Understanding The Research Process

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Understanding The Research Process

  1. 1. • Aim- it is the purpose of the study. It tells us which aspect of behaviour or which mental process will be studied. • Target population- the group whose behaviour will be investigated by the researcher. • Procedure- it is the research plan. This includes the methods, which will be used for data collection and the actual behaviour that will be studied. • Findings- they are the interpretation of the data by the researcher.
  2. 2.  Participants- people who take part in a psychological study.  Sample- it is the group of participants that a psychologist chooses for his study.  Representative Sample- it is the sample that represents the characteristics of the target population.
  3. 3. Types of Sampling  Opportunity Sampling/Convenient Sampling- this happens when data is collected from whoever is there and agrees to participate.  Self-selected Sample- it is made up of volunteers.  Snow-ball Sample- when participants engage their friends and acquaintances as participants in he study.  Random Sample- it is defined as one in which every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected.  Stratified Sample- a stratified sample is one which considers the diversity of the target population.
  4. 4.  It will arise from the type of sample i.e. the gender, age group, socio-economic status.  When the findings cannot be generalized to the larger population.
  5. 5.  Informed Consent  Confidentiality  Debriefing  Withdraw from a study  Protection from physical and mental harm
  6. 6.  Application- it is how a theory or empirical study is used.  People often think of applications in terms of therapy, but applications can also be made in education, crime, the workplace, or sport.
  7. 7.  Reliability- it means that the results of a particular test or experiment can be replicated.  Validity- validity of a research is whether it measures or finds what it claims it will. There are two types of validity- a)Ecological Validity- it means that the study represents what happens in real life. b) Cross-cultural Validity- the research should be valid and relevant to other cultures also. It should not be based on the values and beliefs of only one culture i.e. ethnocentric.

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