assisting struggling readers. It indicates that performance task is highly effective assessment method in assisting under achiever readers. In statement 9out 25 respondents or 40% believed that it is Highly Effective 15 or 60% believed that it is Very Effective while 3 or 12% believed that it is not very effectiveandthe rest indicators got nothing. It indicates that oral product is highly effective as an assessment methods used in assisting struggling readers. According toHilgard in his number nine principle of reading he stated that active participation by a learner is preferable to passive reception when learning. The students Page 107 of 131
  • should be personally involved in his own learning. There is more learning when the students actively perform the learning experience themselves. Statement C under this type of assessment rank 3, it was scrutinized through attaining WM of 3.4 .Twelve out of 25 respondents or 48% believed that it is Highly Effective while 11 or 44% believed that it is Very Effective and 2 or 8% of them stated that it is Not Very Effective and no one of them believed that is Not Effective. It indicates that rubric is very effective as an assessment methods used in assisting under achiever readers. Statement D indicates the oral reading test as an assessment method used by English teachers in assisting under achiever readers among grade seven students and 6 out of 25 or24% respondents believed that it is highly effective while 18 or 72% of them believed that it is very effective and 1 or 4% of them believed that it is not very effective and no one of the respondents believed that it is not effective. According to the principle of Hilgard learning under control of reward is usually preferable to learning under control of punishment. Correspondingly, learning motivated by success is preferable to learning motivated by failure. While the data is gathered statement E rank 5 under the summative assessment it is attested through obtaining 2.88. Five or 25% of the respondents believed that it is highlyeffective, 12 or 48% believed that it is very effective while 8 or 32% of the respondents believed that it is not very effective and the rest indicator got nothing. It indicates that written product is very effective as assessment methods used by English teachers in assisting under achiever readers among grade seven. Page 108 of 131
  • According to Hilgard in his principle of reading and learning meaningful tasks are learned more readily than non sense material s and more readily than tasks not understood by learner. Materials that are within the level of the pupil's ability are more appealing and more meaningful to them than difficult and unfamiliar ones. Most of written products used by English teachers are used to assist underachiever readers. In classroom based assessment practices, according to the twenty-five respondents 9 of them or 36% of them believed that observation it is highly effective while 15 or 60% of them believed that it is very effective and 1 or 4% of them believed that it is not very effective but there are no respondents believed that is not effective. Through obtaining WM of 3.32 it replicates that observation or statement A under this assessment is highly effective as an assessment method in assisting under achiever readers among grade seven students. In the twenty-five respondents 7 or 28% of them that believed that statement B is highly effective while 17 or 68% of the respondents and 1 or 4% believed that it is not very effective but no one of them believed that it is not effective. Through obtaining WM of 3.24 professional judgements emphasized as highly effective as effective method used by English teacher in assisting under achiever readers. In the reading principle of Hilgard, it states that information about nature of a good performance, knowledge of his own mistakes, and knowledge of successful results, aid learning. Letting the pupils know their reading performance will be good motivation to improve more. Page 109 of 131
  • Statement C indicates the extent information as an assessment method used by English teachers in assisting under achiever readers among grade seven students and 5 out of 25 or 20% respondents believed that it is highly effective while 19 or 76% of them believed that it is very effective and 1 or 4% of them believed that it is not very effective and no one of the respondents believed that it is not effective. By gathering and processing data gathered both statements D and E rank4.5. It was attested through obtaining WMof 3.2. Majority of the respondents or 19 or 76% of them believed that statement D is Very Effective, 5 or 20% of them believed that it is highly effective and 1 or 4% of them believed that it is not very effective. Through obtaining WM of 3.2 it indicates that test is highly effective as an assessment method used by English teachers in assisting under achiever in reading among grade seven students. Statement E indicates the artefacts as an