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  1. 1. Methods of Research Lecture Compilation Compiled by: A.M SomorayChapter 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH
  2. 2. Research is inevitable, the things that we enjoy at present are an outcome of an inquisitiveminds. Those intellectual heroes may have invested a considerable length of time, effort, money andvarious resources in order to invent, discover of find out new knowledge and things for the benefitof humanity. In the diagnosis of various diseases, new technologies, new medicines are being developedand discovered to treat some killer diseases like cancer, tuberculosis and more. Children on the other hand are now enjoying the new taste of medicines like strawberry,cherry, orange that delights them. There are new trends in the field of medicine such as cosmetic surgery, artificial humaninsemination, laser surgery and more. (Dr.Ronnie Bouing)In the field of Agriculture: In the early days, a minimum sack of rice were being harvested because of the manualmachineries and manual system of irrigation. Research made all things possible in the field ofagriculture from a new technology being developed in irrigation, planting and harvesting. A newbreed of crops, a new trends in animal raising, cross breeding, a new feeds being developed tospeed up the growth of poultry and hogs, artificial insemination and more.In the field of Business A new concept were develop a product to suit the consumer’s preferences and needs.Examples are a new scent of a laundry soap from calamansi to floral, different flavours of instantjuices. Researchers have already developed a device that allows you to see through eight-inch-thick concrete walls, but now, scientists have devised another way to reveal objects that are hiddenfrom view: a camera that can see around corners. Have you heard about a virtual supermarket shopping?In the field of Information Technology In the earlier times, communication takes a very long and slow process on how to relay ofmessages to someone. Nowadays, communicating with our family and friends across continentswould only take a few seconds, we can even see them while communicating without the expense ofa long distance call. This convenience shows the advanced technology prevalent in our global community.Ceaseless innovations such as cellphones, laptops, notebooks, tablets, wi-fi, plastic money are now apart of our everyday lives.Activity: Think about an evolution and a new trend in the hospitality industry because of research.
  3. 3. Introduction to ResearchMeaning of Research - Research is a quest for an answer to a question. Knowing the answer to a question requires a scientific method and not merely asking from various persons or merely observing several situations that may out-rightly provide haphazard answers to posed questions. - Research or re-search “to research again”, to take another more careful look, to find out more.(Seltiz et al., 1976) - Research is an activity which is meant to acquire better knowledge by “ relearning what we already know though systematic observation and experimentation. - Research is a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and hypotheses about a presumed relations among such phenomena. - Research is systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles or theories resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events. (Best & Khann, `89) Activity: : Write your own definition of research ,based on the different meanings. Common Elements of Research: 1. To attain or establish facts about the phenomenon being investigated 2. Systematic 3. Objective 4. Comprehensive investigation 5. Accurate gathering of data, recording and critical analysis of data and interpretation of factsCharacteristic of Research 1. Research is directed towards the solution of a problem. 2. Research emphasizes the development of generalization, principles or theories that will be helpful in predicting future occurrence. 3. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. 4. Research demands accurate observation and description. 5. Research involves gathering new date from primary or firsthand sources using existing data for a new purpose. 6. Careful designed procedures that apply rigorous analysis. 7. Research requires expertise. 8. Research tries to be objective and logical, applying every possible test to validate the procedures employed, the date collected 9. Research involves the quest for answers to unsolved problems 10. Research is characterized by patience and unhurried activity. 11. Research is carefully recorded and reported.
  4. 4. 12. Research sometimes requires courage2 Major Types of Research 1. Basic Research – is the type which is conducted for the sake of knowing. Also known as “theoretical research”Objective of Basic Research: • Design to add to our understanding and store knowledge, but without any particular practical goals. • To test or arrive at a theory with ultimate goal of establishing general principles2. Applied Research – is done when the purpose is to obtain knowledge for practical applicationalso known as “practical research”. • Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledges sake. One might say that the goal of the applied scientist is to improve the human condition . • For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to: • improve agricultural crop production • treat or cure a specific disease • improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportationMethodology of Research 1. Qualitative Research (information) - Qualitative research is a type of scientific research. In general terms, scientific research consists of an investigation that: • seeks answers to a question • systematically uses a predefined set of procedures to answer the question • collects evidence • produces findings that were not determined in advance • produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the study Qualitative research is especially effective in obtaining culturally specific information about the values, opinions, behaviour, and social contexts of particular populationsWhat are some qualitative research methods? a. Participant observation is appropriate for collecting data on naturally occurring behaviours in their usual contexts. b. In-depth interviews are optimal for collecting data on individuals’ personal histories, perspectives, and experiences, particularly when sensitive topics are being explored. c. Focus groups are effective in eliciting data on the cultural norms of a group and in generating broad overviews of issues of concern to the cultural groups or subgroups represented.
