Chapter 2 Smoking 4 Cham


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Chapter 2 Smoking 4 Cham

  1. 1. SMOKING
  2. 2. <ul><li>smoking is the largest preventable cause of disease and premature death </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking associated with higher levels of chronic inflammation of lungs and other damaging process that may result in oxidative stress </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ingredients in cigarettes <ul><li>Toxic travel throughout the body causing damage in different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicotine reaches the brain within 10 seconds after smoke is inhaled. It has been found in every part of the body and in breast milk </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, preventing affected cells from carrying a full load of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer causing agent (carcinogens) in tobacco smoke damage important genes that control the growth of cells, causing them </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to grow abnormally or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to reproduce too rapidly. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What smoking do to your health? <ul><li>Lung disease ; eg ; lung cancer bronchitis emphysema. There are RARE DISEASES in the absence of smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease 30% death due to heart attacks and coronary diseases. The risk of heart attack is increased 6 times in women and 3 times in men (this is at one pack per day) </li></ul><ul><li>CVA or strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer of bladder, stomach, pancreas, esophagus, larynx, mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Peptic ulcers disease </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth : discoloration and strains, plaque and gum disease </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth and throat : sore throat, reduced sense of taste, breath smells </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why should quit smoking? <ul><li>Save money </li></ul><ul><li>Save time </li></ul><ul><li>Feel better in the long run </li></ul><ul><li>Food does smell and taste better </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prevention; Government <ul><li>Raise taxes on cigarettes </li></ul><ul><li>Anti smoking campaign, such as “TAK NAK MEROKOK” </li></ul><ul><li>New anti-tobacco rules is taking to ban promotion of cigarettes and other products </li></ul><ul><li>Shops won’t be allowed to sell </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller packs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single stick of cigarettes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Prevention; Self help tips <ul><ul><li>Analyze your smoking habits by determining when and why you smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use notebook to record about your thoughts and feelings each time you light up </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Make up your mind to quit </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the day and quit on that day </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss your aims with others. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-- It’s best to be a few hours into quitting when you come for your first session </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>INTOXICATION </li></ul><ul><li>WITHDRAWAL </li></ul><ul><li>TOLERANCE </li></ul><ul><li>DEPENDENCE </li></ul>
  10. 10. INTOXICATION <ul><li>The psychological and physical effects of the substance which disappear when the substance is eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul>
  11. 11. WITHDRAWAL <ul><li>Symptoms and signs occuring when the substance is reduced or stopped. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature, time to onset and course of the symptoms vary for different substances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
  12. 12. TOLERANCE <ul><li>The state in which repeated administration leads to decreasing effect </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul>
  13. 13. DEPENDENCE <ul><li>A syndrome that includes withdrawal states, sometimes tolerance and other features such as persistent use despite harmful effects. </li></ul><ul><li>May be both physiological and psychological </li></ul>
  14. 14. Dependence syndrome characteristic: <ul><li>Strong desire or sense of compulsion to take the substance </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in refraining from using the substance/ stop using it/ limiting the amount taken </li></ul><ul><li>A physiological withdrawal state when substance use has stopped or been reduced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal symptoms may be avoided by further use of the substance </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Dependence syndrome characteristic: <ul><li>Evidence of tolerance, a state in which increasing doses of the substance are required to produce the effect originally produced by lower doses. </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive neglect of alternative pleasures or interests due to use of the psychoactive substance and in the time needed to obtain supplies or to recover from its effects </li></ul><ul><li>Persistence use of the substance despite clear evidence of harm </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is alcohol? <ul><li>Pure alcohol is a colorless liquid obtained through fermentation of liquid containing sugar </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethyl alcohol (ETHANOL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methyl alcohol (METHANOL) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Any liquid containing 0.5 to 80% ETHANOL by volume is an alcohol beverage </li></ul>
  17. 17. What is Drink? ONE UNIT 8 gm alcohol ONE OUNCE (10Z) 30 gm ONE BOTTLE/CAN of BEER 12 ounces 5% alcohol ONE GLASS of table WINE 4 ounces 20% alcohol ONE SMALL GLASS of FORTIFIED WINE 2.5 ounces 20% alcohol ONE SHOT of DISTILLED SPIRIT (WHISKY, VODKA, RUM) 1 ounce 50% alcohol
  18. 18. <ul><li>With distilled spirit </li></ul><ul><li>( BOURBON, SCOTCH, VODKA, GIN, RUM) </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol content is expressed in terms of : </li></ul><ul><li>PROOF: a number that is TWICE the </li></ul><ul><li>percentage of alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Example : </li></ul><ul><li>100 PROOF BOURBON is 50% of alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>80 PROOF GIN is 40% of alcohol </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is moderate drinking? <ul><li>No more than one drink per day for a woman </li></ul><ul><li>No more than two drinks per day for a man </li></ul>
  20. 20. Binge drinking <ul><li>Having 5 or more drinks in a single sitting for a man </li></ul><ul><li>Having 4 or more drinks in a single sitting for a woman </li></ul>
  21. 21. Safe level <ul><li>Man up to 21 units per week </li></ul><ul><li>Woman up to 14 units per week </li></ul>
  22. 22. Dangerous level <ul><li>Man over 50 units per week </li></ul><ul><li>Woman over 35 units per week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Levels of drinking between safe level and dangerous amount are called hazardous. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. What is blood alcohol concentration (BAC)? <ul><li>Percentage of alcohol in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Often measured from breath or urine samples </li></ul>
  24. 24. Factors that affect BAC <ul><li>How much? </li></ul><ul><li>How quickly you drink? </li></ul><ul><li>What you’re drinking? </li></ul><ul><li>Your size (BMI) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Physical tolerance </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>How much? </li></ul><ul><li>How quickly you drink? </li></ul><ul><li>What you’re drinking? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beer and wine contain lower concentration of alcohol and non alcoholic substances that slow the rate of absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 whether in champagne, ginger ale or a coke whisks alcohol into bloodstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol in warm drinks moves into your bloodstream more quickly than the alcohol in chilled wine or scotch </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Your size (BMI) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women tolerance level is lower than men due to enzymes and hormone levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asians and native American unable to breakdown alcohol as quickly as caucasians </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirin, analgesics, antabuse (an aid to quit smoking and alcohol), anti anxiety, anti histamines, antibiotics, anti depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family history of alcoholism </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>10. Food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow down the absorption of alcohol by diluting it, covering some of the membranes through which alcohol would be absorbed, prolong gastric emptying time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>11. Physical tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In regular drinking pattern / individuals </li></ul></ul>
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