assessment method used by English teachers in assisting under achiever readers among grade seven students and 5 out of 25 or 20% respondents believed that it is highly effective while 19 or 76% of them believed that it is very effective and 1 or 4% of them believed that it is not very effective and no one of the respondents believed that it is not effective. It indicates that test is highly effective as assessment method in assisting under achiever in reading among grade seven students. Statement F under aforementioned classification of assessment method got 5 or 20% believed that this assessment methodis highly effective, 15 or 60% of them believed that it is very effective and 5 or 20% of them believed that it is not very effective Page 110 of 131
  • however no one of them believed that it is not effective as an assessment method used to assist under achiever in reading among grade seven students. By gathering and attesting data recollection got WMof 3, it indicates that it is highly effective as assessment method in assisting under achiever in reading among grade seven students. PART V: READING RECOVERY ACTIVITY THEY CONDUCTED IN GRADE SEVEN STUDENTS TABLE IV Page 111 of 131
  • Distribution of Data According to the Teacher-Responses with Regards to Conducting Reading Recovery Activity they used in Grade Seven Students in bothPrivate and Public Secondary Schools in Catanauan, Quezon A (4) Statement a. Re-reading Familiar Books b. Attempting New Book to Read c. Writing a Story d. Arranging Cut-up Story e.Introducing new book to be read f. Re-reading Yesterday’s Book g.Letter Identification activity O (3) S (2) ∑FW N (1) ∑WM Rank F % FW F % FW F % FW F % FW 6 24% 24 18 72% 54 1 4% 2 - - - 80 3.2 1 5 20% 20 16 64% 48 4 16% 8 - - - 76 3.04 2 5 20% 20 15 60% 45 5 20% 10 - - - 75 6 24% 24 14 56% 42 4 16% 8 1 4% 1 74 2.96 4.5 4 16% 16 16 64% 48 5 20% 10 - - - 74 2.96 4.5 2 8% 8 18 72% 54 5 20% 10 - - - 72 2.88 6 4 16% 16 8 32% 24 9 36% 18 4 16 % 4 62 2.48 7 3 AVERAGE WEIGHTED MEAN= 2.93 Indicators A-Always O- Often FW=Frequency Weighted ∑FW= Summation of Frequency Weighted S-Sometimes∑WM= Summation of Weighted Mean Page 112 of 131 3
  • N-Never The table V divulge the response of teachers to each statement about conducting reading recovery to address struggling readers. Based on the gathered data above statement A is rank one, it was obtaining WM of 3.2.Six out of twenty-five respondents are conducting Always this statement with a percentage of 24, Sometimes and All of them conduct this statement. It indicates that majority of the English teachers were Always conduct Re-reading Familiar Books which refers to theread aloud books he has read before. This gives the child the chance to engage in fast fluent reading. He does not have to work so hard so that the reading process breaks down and he has a feeling of success. Statement B rank 2, it was attested by reaching WM of 3.04. 5or 20% of the respondents were Always conduct this reading recovery activity, 16 or 64% were Often conduct this statement while 4 or16% of them Sometimes conduct this statement and all of teachers conduct this statement no of them answered that they Never conduct this. It emphasize that attempting new book to readwherein it refers the child now is encouraged to read the new book aloud. This is placed at the end of the teaching session because each preview activity should have encouraged him to work his own problems and engage in problem-solving. Statement C rank 3, it was attested by reaching WM of 3. 5or 20% of the respondents were Always conduct this reading recovery activity, 15 or 60% were Often conduct this statement while 5 or 60% of them Sometimes conduct this statement and all of teachers conduct this statement no of them answered that Never conduct this. It Page 113 of 131
  • indicates that writing a storywhich refersstudent composes one or two sentences. Assisted by the teacher, the students write on the lower half of a blank sheet. With regards in Conducting reading recovery both statements D and E were ranked 4.5, it was attested by obtaining WM of 2.96. In the statement E, 6 or 24% of the respondents stated that they Always conduct reading recovery activity, 14 or 56% of them stated that they Often conduct this reading recovery activity while 5 or 20% stated that they Sometimes they conduct reading recovery and the rest indicator got nothing or 0%. It indicates that arranging cut-up story were often i conducted by teachers in assisting under achiever readers, it is conducted through dictating sentences by the students while the teacher quickly writes iton strips oof paper then the teacher cut it apart and the students re-assembles. On the other hand, statement E,4 or 16% of the respondents were revealed that they Always conduct this reading activity, 16 or 64% of them proved that they Often conduct this while 5 or 20% stated that they Sometimes conduct this one. No one of the respondents answered they Never conduct this one.It indicates that introducing new book to read is also often conducted by teachers in assisting under achiever readers, it is conducted through giving new book to the students and later teacher and students talk about the content page by page. The statement F rank 6, it was attested by obtaining WM of 2.88, two out of 25 or 8% of the respondents stated that they always conduct this reading recovery activity; 18 or 72% of them stated that they Often conduct while 5 or 20% stated that Sometimes they conduct this reading recovery activity and no one of the respondents answered that they never conduct this statement. It clearly states that re-reading yesterday’s books which Page 114 of 131
