Motivation across cultures


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  • Motivation across cultures

    1. 1. Motivation Across Cultures
    2. 2. 2  Motivation A psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or incentives. The Nature of Motivation The Basic Motivation ProcessThe Basic Motivation Process McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Figure Figure 12–1: The Basic Motivation Process Unsatisfied need Drive toward goal to satisfy need Attainment of goal (need satisfaction)
    3. 3. 3 The Nature of Motivation The Universalist Assumption  The first assumption is that the motivation process is universal, that all people are motivated to pursue goals they  The process is universal  Culture influences the specific content and goals pursued  Motivation differs across cultures
    4. 4. 4 The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory The Maslow Theory  Maslow’s theory rests on a number of basic assumptions:  Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher- level needs become motivators  A need that is satisfied no longer serves as a motivator  There are more ways to satisfy higher-level than there are ways to satisfy lower-level needs
    5. 5. 5 Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Basic physical needs for water, food, clothing, and shelter. Desires for security, stability, and the absence of pain. Desires to interact and affiliate with others and to feel wanted by others. Needs for power and status. Desires to reach one’s full potential, to become every thing one is capable of becoming as a human being. Maslow’s Need HierarchyMaslow’s Need Hierarchy McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Figure 12–2: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
    6. 6. 6 The Hierarchy-of-Needs Theory International Findings on Maslow’s Theory  Some researchers have suggested modifying Maslow’s “Western- oriented” hierarchy by reranking the needs  Asian cultures emphasize the needs of society  Chinese hierarchy of needs might have four levels ranked from lowest to highest:  Belonging (social)  Physiological  Safety  Self-actualization (in the service of society)
    7. 7. 7 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation The Herzberg Theory Two-Factor Theory of Motivation A theory that identifies two sets of factors that influence job satisfaction:  Motivators Job-content factors such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the work itself  Hygiene Factors Job-context variables such as salary, interpersonal relations, technical supervision, working conditions, and company policies and administration
    8. 8. 8 Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryHerzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Adapted from Table 12–4: The Relationship Between Maslow’s Need Hierarchy and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
    9. 9. 9 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation The Herzberg Theory  The two-factor theory holds that motivators and hygiene factors relate to employee satisfaction – a more complex relationship than the traditional view that employees are either satisfied or dissatisfied  If hygiene factors are not taken care of or are deficient there will be dissatisfaction  There may be no dissatisfaction if hygiene factors are taken care of – there may be no satisfaction also  Only when motivators are present will there be satisfaction
    10. 10. 10 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation The Herzberg Theory  Hygiene factors help to prevent dissatisfaction – thus the term hygiene as it is used in the health field  Only motivators lead to satisfaction  Efforts to motivate human resources must provide:  Recognition  A chance to achieve and grow  Advancement  Interesting work
    11. 11. 11 The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation  A number of research efforts have been undertaken to replicate the two-factor theory – they tend to support Herzberg’s findings  George Hines surveyed of 218 middle managers and 196 salaried employees in New Zealand using ratings of 12 job factors and overall job satisfaction – he concluded “the Herzberg model appears to have validity across occupational levels”  A similar study was conducted among 178 Greek managers – this study found that overall Herzberg’s two-factor theory of job satisfaction generally held true International Findings on Herzberg’s Theory Two-Factor Replications
    12. 12. 12 Achievement Motivation Theory Characteristic profile of high achievers:  They like situations in which they take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems.  Tend to be moderate risk-takers rather than high or low risk-takers.  Want concrete feedback on their performance.  Often tend to be loners, and not team players. The Background of Achievement Motivation Theory
    13. 13. 13 Achievement Motivation Theory Ways to develop high-achievement needs:  Obtain feedback on performance and use the information to channel efforts into areas where success will likely be attained  Emulate people who have been successful achievers;  Develop an internal desire for success and challenges  Daydream in positive terms by picturing oneself as successful in the pursuit of important objectives The Background of Achievement Motivation Theory
    14. 14. 14 Achievement Motivation Theory  Achievement motivation theory must be modified to meet the specific needs of the local culture:  The culture of many countries does not support high achievement  Anglo cultures and those that reward entrepreneurial effort do support achievement motivation and their human resources should probably be managed accordingly International Findings on Achievement Motivation Theory Hofstede offers the following advice: The countries on the feminine side . . . distinguish themselves by focusing on quality of life rather than on performance and on relationships between people rather than on money and things. This means social motivation: quality of life plus security and quality of life plus risk.
    15. 15. 15 Select Theories Equity Theory  When people perceive they are being treated equitably it will have a positive effect on their job satisfaction  If they believe they are not being treated fairly (especially in relation to relevant others) they will be dissatisfied which will have a negative effect on their job performance and they will strive to restore equity.
