• Aim- it is the purpose of the study. It tells us which
aspect of behaviour or which mental process will be
• Target population- the group whose behaviour will be
investigated by the researcher.
• Procedure- it is the research plan. This includes the
methods, which will be used for data collection and the
actual behaviour that will be studied.
• Findings- they are the interpretation of the data by the
Participants- people who take part in a
Sample- it is the group of participants that a
psychologist chooses for his study.
Representative Sample- it is the sample that
represents the characteristics of the target
Types of Sampling
Opportunity Sampling/Convenient Sampling- this
happens when data is collected from whoever is there
and agrees to participate.
Self-selected Sample- it is made up of volunteers.
Snow-ball Sample- when participants engage their
friends and acquaintances as participants in he study.
Random Sample- it is defined as one in which every
member of the target population has an equal chance of
Stratified Sample- a stratified sample is one which
considers the diversity of the target population.
It will arise from the type of sample i.e. the gender,
age group, socio-economic status.
When the findings cannot be generalized to the
Withdraw from a study
Protection from physical and mental harm
Application- it is how a theory or empirical study is
People often think of applications in terms of
therapy, but applications can also be made in
education, crime, the workplace, or sport.
Reliability- it means that the results of a particular
test or experiment can be replicated.
Validity- validity of a research is whether it measures
or finds what it claims it will. There are two types of
a)Ecological Validity- it means that the study
represents what happens in real life.
b) Cross-cultural Validity- the research should be
valid and relevant to other cultures also. It should
not be based on the values and beliefs of only one
culture i.e. ethnocentric.