  • refers to thestudents re-read the book they read for the first time the day before. They are not expected to read it with complete accuracy, but they are not having a single struggle anymore. This also gives the teacher to do running records. It replicates that re-reading yesterday’s books which refers when students re-read the book they read for the first time the day before. They are not expected to read it with complete accuracy, but they are not having a single struggle anymore. This also gives the teacher to do running records. The statement G rank 7, it was attested by obtaining WM of 2.48, 4 out of 25 or 16% of the respondents stated that they always conduct this reading recovery activity; 8 or 32% of them stated that they Often conduct while 9 or 36% stated that Sometimes they conduct this reading recovery activity and 4 or 16% of the respondents answered that they Never conduct this statement. It replicates that letter identification activity which refers that the student has very low letter knowledge; they are encouraged to use plastic letters and a magnetic board to form words and engage in word analysis. Page 115 of 131
  • CHAPTER V SUMMARY, SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter finalizes the discussions of the study. It begins by providing a summary of the investigations followed by a direct presentation of the study’s findings. From the findings are derived the researcher’s conclusions and recommendations. SUMMARY This geared to find out the Assessment Methods Used by English Teachers on Untangling and Assisting under Achiever Readers in Grade Seven students among Private and Public Schools in Catanauan, Quezon. Specifically, in order to clarify the main problem, specific questions were given: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in the terms of: f. age; g. sex; h. civil status; i. years in teaching English; and j. educational attainment. 2. What are the factors affecting students’ achievement in reading? 3. What are the common problems of English Teachers in Teaching under achiever readers? 4.What are the assessment methods used by English teachers in Teaching under achiever readers? 5.What is the common of reading recovery activity undertaken by English teachers? Page 116 of 131
  • SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Based on the data being gathered and studied, the following findings are: a.Demographic Profile of Teacher- Respondents The researcher respondents are English teachers who teach and taught grade seven in both public and private secondary schools. Ninefrom private secondary schools in Catanauan namely:Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation, Southern Luzon Academy, Parochial School of Catanauan and Sixteen from public secondary schools namely:San Roque National High School, , DoonganIbaba National High School, San Jose (Anyao) National High School, TagbacanIlaya National High School, MatandangSabang National High School, TagabasIbaba National High School, , Sane Vicente Kanluran National High School, and San Isidro National High School. Majority of the respondents were in the age bracket of 20-25, 30-35 and 36-40 years old. Majority them were females with a percentage of 80% and the rest are males with the percentage of 20%. Majority of them were single with a percentage of 32%, 64 of them were married and 4% of them is widowed. In terms of their years of teaching English, majority of them are in the year bracket of 0-5 with a percentage of 32%. Some of them teaching English subject for so long, 20% of the respondents were in the age bracket of 610 years, 24% were in the year bracket of 11-15 while 8% of them were in the bracket of 16-20 years and 16% of them were in the bracket of 21-25 years. In terms of their educational attainment 48% of them finished Bachelor of SecondaryEducation, 44% of them attained master’s units while 4% of the respondents attained master’s degree and also 4% of them attained Bachelor of Business and teacher education. Page 117 of 131
