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•Why does a relationship with an employee’s family makea difference?•What do they consider important in regard to employeesatisfaction?•What motivates workers in different cultures?
Motivation – a psychological process through whichunsatisfied wants or needs lead to drives that are aimed atgoals or incentives.Intrinsic – A determinant of motivation by which anindividual experiences fulfillment through carrying out anactivity and helping others.•Can anyone think of an example of Intrinsic Motivation intheir own life?Extrinsic – A determinant of motivation by which theexternal environment and result of the activity are ofgreater importance due to competition and compensationor incentive plans.
Universal AssumptionAll people are motivated to pursuegoals they value. However, cultureinfluences the specific content andgoals that are pursued.Example:American workers want moneyJapanese employees want respect andpower. How should MNCs approach motivating their workers?
Assumption of Content and ProcessContent theories of motivation – explain work motivation interms of what arouses, energizes, or initiates employeebehavior.Process theories of motivation – Theories that explain workmotivation by how employee behavior is initiated, redirectedand halted.
The Hierarchy-of-Needs TheoryThe Maslow Theory (page 396) Basic Assumptions:•Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher level needs becomemotivators.•Need that is satisfied no longer serves as a motivator•There are more ways to satisfy higher level needs than lower level needs.
Chinese Hierarchy of Needs.1. Belonging (social)2. Physiological3. Safety4. Self-actualization in the service of societyMNCs in China must consider this revised hierarchy and determine how they can modify their compensation and job-design programs to accommodate the requisite motivational needs.
Herzberg TheoryTwo factor theory of motivation – A theory that identifies two sets offactors that influence job satisfaction: hygiene factors and motivators.MotivatorsIn the two-factor motivation theory, job-content factors such asachievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the workitself.Hygiene factorsIn the two –factor motivation theory, job-context variables such assalary, interpersonal relations, technical supervision, workingconditions, and company policies and administration.•If hygiene factors are not taken care of or are deficient, there will bedissatisfaction.•Only when motivators are present will there be satisfaction.
McDonald’s New Latin Flavor Moral was too low for a sustainable work environment NEW ATMOSPHERE: •1st they modified the HR board to include one member from each country. This provided efficient communication, collaboration and coordination among the Latin American countries •McDonalds began a point reward system in which each store was allotted a base number of points, depending on sales for that store. Winners received prizes. •Offered successful managers training in university classes.
Relating Herzberg’s TheoryInternationally What’s he checking for? Do “motivators” contribute to job satisfaction, and do “hygiene factors” contribute to dissatisfaction? 2 categories of findings: Compare country to original research Compare country to country
Countries: Original Research • Herzberg’s research is supported. • Reports from New Zealand and Greece show motivators and hygiene factors interact correctly. In Romania, professionals accept CEO positions based on recognition, significance, and appreciation received – not on salary or working conditions (meaning: these motivators are more important that hygiene factors when considering job satisfaction)
Countries: Countries Many countries have the same job satisfaction ideals. Researched 4 counties including Singapore, which didn’t fit the cultural mold as the other 3 researched, and all had similar responses. Job satisfaction is measuredin the same way for mostcountries, regardless ofcultural differences
Questions Is Herzberg’s theory universally acceptable, or does it only pertain to Anglo countries? When could motivators be dissatisfying? When could hygiene factors be satisfying?
Another Study on Job Satisfaction Job-context factors – factors of your job that the organization controls (hours, earnings, security, benefits, promotions) Job-content factors – factors of your work environment that you control internally (responsibility, achievement, the actual work) Job-content is more important than Job-context to improving job satisfaction. This supports Herzberg’s theory that the more personal motivational factors are more satisfying How does this compare to Hofstede’s dimensions? (consider uncertainty avoidance and masculinity)
Achievement Motivation Theory Achievement can measure satisfaction We feel the need to get ahead, succeed, reach our goals This need is learned – much like Maslow’s and Herzberg’s theories Prominent in individualistic countries like USA Not in China, Russia, or Eastern Europe; don’t encourage entrepreneurial spirit What are characteristics of achievement minded individuals?
Characteristics of AchievementMinded Individuals Take personal responsibility for problem solving Want to win – not by luck or chance Moderate risk takers – not high or low Like immediate feedback on theirperformance – like in sales jobs loners, not team players (not good managers)
Shortcomings in the AchievementTheory It’s measures achievement based on Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT) Recent studies question the validity of this approach Many countries value group harmony and cooperation Achievement theory does not cross all cultures where individualism is not accepted or rewarded
Shortcomings of AchievementTheory What does this imply for HR managers of MNCs? MNCs must modify business practices according to how cultures measure success and satisfaction
3 “Process Theories” Affecting InternationalHR Equity Theory – people’s motivation changes if they feel they are being treated fairly Equity positively affects job performance When could equity be bad? Goal Setting Theory – how setting and achieving goals impacts motivation Employees perform better when they help set their goals with managers . (But… this varies across countries and cultures) Expectancy Theory – put in effort performance specific outcomes show the value of individual ]High performance leads to high rewards = satisfied Works best when employees can control their own environment
Motivation Applied Job design- the content of a job, the methods that are used, and the way the job relates to other jobs in the organization function of work to be done explain why same kind of work may have a different impact on motivation of human resources in other parts of the world
Impact of Culture Quality of work life (QWL) varies throughout world ex. assembly line directly relates to culture job designs reflect cultural values of country MNCs adjust to meet needs of host country’s culture
Sociotechnical Job Designs sociotechnical designs- job designs that blend personnel and technology objective: integrate new technology into workplace ex. Volvo
Work Centrality work centrality- importance of work in an individual’s life compared to other areas of interest Japan has highest level value of work Japanese and Americans work hard decline in German work hours part of overall lifestyle karoshi-overwork or job burnout
Job Satisfaction Japanese less satisfied than Americans Americans have higher organizational commitment than Japanese Japanese less satisfied after higher pay work is important in every society http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gps7 Dx8cN4Q
Reward Systems used to motivate personnel financial and nonfinancial differences in reward systems between countries ex. individual rewards
Incentives and Culture many cultures base compensation on group membership or group effort stress equality not equity culture influences the types of incentives that are important reasons for one form of motivation may not be obvious ex. Japanese holiday entitlements