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  1. 1. ALCOHOL
  2. 2. What comes to mind when you hear the word ALCOHOL ?
  3. 3. ALCOHOL : PRE QUIZ <ul><li>Your central nervous system includes your: </li></ul><ul><li>Arms and legs </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach and urinary tract </li></ul><ul><li>Brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive and reproductive systems </li></ul><ul><li>Which is NOT an effect of drinking alcohol? </li></ul><ul><li>clear thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Poor concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred vision </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The human brain is usually mature by </li></ul><ul><li>Birth </li></ul><ul><li>Early childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty </li></ul><ul><li>Adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>How much alcohol can a teen drink and still legally drive? </li></ul><ul><li>One beer </li></ul><ul><li>Two beers </li></ul><ul><li>One glass of wine </li></ul><ul><li>none </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The degree of alcohol intoxication is accurately measured by </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of alcohol in the beverages you’ve drunk </li></ul><ul><li>The percentage of alcohol in your blood </li></ul><ul><li>The number of hours you’ve been drinking </li></ul><ul><li>The number of drinks you’ve had in one sitting </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following statements about alcoholism is NOT true? </li></ul><ul><li>It is curable </li></ul><ul><li>It is treatable </li></ul><ul><li>It is a disease </li></ul><ul><li>It is lifelong </li></ul>Decisions for Health level blue pg. 369
  6. 6. Alcohol: what IS IT? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Alcohol has different forms and can be used as a cleaner, an antiseptic, or a sedative. When people drink alcohol, it's absorbed into their bloodstream. Alcohol is a depressant . It affects the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord), which controls virtually all body functions. Because experts now know that the human brain is still developing during our teens , scientists are researching the effects drinking alcohol can have on the teen brain.
  7. 7. WHY DO TEENS DRINK? <ul><li>Experimentation with alcohol during the teen years is common. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reasons that teens use alcohol and other drugs are: </li></ul><ul><li>curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>to feel good, reduce stress, and relax </li></ul><ul><li>to fit in </li></ul><ul><li>to feel older </li></ul><ul><li>to “escape” from the real world </li></ul>From a very young age, kids see advertising messages showing beautiful people enjoying life — and alcohol. And because many parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems harmless to many teens .
  8. 8. It is ILLEGAL to drink alcohol as a teenager. Age restrictions differ from country to country, in the United States age it is 21 ; for most other countries the legal drinking age is 18 . The punishment for drinking is severe. Teens who drink put themselves at risk for obvious problems with the law ( you can get arrested ). Teens who drink are also more likely to get into fights and commit crimes than those who don't. Why should teens not drink? You can become addicted to it. You can look really stupid. The impression is that drinking is cool, but the nervous system changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things , like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover .
  9. 9. Alcohol puts your health at risk. Teens who drink are more likely to be sexually active and to have unsafe, unprotected sex . Resulting pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases can change — or even end — lives. The risk of injuring yourself , maybe even fatally, is higher when you're under the influence, too. One half of all drowning deaths among teen guys are related to alcohol use. Use of alcohol greatly increases the chance that a teen will be involved in a car crash, homicide, or suicide. Teen drinkers are more likely to get fat or have health problems , too. One study by the University of Washington found that people who regularly had five or more drinks in a row starting at age 13 were much more likely to be overweight or have high blood pressure by age 24 than their nondrinking peers. People who continue drinking heavily well into adulthood risk damaging their organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain.
  10. 10. How does it affect the body? Alcohol is a depressant , which means it slows the function of the central nervous system. Alcohol actually blocks some of the messages trying to get to the brain. This alters a person's perceptions, emotions, movement, vision, and hearing. In very small amounts, alcohol can help a person feel more relaxed or less anxious. More alcohol causes greater changes in the brain, resulting in intoxication . People who have overused alcohol may stagger, lose their coordination, and slur their speech. They will probably be confused and disoriented . Depending on the person, intoxication can make someone very friendly and talkative or very aggressive and angry. Reaction times are slowed dramatically — which is why people are told not to drink and drive. People who are intoxicated may think they're moving properly when they're not. They may act totally out of character.
  11. 11. <ul><li>When large amounts of alcohol are consumed in a short period of time, alcohol poisoning can result. Alcohol poisoning is exactly what it sounds like — the body has become poisoned by large amounts of alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Violent vomiting is usually the first symptom of alcohol poisoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme sleepiness, unconsciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerously low blood sugar, </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures, and even death may result. </li></ul>Binge drinking (alcohol poisoning) is the most life-threatening consequence of binge drinking. When someone drinks too much and gets alcohol poisoning, it affects the body's involuntary reflexes — including breathing and the gag reflex. If the gag reflex isn't working properly, a person can choke to death on his or her vomit .
  12. 13. Cirrhosis is a deadly disease that replaces healthy liver tissue with useless scar tissue due to long term exposure to alcohol. Liver has difficulties removing poisons , such as the alcohol and drugs, from the blood. Toxins build up in the blood and may affect the brain function . cirrhosis
  13. 14. Fetal alcohol syndrome (fas) A mother who drinks during her pregnancy may harm the nervous system and organs of the developing fetus. This group of birth defects that affect an unborn baby that has been exposed to alcohol is called fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) <ul><li>FAS can include: </li></ul><ul><li>mental retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Organ abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and behavioral problems </li></ul>
  14. 15. Factors affecting individual reactions to alcohol <ul><li>How much and how fast a person drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Food in the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol tolerance (drinking history) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul>BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION (BAC) or LEVEL (BAL) The amount of alcohol in the bloodstream. It’s measure in percentages. How fast does the liver process the alcohol (get rid of). It is tested by breath test, a blood test or a urine test
  15. 16. alcoholism Using alcohol regularly is usually just a step away from addiction — where you depend on alcohol to feel good or get through your day. It is a disease in which a person is physically or psychologically addicted to alcohol . <ul><li>WARNING SIGNS THAT SOMEONE MAY HAVE A DRINKING PROBLEM: </li></ul><ul><li>relying alcohol to have fun, forget problems, or relax </li></ul><ul><li>having blackouts </li></ul><ul><li>drinking alone </li></ul><ul><li>withdrawing or keeping secrets from friends or family </li></ul><ul><li>losing interest in activities that used to be important </li></ul><ul><li>performing differently in school (grades dropping and frequent absences) </li></ul><ul><li>building an increased tolerance to alcohol or drugs — gradually needing more and more of the substance to get the same feeling </li></ul><ul><li>lying, stealing, or selling stuff to get money for drugs or alcohol </li></ul>
  16. 17. It's usually hard for people to recognize they have a problem , which is why friends or family often step in. People who are addicted to drugs or alcohol may promise over and over that they'll stop. Quitting is hard to do , and many people find they can't do it without help. The best thing you can do is to talk to someone you trust — preferably an adult who can support you — so you don't have to deal with your problem alone. They will have to go for counseling or even have to go to a treatment center that deals with addiction. Helping someone with a problem