  • b.Factors affecting reading achievement Based on the result of the distributed and answer in questionnaire, majority of respondents agree in the given statements about reading achievement of grade seven. This was attested by attaining AWM of 3.50. Statement A is rank one. Majority of the respondents were Strongly Agree. It got the highest WM of 3.48. This indicates that Lack of parental support greatly affects the performance in reading of grade seven students. It indicates that language and literacy development of students predominantly affects the student’s performance in reading. Statement Ais rank 1. Majority of the respondents were Strongly Agree indicates that lack of instructional activities greatly affects reading achievement of the students. This was attested by obtaining WM of 3.44.Statement C is rank 3. It attested by attaining WMof 3.36, it emphasized those respondents Strongly Agree. It indicates that integrating language, literacy, and content for adolescent readers are one of the reasons why students got in struggle when they are reading. Statement B and C are rank 2.5 .In statement Bindicates thatlack of instructional activities. This was attested by obtaining WM of 3.4.Thirteen(13) or 52% of the respondents are Strongly Agree; 10 or 40% of the respondents are Agree, while 2 or 8% of respondents Disagree and no one of the respondents answered Strongly Disagree or 0%.This indicates that lack of instructional activities greatly affects reading Achievement of students. On the C statement 10 or 40% of the respondents were Strongly Agree, 15 of them or 60% of the respondents were Agree and no one of them Disagree and Strongly Page 118 of 131
  • Disagree or the rest indicators got zero per cent (0%). It indicates that a cognitive factor plays a vital role in reading achievement. With regards to the factors affecting reading achievementstatement D is rank 4. This was attested by attaining WMof 3.36 and 10 or 40% of the respondents Strongly Agree; 14 or 56% of the respondents were Agree; while someone of them or 4% were Disagree and Strongly Disagree got 0%. It indicates that integrating language, literacy, andcontent for adolescent readersare one of the reasons why students got in struggle when they are reading. 3. Problems of Teachers in assisting under achiever Readers Based on the result of the distributed and answer in questionnaire, majority of the respondents were having Serious Problems in the given statement for the common problems in teaching struggling readers, this was attested by obtaining the AWM of 2.44. The statement A rank first, majority of the respondents stated that it is their Very Serious Problem,it was attested through reaching the WM of 3.2.It indicates that the teacher has a serious problem with regards to the parental support of the parents in their students in teaching struggling readers. On the other hands, statement B rank two, majority of the respondents stated that it is their Very Serious Problem, this was attested by obtaining WM of 3. The statement C rank 3, majority of the respondents stated that it is their Serious Problem it was attested by attaining WM of 2.64.It indicates that the teacher has a serious Page 119 of 131
  • problem with regards to the parental support of the parents in their students in teaching struggling readers. 4. ASSESSMENT METHOD USED BY ENGLISH TEACHERS IN ASSISTING UNDERACHIEVER READERS In this research study, the researcher cited three types of assessment method; formative assessment, summative assessmentand classroom based assessment practices. On the three classification of assessment, majority of the respondents divulge that formative assessment is Highly Effective. It was scrutinized through obtaining AWM of 3.2and by attesting data gathered at the AWM of 3.19 the respondents stated that the summative and classroom based assessment is Very Effective as an assessment method used by English teachers in assisting underachiever readers. Under the formative assessment the statement A rank 1, majority of the respondents stated that its Highly Effective, it was attested by obtaining WMof 3.48.It indicates questioning is the most effective assessment method in teaching struggling readers. Also under the above type of assessment statement B rank 2, it was attested by obtaining WMof 3.4. It indicates that discussion is highly effective as an assessment methods used in assisting struggling readers. Statement C under this type of assessment rank 3, it was scrutinized through attaining WM of 3.32. It indicatesthat the respondents believed that Anecdotal Notes is Very Effective as an assessment methods used in assisting under achiever readers. Page 120 of 131
