Basic statistics by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )


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Basic statistics by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )

  1. 1. STATISTICAL THINGING & ANALYSIS Statistical thinking will one day be as necessary for efficient citizenship as the ability to read and write ….. H. G. Wells Statistical thinking can be defined as the thought process that focuses on way to identify, control, and reduce variations present in all phenomenon
  2. 2. ORIGIN OF STATISTICS The word „Statistics‟ seems to have been derived from the Latin word „STATUS‟ or the Italian word „statista‟ or the German word „statistik‟ each of which means a „political state‟. Sir Ronald A Fisher (1890-1962) is Ihe father of Statistics
  3. 3.  “The mathematics of the collection, organization, and interpretation of numerical data, especially the analysis of population characteristics by inference from sampling.”  Statisticians collect and analyze data, then calculate results using a specific design. They draw conclusions and make decisions in the face of uncertainty. What Is Statistics?
  4. 4. STATISTICS DEFINITION AND MEANING Statistics may be defined as a science of collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of numerical data. This definition includes four terms: 1. Collection of data 2. Presentation of data 3. Analysis of data and 4. Interpretation of data
  5. 5. “The science of Statistics is the method of judging collective, natural or social phenomenon from the results obtained from the analysis or enumeration or collection of estimates” …….. king “Statistics is the science which deals with collection, classification and tabulation of numerical facts as the basis for explanation, description and comparison of phenomenon” ….. Lovitt
  6. 6. Types of Statistical Methods Statistical methods, fall into the following two categories: Descriptive statistics Inferential statistics
  7. 7. Descriptive statistics  descriptive statistics deals with collecting, summarizing, and simplifying data, which are otherwise quite unwieldy and voluminous. It seeks to achieve this in a manner that meaningful conclusions can be readily drawn from the data. Descriptive statistics may thus be seen as comprising methods of bringing out and highlighting the latent characteristics present in a set of numerical data. It not only facilitates an understanding of the data and systematic reporting thereof in a manner; and also makes them amenable to further discussion, analysis, and interpretations.
  8. 8. Inferential statistics  Inferential statistics, also known as inductive statistics, goes beyond describing a given problem situation by means of collecting, summarizing, and meaningfully presenting the related data. Instead, it consists of methods that are used for drawing inferences, or making broad generalizations, about a totality of observations on the basis of knowledge about a part of that totality. The totality of observations about which an inference may be drawn, or a generalization made, is called a population or a universe. The part of totality, which is observed for data collection and analysis to gain knowledge about the population, is called a sample.
  9. 9. STATISTICS IN BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT With the growing size and ever-increasing competition, the problems of business enterprise are becoming complex. And it has become necessary for the executives to rely more and more on elaborate information system instead of their intuition. And it is here that statistical data and statistical methods play a very significant role.
  10. 10. Some of the major areas of Business Operations where Statistics have been extensively and affectively used are as follows:  Production  Marketing  Purchasing  Investment  Banking  Quality control
  11. 11. Environment Agriculture, Ecology, Forestry, Animal Populations Government Census, Law, National Defense Physical Sciences Astronomy, Chemistry, Physics Areas where STATISTICS are used Health & Medicine Genetics, Clinical Trials, Epidemiology, Pharmacology Business Economics, Engineering, Marketing, Computer Science
  12. 12.  Collecting data on subsets of the population (samples) can give valid information about the whole population.  Knowing what has happened in the past can help answer questions about the present and future.  Knowledge helps plan future tests, determines resource allocation, and improves quality. Why Study Statistics?
  13. 13.  Study the safety of nuclear power plants  Evaluate the environmental impact of pollution  Determine the effectiveness of new drugs  Estimate the India’s unemployment rate  Analyze consumer demand for products  Plan and analyze agricultural experiments What We can do with the help of Statistics?
  14. 14.  Manufacturing  Build products and deliver services that satisfy consumers and increase the corporation’s profit margin Business and Industry
  15. 15.  Marketing  Design experiments for new products, conduct focus groups and sample surveys, and perform field experiments in test markets to determine product viability Business and Industry
  16. 16.  Engineering  Make a consistent product, detect problems, minimize waste, and predict product life in electronics, chemicals, aerospace, pollution control, construction, and other industries Business and Industry
  17. 17.  Statistical Computing  Work in software design and development, testing, quality assurance, technical support, education, marketing, and sales to develop code that is both user- friendly and sufficiently complex Business and Industry
  18. 18.  Epidemiology  Work on calculating cancer incidence rates, monitor disease outbreaks, and monitor changes in health- related behaviors such as smoking and physical activity Health and Medicine
  19. 19.  Public Health  Prevent disease, prolong life, and promote health through organized community efforts, including sanitation, hygiene education, diagnoses, and preventative treatment Health and Medicine
  20. 20.  Pharmacology  Work in drug discovery, development, approval, and marketing, to ensure the validity and accuracy of findings at all stages of the process Health and Medicine
  21. 21.  Genetics  Label possible indicators of genetic abnormalities, such as birth defects and early aging, or breed desirable characteristics in plant offspring Health and Medicine
  22. 22.  Education  Teach K-12 through post- graduate students, assess teacher effectiveness, or develop statistical models to represent student learning Learning
  23. 23.  Science Writing & Journalism  Work with mass media, universities, and corporations to produce news briefs, articles, news releases, and other reports Learning
  24. 24.  Government  Work in regulations for stock trading, pollution, and drug approvals, or testify in court proceedings, congressional hearings, and lobbying arguments Research
  25. 25.  Survey Methods  Collect data in the social sciences, education, law, forestry, agriculture, biology, medicine, business, and e-commerce, and for the government Research
  26. 26.  Law  Analyze data in court cases, including DNA evidence, salary discrepancies, discrimination law suits, and disease clusters Social Statistics
  27. 27.  Consulting  Work on a temporary basis on a variety of projects including quality improvement, pharmaceuticals, ecology, and engineering Social Statistics
  28. 28.  Agriculture  Study chemical pesticides, hydrogeology, veterinary sciences, genetics, and crop management in order to ensure optimal yield Natural Resources
  29. 29.  Ecology  Address questions about the earth’s natural environment, including animal populations, agricultural protections, and fertilizer and pesticide safety Natural Resources
  30. 30. Skills  Quantitative Skills  Statistics, Mathematics, Science  Problem Solving Skills  Analysis, Teamwork  Communication Skills  Verbal, Written  Computer Programming Languages  Foundation in Field of Application
  31. 31. Opportunities  Diversity  Pure Research  Interdisciplinary Teams  Advancement  Experience, education, and communication skills lead to professional advancement  Versatility  Challenging and Exciting Fields of Application