TYRE MARINE MANAGEMENT AREA - TyMMAA Pilot Artificial Reef project and Marine Protected AreaMarine & Community Values
CURRENT SITUATION• Increase in water-based tourism activity in Tyre vs. traditional users• Conflict and competition for limited space and resources among various users and uses• Degradation of resources; loss of economic opportunity; threat of violence!• Initial unsuccessful effort by Department of Fisheries
A SET OF GOALS• Co-existence of users with minimal conflict• Support the locals, improve the local economy, highlight the cultural heritage• Increase in fish stocks, in marine reserves and fishing areas and reflection of these increases in fishermen’s catches• Self-sustainability with regards to operating costs• International recognition• Community support• Enhanced awareness and sensitization
MARINE PROTECTED AREA - MPAAccording to the UNEP, a protected area is defined as:An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the protection andmaintenance of biological diversity and of natural and associated culturalresources, managed through legal or other effective means…
THE IMPORTANCE OF MPAs• MPAs are recognized as an important way to conserve life- sustaining ecosystems and specific habitat for marine animals• Used to protect and preserve representative samples of marine biodiversity for the benefit of future generations• They are distinct from terrestrial protected areas by being less about preventing immediate threats or looming extinction and more about precaution and the benefits to industry of preserving types of habitat
BENEFITS OF MPAsMPAs have been shown to have substantial benefits for:• Renewing fish and other marine populations• Scientific and educational initiatives• Encouraging support of marine conservation from human communities• Attracting important economic interest from marine ecotourism that is compatible with zoned MPAs.
NOT TO MIX WITH…Areas where access is restricted for reasons other thanconservation do not fall under the classification for MPAsShellfish closuresSecurity zonesSewage discharge areasPipeline and cable corridorsOr unprotected areas logistically inaccessibledue to weather, sea state, etc..
ISSUES TO CONSIDER FOR MPAsConstancy of Protection Primary conservation goal• Year-Round • Natural Heritage• Seasonal • Cultural Heritage • Sustainable ProductionScale of Protection Level of Protection• Ecosystem • No Access• Focal Resource • No Impact • No Take • Zoned With No-Take AreasAllowed Extractive Activities • Zoned Multiple Use• Commercial Fishing • Uniform Multiple Use• Recreational Fishing Permanence of Protection• Subsistence Fishing • Permanent• Scientific/Educational • Conditional• Mineral/Energy Extraction • Temporary
ARTIFICIAL REEF – THE TOOLAn artificial reef is anything from the size of a beer can to something aslarge as a ship...Once in the water, within weeks things start to growA few months later small marine animals show upMore and more marine life begin to make this homeWithin a year, when the buffet opens, fish and friends move in...With time, they form a mini self- sustaining ecosystem living off itself andproducing surplus marine animals to help resupply our fisheryWithout artificial reefs for protection, the chance of living to maturitywould be slim…The setting up of ARs to attract fish in Mediterranean goesback to around 3,000 years ago!
A NETWORK OF PROTECTION PROPOSED 30 TO 40% TO DATE 3.88% THANKS TO THE PELAGOS SANCTUARY (90.000KM2) GLOBAL PROTECTION 0.65%
LOCALLY, START WITH Tyre Coast Nature Reserve• Marine Reserves• Fishing Priority Areas• Mooring Areas• Recreational Areas• Multiple Use Areas
THREATS TO BE CONTAINED AND CONTROLLED• Sedimentation, Ocean dumping, Sewage, Toxics, Damage to Nests, Vessel collision…• Overuse of certain dive sites (localized congestion)• Non-compliance with rules and regulations by fishers from communities adjacent to Tyre• Lenient penalties• Inadequate consultation regarding development activity or inadequate and/or untimely action when reports are made• Late payment of user fees
NEW DEVELOPMENTS & OPPORTUNITIES• Spread the Marine Management Area projects• Proposed new green ecological hotel development in the TyMMA, including marina• International Conservation Site• Sedimentation & wastewater, coupled with the compounding effects of storm events and Global warming
STEPS AND SOLUTIONS…• Engaging and protecting local communities• Support NGOs advocacy work• Support political decentralization – Empowering local governments [Municipalities, Unions of Municipalities] as to ensure efficient means of law enforcement• Targeted Funding and Grant-MakingBut also, educate society and push for environmentalawareness in school curriculums!
EVERY SECOND BREATH WE TAKE COMES FROM THE SEA…LETS PROTECT OUR SEAS AND OCEANS AND THE PEOPLE THAT DEPEND ON IT