  • Statement D under this type of assessment rank 4, it was scrutinized through attaining WM of 3.28.It indicates that Constructive Quizzes is Highly Effective as an assessment methods used in assisting struggling readers. Statement E under this type of assessment rank 5, it was scrutinized through attaining WM of 3.2.It indicates that peer/self assessment is highly effective as an assessment methods used in assisting struggling readers. Under the summative assessment the statements A and Brank 1.5, it was attested by obtaining WMof 3.24.It indicates that performance task and oral product is highly effective assessment method in assisting under achiever readers. Statement C under this type of assessment rank 3, it was scrutinized through attaining WM of 3.4 .Twelve out of 25 respondents or 48% believed that it is Highly Effective while 11 or 44% believed that it is Very Effective and 2 or 8% of them stated that it is Not Very Effective and no one of them believed that is Not Effective. It indicates that rubric is very effective as an assessment methods used in assisting under achiever readers. Statement D indicates the oral reading test as an assessment method used by English teachers in assisting under achiever readers among grade seven students and by obtaining WM of 3.2. It indicates that it is Highly effective as an assessment methods used in assisting under achiever readers. While the data is gathered statement E rank 5 under the summative assessment it is attested through obtaining 2.88.It indicates that written product is very effective as an Page 121 of 131
  • assessment methods used by English teachers in assisting under achiever readers among grade seven. In classroom based assessment practices, through obtaining WM of3.32 statement A rank 1. It indicates that observation as an assessment method is highly effective in assisting under achiever readers among grade seven students. Through obtaining WM of 3.24 statements B rank 2. It indicates that professional judgement emphasized as highly effective as effective method used by English teacher in assisting under achiever readers. Statement C indicates the extent information as an assessment method used by English teachers in assisting under achiever readers among grade seven students. Through attaining WM of 3.16 it replicates that it is highly effective assessment method in assisting under achiever readers. By gathering andprocessing data gathered both statements D and E rank4.5. It was attested through obtaining WM of 3.2.It indicates that test and artefacts is highly effective as an assessment method used by English teachers in assisting under achiever in reading among grade seven students. Page 122 of 131
  • 5. CONDUCTING READING RECOVERY PROGRAM Based on the result of the distributed and answer in questionnaire, majority of the respondents were Often conduct reading recovery in the given statement for the conducting reading recovery program to address struggling readers this was attested by obtaining the AWM of 2.93. Statement A is rank one, majority of the respondents stated that they are Always conducting this reading, it was attested by obtaining WM of 3.2.It indicates that many of the English teachers Always conduct Re-reading Familiar Books which refers to thread aloud books he has read before. This gives the child the chance to engage in fast fluent reading. He does not have to work so hard so that the reading process breaks down and he has a feeling of success. Statement B rank 2,majority of the respondents stated that they are Always conducting this reading, it was attested by reaching WM of 3.04.It emphasize that attempting new book to read wherein it refers the child now is encouraged to read the new book aloud. This is placed at the end of the teaching session because each preview activity should have encouraged him to work his own problems and engage in problemsolving. Statement C rank 3, majority of the respondents stated that they are Always conducting this reading, it was attested by reaching WM of 3.It indicates that writing a story whichrefers student composes one or two sentences. Assisted by the teacher, the students write on the lower half of a blank sheet. Page 123 of 131
  • With regards in Conducting reading recovery both statements D and E were ranked 4.5majority of the respondents stated that they are Always conducting this reading. It indicates that letter identification activity which refers that the student has very low letter knowledge, they are encouraged to use plastic letters and a magnetic board to form words and engage in word analysis introducing new book to be read which refers to everyday new book is introduced to the child. Teacher and student talk about the content, page by page. Through oral language the students get to know the story line, important ideas, and some of the language of the story. CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions were drawn from the findings of the study. Majority of the respondents are in the age bracket of 20-25, 30-35 and 36-40 with the frequency 7 in each age bracket or 28% in every age bracket. Most were female with a frequency of 23 or 92% and the rest were males with a frequency of 2 or 8%.In terms of their civil status Majority of the respondents are married with a frequency of 16 or 64% while 8 or 32% of them are single and 1 or 4% of them is widowed. In the years in teaching English Majority of them were teaching 0-5 years with a frequency of 8 or 32%. In terms of educational attainment, majority of them attained Bachelor of Secondary Education with a frequency of 12 or 48% while 11 or 44% of the respondents answered that they attained of Master’s Units. Page 124 of 131