  5. 5. 2. Quantitative Research ( numbers) - Is conducted to find answers to questions about relationship among measurable variables with a purpose of explaining, controlling and predicting phenomena. - In quantitative research your aim is to determine the relationship between one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive (subjects usually measured once) or experimental (subjects measured before and after a treatment). A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables. An experiment establishes causality. - Quantitative research is all about quantifying relationships between variables. Variables are things like weight, performance, time, and treatment. You measure variables on a sample of subjects, which can be tissues, cells, animals, or humans. You express the relationship between variable using effect statistics, such as correlations, relative frequencies, or differences between means. Comparison on Quantitative and Qualitative Research Quantitative QualitativeGeneral Framework -Seek to confirm hypotheses about -Seek to explore phenomena phenomena -Instruments use more flexible, -Instruments use more rigid style iterative style of eliciting and of eliciting and categorizing categorizing responses to questions responses to questions - Use semi-structured methods such -Use highly structured methods as in-depth interviews, focus such as questionnaires, surveys, groups, and participant observation and structured observationAnalytical Objectives -To quantify variation -To describe variation -To predict causal relationships -To describe and explain relationships -To describe characteristics of a -To describe individual experiences Population -To describe group normsQuestion format Closed ended Open endedData Format Numerical (obtained by assigning Textual (obtained from audiotapes, numerical values to responses) videotapes, and field notes) large sample small sample standardized instruments observations, interviewsReport of findings Numbers, statistics, aggregated data Words, narratives, individual quotes, personal voice Research Report and Layout
  6. 6. Title PageEndorsement PageApproval SheetAcknowledgementAbstractTable of ContentsList of TablesList of Figures, Illustrations, PlatesList of AppendicesChapter I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroductionStatement of the ProblemHypothesisSignificance of the StudyScope and LimitationChapter II: REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURERelated LiteratureTheoretical / Conceptual FrameworkResearch ParadigmDefinition of TermsChapter III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch DesignLocale and Population of the StudyDescription of the RespondentsStatistical Treatment UsedInstrumentation and Try-out PhaseChapter IV : PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATAChapter V : SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSSummary of findingsConclusionsRecommendationsBIBLIOGRAPHYAPPENDICESCURRICULUM VITAE (Bouing , R) Research Title & Knowing the Problem
  7. 7. Before we proceed to your Research title, a researcher must be able to identify the problemfirst. Research problem refers to the research title. The title is a very important part of all thesisdocuments, as it introduces readers to the nature. Many professors recommend that students createtheir theses titles only after they have completed writing their theses so that they can be sure that thetitle accurately reflects the content of the theses document. Other professors recommend thatstudents begin the entire thesis with the thesis title and use the title as a method of directing thecontent.A good title should have the following properties:1) The title needs to be very specific in nature2) In spite of being specific it should also have the expressive power to show the entire scale of the research study in those few words.3) It should tell the total nature of the subject.4) It needs to be very definite and clear.5) The title needs to be attractive and interesting enough to catch the attention of the readers. Before we state the problem, let us learn first the standards in writing a title. 1. The title must be concise. It contains only the words enough to hint the content of the research. Omit phrases and words like: • A Study of • The Implications of • A Comparative Study of • An Assessment of • An Analysis of • Inquiry • Investigation •These are overused words and phrases or can be stated in the body of the study. 2. The title must be stated in declarative form, not interrogative form. 3. If the title exceeds beyond one line, it must be stated like V-form. Likewise, no title Shall be written in excess of three lines regardless the number of words. (Bouing) Activity: Construct a problem and a title out of your course (Hospitality Industry). There are several general ideas to choose from such as:  Lodging (hotel, motel, inn)  Restaurant (bar, fine dining, fast food, café, restaurant, cafeterias)  Food service (catering, bartending et al.)  Food (baking, culinary, herbs, spices, sanitation et al.)
