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Chapter 2 Smoking 4 Cham
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Chapter 2 Smoking 4 Cham

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Master Skills

Master Skills

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  • 1. SMOKING
  • 2.
    • smoking is the largest preventable cause of disease and premature death
    • Smoking associated with higher levels of chronic inflammation of lungs and other damaging process that may result in oxidative stress
  • 3. Ingredients in cigarettes
    • Toxic travel throughout the body causing damage in different ways.
    • Nicotine reaches the brain within 10 seconds after smoke is inhaled. It has been found in every part of the body and in breast milk
    • Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, preventing affected cells from carrying a full load of oxygen
    • Cancer causing agent (carcinogens) in tobacco smoke damage important genes that control the growth of cells, causing them
        • to grow abnormally or
        • to reproduce too rapidly.
  • 4. What smoking do to your health?
    • Lung disease ; eg ; lung cancer bronchitis emphysema. There are RARE DISEASES in the absence of smoking
    • Heart disease 30% death due to heart attacks and coronary diseases. The risk of heart attack is increased 6 times in women and 3 times in men (this is at one pack per day)
    • CVA or strokes
    • Cancer of bladder, stomach, pancreas, esophagus, larynx, mouth
    • Peptic ulcers disease
    • Teeth : discoloration and strains, plaque and gum disease
    • Mouth and throat : sore throat, reduced sense of taste, breath smells
  • 5. Why should quit smoking?
    • Save money
    • Save time
    • Feel better in the long run
    • Food does smell and taste better
  • 6. Prevention; Government
    • Raise taxes on cigarettes
    • Anti smoking campaign, such as “TAK NAK MEROKOK”
    • New anti-tobacco rules is taking to ban promotion of cigarettes and other products
    • Shops won’t be allowed to sell
        • Smaller packs
        • Single stick of cigarettes
  • 7. Prevention; Self help tips
      • Analyze your smoking habits by determining when and why you smoke
          • Use notebook to record about your thoughts and feelings each time you light up
    • Make up your mind to quit
    • Choose the day and quit on that day
    • Discuss your aims with others.
        • -- It’s best to be a few hours into quitting when you come for your first session
  • 8. ALCOHOL AND DRUGS
  • 9. DEFINITIONS
    • INTOXICATION
    • WITHDRAWAL
    • TOLERANCE
    • DEPENDENCE
  • 10. INTOXICATION
    • The psychological and physical effects of the substance which disappear when the substance is eliminated
    • Example :
  • 11. WITHDRAWAL
    • Symptoms and signs occuring when the substance is reduced or stopped.
      • The nature, time to onset and course of the symptoms vary for different substances
    • Example:
  • 12. TOLERANCE
    • The state in which repeated administration leads to decreasing effect
    • Example:
  • 13. DEPENDENCE
    • A syndrome that includes withdrawal states, sometimes tolerance and other features such as persistent use despite harmful effects.
    • May be both physiological and psychological
  • 14. Dependence syndrome characteristic:
    • Strong desire or sense of compulsion to take the substance
    • Difficulties in refraining from using the substance/ stop using it/ limiting the amount taken
    • A physiological withdrawal state when substance use has stopped or been reduced.
      • Withdrawal symptoms may be avoided by further use of the substance
  • 15. Dependence syndrome characteristic:
    • Evidence of tolerance, a state in which increasing doses of the substance are required to produce the effect originally produced by lower doses.
    • Progressive neglect of alternative pleasures or interests due to use of the psychoactive substance and in the time needed to obtain supplies or to recover from its effects
    • Persistence use of the substance despite clear evidence of harm
  • 16. What is alcohol?
    • Pure alcohol is a colorless liquid obtained through fermentation of liquid containing sugar
    • TYPES :
      • Ethyl alcohol (ETHANOL)
      • Methyl alcohol (METHANOL)
    • Any liquid containing 0.5 to 80% ETHANOL by volume is an alcohol beverage
  • 17. What is Drink? ONE UNIT 8 gm alcohol ONE OUNCE (10Z) 30 gm ONE BOTTLE/CAN of BEER 12 ounces 5% alcohol ONE GLASS of table WINE 4 ounces 20% alcohol ONE SMALL GLASS of FORTIFIED WINE 2.5 ounces 20% alcohol ONE SHOT of DISTILLED SPIRIT (WHISKY, VODKA, RUM) 1 ounce 50% alcohol
  • 18.
    • With distilled spirit
    • ( BOURBON, SCOTCH, VODKA, GIN, RUM)
    • Alcohol content is expressed in terms of :
    • PROOF: a number that is TWICE the
    • percentage of alcohol
    • Example :
    • 100 PROOF BOURBON is 50% of alcohol
    • 80 PROOF GIN is 40% of alcohol
  • 19. What is moderate drinking?
    • No more than one drink per day for a woman
    • No more than two drinks per day for a man
  • 20. Binge drinking
    • Having 5 or more drinks in a single sitting for a man
    • Having 4 or more drinks in a single sitting for a woman
  • 21. Safe level
    • Man up to 21 units per week
    • Woman up to 14 units per week
  • 22. Dangerous level
    • Man over 50 units per week
    • Woman over 35 units per week
      • Levels of drinking between safe level and dangerous amount are called hazardous.
  • 23. What is blood alcohol concentration (BAC)?
    • Percentage of alcohol in the blood
    • Often measured from breath or urine samples
  • 24. Factors that affect BAC
    • How much?
    • How quickly you drink?
    • What you’re drinking?
    • Your size (BMI)
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Race
    • Drugs
    • Family history
    • Food
    • Physical tolerance
  • 25.
    • How much?
    • How quickly you drink?
    • What you’re drinking?
      • Beer and wine contain lower concentration of alcohol and non alcoholic substances that slow the rate of absorption
      • CO 2 whether in champagne, ginger ale or a coke whisks alcohol into bloodstream
      • Alcohol in warm drinks moves into your bloodstream more quickly than the alcohol in chilled wine or scotch
  • 26.
    • Your size (BMI)
    • Gender
      • Women tolerance level is lower than men due to enzymes and hormone levels
    • Age
    • Race
      • Asians and native American unable to breakdown alcohol as quickly as caucasians
  • 27.
    • Drugs
      • Aspirin, analgesics, antabuse (an aid to quit smoking and alcohol), anti anxiety, anti histamines, antibiotics, anti depression
    • Family history of alcoholism
  • 28.
    • 10. Food
      • Slow down the absorption of alcohol by diluting it, covering some of the membranes through which alcohol would be absorbed, prolong gastric emptying time
    • 11. Physical tolerance
      • In regular drinking pattern / individuals

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