  • Based on the gathered data the serious problem of students in reading achievement is their language and literacy development maybe because Philippines has many languages depending on the community wherein the individuals are belong. According to the theory of Noam Chomsky, language is an innate faculty that is to say that we are born with a set of rules about language in our heads which he refers to as the 'Universal Grammar'. The universal grammar is the basis upon which all human languages build. Department of Education has already have an action for this problems, in implementation of K-12 curriculum, i the teacher teach students by their first language it is called mother-tongue based multilingual education. At this contemporary era the said program is in his pilot testing but the based on the research study of Gie Almonte grade one teachers posses passion in using mother tongue based multilingual education. The most serious problem of English teachers in both private and public secondary schools in teaching under achiever reader is the parental support of the parents in their students in teaching struggling readers. According to Lev Vigotsky in his Zone of Proximal Development it states that much important learning by the child occurs through social interaction with a skilful tutor. The tutor may model behaviours and/or provide verbal instructions for the child. Many children’s lack of parental support Vygotsky refers to this as co-operative or collaborative dialogue. The child seeks to understand the actions or instructions Page 125 of 131
  • provided by the tutor (often the parent or teacher) then internalize the information, using it to guide or regulate their own performance. According to (Sarmiento,2008) parent’s plays vital role in developing their child’s ability, skills and self confidents. . The most effective assessment method to be used in teaching struggling readers among the three classification is the is the formative assessment and the most effective source of formative assessment is questioning, it is refers to asking better questions affords students an opportunity for deeper thinking and provides teachers with significant insight into the degree and depth of student understanding about what the read. According to Hilgard in his principleof reading, there is no substitute for repetitive practice in the over learning skills. Drill and practice are necessary for more permanent learning. Repetitive practice in reading makes pupils more proficient in doing it. Based on the data gathered, the researcher also found out those English teachers often conducts reading recovery activity in grade seven students. It is clearly signifies that this is one reason why under achiever readers continuously dominated in secondary levels Page 126 of 131
  • RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings and conclusions drawn, the following are hereby recommended: To the teachers: They must be aware on what their student’s language and literacy has. They should have enough skills and careful in teaching and correcting the students have difference language than their common students. To the Parents When communicating teachers, they should focus on the performance of their siblings not on how the teacher manages the classroom. They should have enough time to check theirsiblings reading achievement; teach them in their home if necessary. To the Commission on Higher Education The education courses which the universities are offered, it should have the subject wherein the different language and dialect are studied in order for the future teachers to become effective, efficient and skillful in teaching reading in the grade seven students. Page 127 of 131
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  • Unpublished Papers  Garcia, Lora M., (2004) Comparative Study on the Authentic Assessment as Percieved by Selected Elementary Teachers in Public and Private Schools in Catanauan, Quezon. Unpublished .Undergraduate thesis, MSEUF, Catanauan.  Lasquety, Wilody D.,(2000)The Reading Difficulties of Grade VI pupils of Don Abadilla Elementary Schools as Basis for Remedial Reading. Unpublished Undergraduate thesis, MSEUF, Catanauan.  Marques, Rose Ann L., (2011) Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties among Grade 3 pupils for S.Y. 20011-2012.Undergraduate thesis, MSEUF, Catanauan.  Reyes, Ma. Ana M.,(2011) Common Assessment Method Used by Elementary Teachers in Diagnosing the learning disabilities of their pupils. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, MSEUF, Catanauan. Websites  http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP3.html  http//www.education.com/reference/article/RefUnderachiever/?page  http://us-mg5.mail.yahoo.com/neo/launch?.rand=2d8dfvj4pjled#mail  http://www.vobs.at/ludescher/Ludescher/LAcquisition/Nativist/nativist%20theory .htm Page 131 of 131