  8. 8.  Event (birthdays, wedding, corporate event)  theme parks and recreational parks  transportation (air, land and water transportation)  Travel (places, travel agency, forms of transporation)  Tourism ( tourist, tourist destinations, festivals, eco tourism)  Yourself – the student  University offering a hospitality courses Say you choose : Restaurant Comment: (too broad) 1. Modify the problem and the title. It should be SMART 2. Choose a key issues of concern in a restaurant service business. 3. Let say you want to focus on a “Quick Service Restaurant”Analyze the given topic: “Discrete Negative Emotions and Customer Dissatisfaction Responses Among the Quick Service Restaurant Along Katipunan Quezon City”Subject matter : Customer dissatisfactionLocale of the study : Katipunan, Quezon CityPopulation involved : CustomersNote: Sometimes, we need to analyze the words carefully , other unnecessary words are need to be omitted, and can be placed on the scope and limitation of the study or avoid associating the place with negative situation or image)
  9. 9. Constructing a Statement of the Problem The simplest way to approach problem statements is to start by looking at where they fit into your document. Problem statements make up the core of the introduction to your document. Your introduction should set the stage for your readers and give them a clear idea of your argument. An effective document will motivate readers by articulating a problem that the document can help resolve. You can only be sure that your readers understand the problem the same way as you if you express not only the problem or the situation, but also the consequences that make the problem worth solving.A good problem statement should answer these questions: 1. What is the problem? (how, what, when, where, who, which, why?) 2. Who has the problem or who is the client/customer? This should explain who needs the solution and who will decide the problem has been solved. 3. What form can the resolution be? What is the scope and limitations (in time, money, resources, technologies) that can be used to solve the problem. 4. Limit the problem – The problem may be very broad, try to focus on scope and boundaries research should be SMART –( Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic & Time Bound) Activity: Try to limit these following topics: o Smoking be banned in all public places o Children obesity prevention o Diabetes related to childhood obesity o Violence in Workplace o Junk Foods These steps may help you in the construction of the statement of the problems: 1. Make a clear and analytical introduction which usually encompasses the main problem the title, stated in the expanded form. 2. The first question inquires the information linked to the introduction. 3. Create subsidiary questions clearly, logically and subsequently derived from the problem. 4. Ensure that you construct a question that elicits the presentation of the new knowledge or situation to a problem. 5. Pose a hypothetical that shall be tested, if necessary 6. Check if your questions are sufficient, about 3-6 statements, and are able to elicit information that provide substantial answer to make the main problem (Bauing)
  10. 10. Example Statement of the Problem: The researchers aims to know the Discrete Customer Dissatisfaction Responses Among theQuick Service Restaurant Along Katipunan Quezon City.Specifically, the study aimed to answer the following questions: 1. What are the characteristics of a quick service restaurant? 2. What are the negative emotions and customer dissatisfaction in a quick service restaurant? 3. How are these negative emotions and dissatisfaction contributes to the image of these quick service restaurants? 4. Is there a significant relationship between a discreet negative emotions and customer dissatisfaction to the overall performance of a Quick Service Restaurant? Activity # 1: (Individual) - Underline the key words focus of the study . - Construct a statement of the problem on the following research titles: 1. “Tour Guide Performance and Tourist Satisfaction: a Study of the Package Tours in a Selected Travel Agencies In Metro Manila” 2. “Tipping and Service Quality of a Fine Dining Restaurant” 3. “Pampanga as a Culinary Tourism Destination” Activity #2 : Form a group composed of 3 members. Let the students conveniently select their members. Arrange them in a circular form. Elect a group leader, secretary. (for Research 1 class only) Assignment : (for Research 1 class only) (optional activity for Research 2) 1. Each member should present a topic, a title, and a problem. 2. On the following meeting, each group should present its own research topic and a research problem. (It should be presented in front of the class, make sure that the presenter must provide a visual aid and should present without reading.) 3. Have the class analyze and criticize the presented title. 4. The best topic will be the basis for the title defense.
