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Motivation and behaviour


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Motivation and behaviour

  1. 1. MOTIVATION Definition: Motivation is the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. The word “Motivation” has been derived from a Latin word “movere” meaning “to move”. According to Fred Luthans “ motivation is a process that starts with physiological and psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.” Needs : are created where there is physiological or psychological imbalance. Drives : or motives are set up to alleviate needs Incentives : are anything that will alleviate a need & reduce the drive. Motivation is defined as the internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people. It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behaviour. Motivation results from the interactions among conscious and unconscious factors. These factors are (a) intensity of desire or need, (b) incentive or reward and (c) expectations of an individual Features of motivation: 1. Motivation is an art 2. Motivation is goal oriented 3. Motivation is an act of managers 4. Motivation is a continuous process : human wants keep changing & increasing.
  2. 2. 5. Motivation can be positive or negative: positive motivation means use of incentives - financial or non-financial. Eg. of positive motivation: confirmation, pay rise, praise etc. Negative motivation means emphasizing penalties. It is based on force of fear. Eg. demotion, termination. 6. Motivation is complex in nature 7. Motivation is system-oriented 8. A psychological concept: deals with the human mind. 9. Motivation may be financial or non-financial: Financial includes increasing wages, allowance, bonus, perquisites etc. 10. Motivation & job satisfaction are different. Motivation is goal-oriented behaviour. Job satisfaction is the outcome of job performance Classification of motivation: Extrinsic motivation It comes from outside the person &is available only after completion of the job. Eg. increase in wages, rest periods, holidays etc Intrinsic motivation A person’s internal desire to do something & is available at the time of performance of a job. Eg. praise, recognition, delegation of authority & responsibility Techniques of motivation: (1) Need based approach The approach should be need based so that it could satisfy five categories of need by knowing the level of motivation and patterns of motivation among them. The five categories of needs are (i) physiological need, (ii) desire for security, (iii) desire for recognition, (iv) desire for new experiences and
  3. 3. (v) organic needs. Classification of Needs: 1. Physiological need: These are necessary to sustain life. They include food, water, clothing, shelter. These needs have the highest potency for motivation. A person who lacks these will be motivated by these. 2. The desire for security: Economic, social, psychological and spiritual security. Man wants protection for his physical being food, clothing and shelter. It may also mean an adequate reserve of wealth to secure more material things in the future. The wish for security may also be satisfied by spiritual beliefs. In fact, in history whole cultures have put emphasis on security. The Great Wall of China, the Maginet Line, the Tower of Babel, the innumerable forts and fortresses in several countries are striking examples. 3. The desire for affection or response: Companionship gregariousness, and social mindedness, the need for a feeling of belonging.
  4. 4. 4. The desire for recognition: status, prestige, achievement and being looked upto. Each individual feels the need to be considered important by his fellowmen. 5. The desire for new experience: adventure, new interests, new ideas, new friends and new ways of doing things. Some people primarily want the thrill of something new, something different. 6. Organic needs: Organic needs like sex, hunger and thirstiness are also very important for human beings (2) Training to set a realistic level of aspirations Any attempt to revise the expectations of farmer's should be done with full understanding of their socio-economic status Eg Creating an aspiration in a farmer who doesn’t have any land of his own to possess one or two acres. (3) Participation The involvement of farmers in the programmes of agricultural change acts as booster of motivation not only for the immediate participants but also for others.
  5. 5. (4) Use of audio visuals The proper selection, combination and use of various audio visuals for the appropriate purpose will act as lubricants of motivation. Theories of Motivation 1. CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  MASLOW’s Hierarchy of Needs.  ALDERFER’s ERG Theory  HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory  MClelland’s Learned Needs Theory 2. PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  EXPECTANCY Theory  EQUITY Theory  GOAL SETTING Theory  REINFORCEMENT Theory CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION: Views motivation a result if INTERNAL DRIVES that force an individual to take ACTION. Maslow's theory of need hierarchy: Abraham Maslow, an American psychologist, viewed the motivation of human beings as arising from levels of hierarchy of needs. According to him, each one of us is a ‘wanting’ being.