    16. 16. 16 Select Process Theories Equity Theory  Employees in Asia and the Middle East often readily accept inequitable treatment in order to preserve group harmony  Men and women in Japan and Korea (and Latin America) typically receive different pay for doing the same work – due to years of cultural conditioning women may not feel they are treated inequitably These results indicate equity theory is not universally applicable in explaining motivation and job satisfaction
    17. 17. 17 Select Process Theories Goal-Setting Theory  A process theory that focuses on how individuals go about setting goals and responding to them and the overall impact of this process on motivation  Specific areas that are given attention in goal-setting theory include:  The level of participation in setting goals  Goal difficulty  Goal specificity  The importance of objective  Timely feedback to progress toward goals
    18. 18. 18 Select Process Theories Goal-Setting Theory  Unlike many theories of motivation, goal setting has been continually refined and developed  There is considerable research evidence showing that employees perform extremely well when they are assigned specific and challenging goals that they have had a hand in setting  Most of these studies have been conducted in the United States – few have been carried out in other cultures
    19. 19. 19 Select Process Theories Goal-Setting Theory  Norwegian employees shunned participation and preferred to have their union representatives work with management in determining work goals  Researchers concluded that individual participation in goal setting was seen as inconsistent with the prevailing Norwegian philosophy of participation through union representatives  In the United States employee participation in setting goals is motivational – it had no value for the Norwegian employees in this study
    20. 20. 20 Select Process Theories Expectancy Theory  Expectancy Theory A process theory that postulates that motivation is influenced by a person’s belief that  Effort will lead to performance  Performance will lead to specific outcomes, and  The outcomes will be of value to the individual.
    21. 21. 21 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Job Design  Quality of work life (QWL) is not the same throughout the world.  Assembly-line employees in Japan work at a rapid pace for hours and have very little control over their work activities  Assembly-line employees in Sweden work at a more relaxed pace and have a great deal of control over their work activities  U.S. assembly-line employees typically work somewhere between – at a pace less demanding than Japan’s but more structured than Sweden’s  QWL may be directly related to the culture of the country. Quality of Work Life: The Impact of Culture
    22. 22. 22 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Work Centrality The importance of work in an individual’s life can provide important insights into how to motivate human resources in different cultures  Japan has the highest level of work centrality  Israel has moderately high levels  The United States and Belgium have average levels  The Netherlands and Germany have moderately low levels  Britain has low levels
    23. 23. 23 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Work Centrality  In recent years, the number of hours worked annually by German workers has been declining, while the number for Americans has been on the rise.  Germans place high value on lifestyle and often prefer leisure to work, while their American counterparts are just the opposite.  Research reveals culture may have little to do with it  A wider range of wages (large pay disparity) within American companies than in German firms creates incentives for American employees to work harder. Value of Work
    24. 24. 24 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Work Centrality  Impact of overwork on the physical condition of Japanese workers  One-third of the working-age population suffers from chronic fatigue  The Japanese prime minister’s office found a majority of those surveyed complained of  Being chronically tired  Feeling emotionally stressed  Abusive conditions in the workplace  Karoshi (“overwork” or “job burnout”) is now recognized as a real social problem Value of Work
    25. 25. 25 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Job Satisfaction  An emphasis on flexibility. An emphasis on control.  Cooperation built on intuition and pragmatism.  The habit of analyzing things in such great depth that it results in “paralysis through analysis.”  An emphasis on cooperation, trust, and personal concern for others.  The avoidance of risk taking and the feeling of distrust of others.  Viewing work as a challenging and development activity.  Viewing work as a necessary burden.  A more holistic, idealistic, and group thinking approach to problem solving.  Logical and reason-centered, individualistic thinking. Moving toward …Moving away from …
    26. 26. 26 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards  Managers everywhere use rewards to motivate their personnel  Some rewards are financial in nature such as salary raises, bonuses, and stock options  Others are non-financial such as feedback and recognition  Significant differences exist between reward systems that work best in one country and those that are most effective in another Reward Systems
    27. 27. 27 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Incentives and Culture  Use of financial incentives to motivate employees is very common  Countries with high individualism  When companies attempt to link compensation to performance  Financial incentive systems vary in range  Individual incentive-based pay systems in which workers are paid directly for their output  Systems in which employees earn individual bonuses based on organizational performance goals
    28. 28. 28 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Incentives and Culture  Many cultures base compensation on group membership  Such systems stress equality rather than individual incentive plans  An individually based bonus system for the sales representatives in an American MNC introduced in its Danish subsidiary was rejected by the sales force because  It favored one group over another  Employees felt that everyone should receive the same size bonus  Indonesian oil workers rejected a pay-for-performance system where some work teams would make more money than others
    29. 29. 29 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Incentives and Culture  French and Italian employees valued job security highly while American and British workers held it of little importance  Scandinavian workers placed high value on concern for others on the job and for personal freedom and autonomy but did not rate “getting ahead” very important  German workers ranked security, fringe benefits, and “getting ahead” as very important  Japanese employees put good working conditions and a congenial work environment high on their list but ranked personal advancement quite low
    30. 30. 30 Motivation Applied Job Design, Work Centrality, and Rewards Incentives and Culture  The types of incentives that are deemed important appear to be culturally influenced  Culture can even affect the overall cost of an incentive system  Japanese efforts to introduce Western-style merit pay systems typically lead to an increase in overall labor costs  Companies fear that reducing the pay of less productive workers’ may cause them to lose face and disturb group harmony  Hence, everyone’s salary increases as a result of merit pay systems