Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Chapter 2 Smoking 4 Cham
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 2 Smoking 4 Cham


Published on

Master Skills

Master Skills

Published in: Health & Medicine

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. SMOKING
  • 2.
    • smoking is the largest preventable cause of disease and premature death
    • Smoking associated with higher levels of chronic inflammation of lungs and other damaging process that may result in oxidative stress
  • 3. Ingredients in cigarettes
    • Toxic travel throughout the body causing damage in different ways.
    • Nicotine reaches the brain within 10 seconds after smoke is inhaled. It has been found in every part of the body and in breast milk
    • Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, preventing affected cells from carrying a full load of oxygen
    • Cancer causing agent (carcinogens) in tobacco smoke damage important genes that control the growth of cells, causing them
        • to grow abnormally or
        • to reproduce too rapidly.
  • 4. What smoking do to your health?
    • Lung disease ; eg ; lung cancer bronchitis emphysema. There are RARE DISEASES in the absence of smoking
    • Heart disease 30% death due to heart attacks and coronary diseases. The risk of heart attack is increased 6 times in women and 3 times in men (this is at one pack per day)
    • CVA or strokes
    • Cancer of bladder, stomach, pancreas, esophagus, larynx, mouth
    • Peptic ulcers disease
    • Teeth : discoloration and strains, plaque and gum disease
    • Mouth and throat : sore throat, reduced sense of taste, breath smells
  • 5. Why should quit smoking?
    • Save money
    • Save time
    • Feel better in the long run
    • Food does smell and taste better
  • 6. Prevention; Government
    • Raise taxes on cigarettes
    • Anti smoking campaign, such as “TAK NAK MEROKOK”
    • New anti-tobacco rules is taking to ban promotion of cigarettes and other products
    • Shops won’t be allowed to sell
        • Smaller packs
        • Single stick of cigarettes
  • 7. Prevention; Self help tips
      • Analyze your smoking habits by determining when and why you smoke
          • Use notebook to record about your thoughts and feelings each time you light up
    • Make up your mind to quit
    • Choose the day and quit on that day
    • Discuss your aims with others.
        • -- It’s best to be a few hours into quitting when you come for your first session
    • The psychological and physical effects of the substance which disappear when the substance is eliminated
    • Example :
    • Symptoms and signs occuring when the substance is reduced or stopped.
      • The nature, time to onset and course of the symptoms vary for different substances
    • Example:
    • The state in which repeated administration leads to decreasing effect
    • Example:
    • A syndrome that includes withdrawal states, sometimes tolerance and other features such as persistent use despite harmful effects.
    • May be both physiological and psychological
  • 14. Dependence syndrome characteristic:
    • Strong desire or sense of compulsion to take the substance
    • Difficulties in refraining from using the substance/ stop using it/ limiting the amount taken
    • A physiological withdrawal state when substance use has stopped or been reduced.
      • Withdrawal symptoms may be avoided by further use of the substance
  • 15. Dependence syndrome characteristic:
    • Evidence of tolerance, a state in which increasing doses of the substance are required to produce the effect originally produced by lower doses.
    • Progressive neglect of alternative pleasures or interests due to use of the psychoactive substance and in the time needed to obtain supplies or to recover from its effects
    • Persistence use of the substance despite clear evidence of harm
  • 16. What is alcohol?
    • Pure alcohol is a colorless liquid obtained through fermentation of liquid containing sugar
    • TYPES :
      • Ethyl alcohol (ETHANOL)
      • Methyl alcohol (METHANOL)
    • Any liquid containing 0.5 to 80% ETHANOL by volume is an alcohol beverage
  • 17. What is Drink? ONE UNIT 8 gm alcohol ONE OUNCE (10Z) 30 gm ONE BOTTLE/CAN of BEER 12 ounces 5% alcohol ONE GLASS of table WINE 4 ounces 20% alcohol ONE SMALL GLASS of FORTIFIED WINE 2.5 ounces 20% alcohol ONE SHOT of DISTILLED SPIRIT (WHISKY, VODKA, RUM) 1 ounce 50% alcohol
  • 18.
    • With distilled spirit
    • Alcohol content is expressed in terms of :
    • PROOF: a number that is TWICE the
    • percentage of alcohol
    • Example :
    • 100 PROOF BOURBON is 50% of alcohol
    • 80 PROOF GIN is 40% of alcohol
  • 19. What is moderate drinking?
    • No more than one drink per day for a woman
    • No more than two drinks per day for a man
  • 20. Binge drinking
    • Having 5 or more drinks in a single sitting for a man
    • Having 4 or more drinks in a single sitting for a woman
  • 21. Safe level
    • Man up to 21 units per week
    • Woman up to 14 units per week
  • 22. Dangerous level
    • Man over 50 units per week
    • Woman over 35 units per week
      • Levels of drinking between safe level and dangerous amount are called hazardous.
  • 23. What is blood alcohol concentration (BAC)?
    • Percentage of alcohol in the blood
    • Often measured from breath or urine samples
  • 24. Factors that affect BAC
    • How much?
    • How quickly you drink?
    • What you’re drinking?
    • Your size (BMI)
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Race
    • Drugs
    • Family history
    • Food
    • Physical tolerance
  • 25.
    • How much?
    • How quickly you drink?
    • What you’re drinking?
      • Beer and wine contain lower concentration of alcohol and non alcoholic substances that slow the rate of absorption
      • CO 2 whether in champagne, ginger ale or a coke whisks alcohol into bloodstream
      • Alcohol in warm drinks moves into your bloodstream more quickly than the alcohol in chilled wine or scotch
  • 26.
    • Your size (BMI)
    • Gender
      • Women tolerance level is lower than men due to enzymes and hormone levels
    • Age
    • Race
      • Asians and native American unable to breakdown alcohol as quickly as caucasians
  • 27.
    • Drugs
      • Aspirin, analgesics, antabuse (an aid to quit smoking and alcohol), anti anxiety, anti histamines, antibiotics, anti depression
    • Family history of alcoholism
  • 28.
    • 10. Food
      • Slow down the absorption of alcohol by diluting it, covering some of the membranes through which alcohol would be absorbed, prolong gastric emptying time
    • 11. Physical tolerance
      • In regular drinking pattern / individuals