  6. 6.  Individuals needs live within a hierarchy of physiological needs.  Physiological needs are necessity factors for SURVIVAL.  Lower level needs like security and physiological needs required to be met before upper level needs.  HERZBERG’s Motivator- Hygiene Theory According to Herzberg, motivational factors are responsible for job satisfaction; and Hygiene or Maintenance factors are responsible for job dissatisfaction. Hygiene Factors • Quality of supervision • Rate of pay • Company policies • Working conditions • Relations with others • Job security Motivational Factors • Career Advancement • Personal growth • Recognition • Responsibility • Achievement  ALDERFER’s ERG Theory ERG theory has three categories: existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS SAFETY AND SECURITY NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS ESTEEM NEEDS SELF ACTUALIZATION
  7. 7.  MClelland’s Learned Needs Theory PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION  EXPECTANCY Theory ( By Vroom) Individuals choose work behaviour that they believe would lead to an OUTCOME which they VALUE. Expectancy: Belief that effort leads to a specific level of performance Instrumentality: A performance  outcome perception. Valence: The Value of a reward or outcome  EQUITY Theory Equity theory refers to an individual's subjective judgments about the fairness of the reward she or he got, relative to the inputs in comparison with the rewards of others.  GOAL SETTING Theory  Specific Difficult Goals Lead to Higher Performance for Simple Rather Than Complex Tasks.  Feedback Enhances The Effect of Specific, Difficult Goals.  Participative Goals, Assigned Goals, and Self- Set Goals Are Equally Effective.  Goal Commitment and Monetary Incentives Affect Goal-Setting Outcomes. McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation
  8. 8. Motivating Professionals – Provide challenging projects – Give them autonomy in follow interests and structure work. – Reward with educational opportunities. – Recognize their contributions Motivating Contingent Workers • Greatest motivating factor is the opportunity to gain permanent employment. • Motivation is also increased if the employee sees that the job he or she is doing for the firm can develop salable skills. Motivating Public Sector Employees • Special challenge – Much work is service-oriented, harder to measure productivity – Goal setting helps • Goal difficulty and goal specificity help improve motivation Motivating Low-Skilled Service Workers – Employees want more respect – Make jobs more appealing – Raise pay levels – Find unusual ways to motivate: • Flexible work schedules • Broader responsibility for inventory, scheduling, and hiring • Creation of a “family” atmosphere among employees
  9. 9. BEHAVIOURAL SKILLS Introduction Behaviour skills are observable and measurable behaviours, knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that contribute to individual success in the organization (e.g., teamwork and cooperation, communication). Behavioural skills can apply to all (or most) jobs in an organization or be specific to a job family, position, or career level. These describe what is required to be successful in an organization outside of a specific job. As such, behavioural skills are specific to a person rather than to a job. Behavioural skills describe how we do something, such as manage our jobs, our homes or our lives generally, and the behaviours we use, for example decision making, information gathering and wider thinking. This helps people understand what is expected of them and gives them greater clarity about their team, and individual roles within it. Understanding the behaviour that other areas of the organization see as essential to effective performance also helps us to improve how we work together. Classification Types of Behavioural skills can be classified as follows: 1. Individual skills – your personal attributes: Flexibility (personality),decisiveness, tenacity, independence, risk taking, personal integrity. 2.Managerial skills – Taking charge of other people: Leadership, Empowerment, Strategic planning, corporate sensitivity, Project Management and Management control. 3.Analytical skills – The elements of the decision making, Innovation, Analytical skills ,numerical problem solving, practical learning, detail consciousness. 4.Interpersonal skills – Dealing with other people, communication, impact persuasiveness, personnel awareness, teamwork and openness.
  10. 10. 5.Motivational skills – The things that drive you. Resilience (organizational), energy, motivation, achievement orientation, initiative, Quality Focus. Key Behavioural Skills The 12 essential behavioural skills are  Communication and Consultation: Interacting with people about ideas, thoughts, facts, emotions, challenges, successes, etc. alongside hard facts such as project progress. Having the ability to convey complex ideas easily; clearly articulate what must be accomplished; keep the team moving toward a common goal; and to foster an environment that allows team members to communicate openly and honestly.  Conflict and Crisis Management: Listening and responding to the needs and views of all team members to anticipate any potential areas of conflict. The ability to diff use situations where conflict has risen maintains a healthy project environment.  Flexibility and Creativity: Thinking in original and imaginative ways to widen the scope of problem solving when issues arise. Encourage project teams to find the best solution and outcomes without slavishly following generic delivery methods or solutions. Adapting a project’s different components, templates, tools, and techniques.  Leadership: Understanding the vision and direction of the project and aligning the team to work towards it. Skills include delegating, coaching, motivating and leading by example.  Learning and Development: Continual improvement of both your own skills and those of your team. Assessment of skills and capabilities, encouraging participation in learning activities and evaluating how the learning is applied in the project environment.  Negotiation: Analysis of information, decision making, establishing the desired outcome and developing a strategy for the negotiation alongside understanding the optimal outcome from several options. Gaining agreement through consensus of positions from both parties.  Organisational Effectiveness: Understanding and applying people management processes and policies. Understanding the corporate culture, the organisational dynamics, and the individuals that work within it lead to getting the best from your team.  Problem Solving and Decision-Making: Resolving issues and solving problems that are a normal part of every project.
  11. 11.  Professionalism and ethics: Demonstrated through knowledge, skills and behaviour alongside appropriate conduct and moral principles for both the organisation’s and project’s environments.  Trustworthiness: Do what you say you’re going to do. Build trust with stakeholders involved and convey they can be trusted day-today to do what is right at the right time to keep the project successful and the Sponsor satisfied.  Self-control: Self-control and self-management to ensure day to day stresses are addressed and a work / life balance maintained.  Teamwork: Creating a team atmosphere where the team believes that ‘we are all in this together’ is a critical component to project success. Importance of Motivation and Behavioural skills in Extension Motivation is necessary for mobilising the village people. Most of the development programmes could not bring the desired results because there was no motivation. Both the extension workers and rural people are to be motivated to achieve the results. Motivation brings need based approach. It is possible for the extension workers to motivate the people to satisfy the five categories of needs. If there is a desire for security, the farmers can be motivated to adopt new practices by convincing them that the new practice will increase their income and enhance their security. If they have a desire for new experience, the extension teaching is oriented towards impairing new skills. Motivation helps for the better involvement of farmers in development programmes. The role of audio-visuals in motivating farmers needs no emphasis. Behavioural skills are the skills that give the ability to work with people, and the ability to motivate people involved in the task. Behavioural skills are also known as people. Behavioural or people skills, it’s the ability to build cooperation between the team, the public and the organisation. These skills involve communication, team building, leadership, influencing, understanding
  12. 12. perceptions and attitudes, which help improve the morale of individuals and groups.