  11. 11. Descriptions of the Parts of Research Title Page It includes the title of the research which shall stated briefly. It may of at least one line but not exceed three lines written in full uppercase making a V form. Other information in the title page include the name of the university, the degree to which the researcher is a candidate, the name of the researcher and the month and year when the paper will be presented. The font size of the title page shall not be smaller than 12 not bigger than 14 using Time New Roman, Arial, Bookman Style, or as prescribed by the institution. Chapter I Introduction Thesis introduction is the first part of a thesis paper. Thesis introduction allows thereaders to get the general idea of what your thesis is about. Thesis introduction acquaints thereaders with the thesis paper topic, explaining the basic points of the thesis research and pointingthe direction of your research.Thesis introduction has to contain the following information: • The thesis paper topic; • The reasons which pushed a student to write his or her thesis paper exactly on this topic; • The thesis topic preface, or the background information on the thesis paper topic; • The goals you are going to achieve; • The tasks to complete in order to attain the goals, or the direction of the thesis research development;Remember that your thesis introduction has to contain all the information presented above. But itis not enough just to know the components of the thesis introduction if you want to succeed inthesis paper writing. You also have to know several secrets of the thesis introduction writing. Wewill tell you these secrets, so that you could prepare a brilliant thesis introduction. • You should write your thesis introduction after composing the entire thesis paper. It will allow you to analyze the whole work, and discover the best way to introduce your thesis to the readers. • You should not use any terms in your thesis introduction, since it can baffle the readers. You should present the terms related to the topic of your thesis paper only in the main body of the thesis paper. • Try to use simple language within your thesis introduction. • Remember that one of the main tasks of the thesis introduction is to attract the readers’ attention to your thesis paper.
  12. 12. Hypotheses of the Study Formulate Hypotheses – A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work: "If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will happen." You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure, and of course, your hypothesis should be constructed in a way to help you answer your original question. The hypothesis must be worded so that it can be tested in your experiment. Do this by expressing the hypothesis using your independent variable (the variable you change during your experiment) and your dependent variable (the variable you observe-changes in the dependent variable depend on changes in the independent variable). In fact, many hypotheses are stated exactly like this: "If a particular independent variable is changed, then there is also a change in a certain dependent variable."Example Hypotheses • "If I open the faucet [faucet opening size is the independent variable], then it will increase the flow of water [flow of water is the dependent variable]. • "Raising the temperature of a cup of water [temperature is the independent variable] will increase the amount of sugar that dissolves [the amount of sugar is the dependent variable]." • "If a plant receives fertilizer [having fertilizer is the independent variable], then it will grow to be bigger than a plant that does not receive fertilizer [plant size is the dependent variable]." Let’s review : Hypotheses is a making a possible outcome of the study • Tentative theoretical scheme for the research problem • The hypothesis should be stated in a testable form • Null hypothesis should be stated. Stated in the negative to make it easier to prove or disapprove • Qualitative research does not test hypothesis Significance of the Study • Who will benefit from your study? How will they benefit? • This should state why the problem investigated is important and what significance the result have. • Statement on relevance felt needs, • Potential contribution of the research to new knowledge • Policy implications and other possible uses for its results
  13. 13. Scope and Limitation This tells the coverage and boundaries of the study. It tells the attributes and characteristics that are included or excluded. Scope and Limitation may be applicable to place, time, people, value or other factors. (Bouing) The "scope" section is where you list what you are doing. The "bounds" section is where you set the boundaries and you list some thing explicitly that you are not doing because they are outside the bounds of the project. Activity: 1. Each member of the group should work on Chapter 1 (Introduction, Statement of the Problem, Hypothesis, Significance of the Study, Scope and Limitation). Ready to present on the following week the outcome. (Research 1 class only) 2. Research 2 – Bring a hard copy of your manuscript, analyze and scrutinize your Chapter 1. Be ready to answer questions from the class. Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURERelated Literature A review of related literature is an integral part of theses or dissertations. It may also be a required part of proposals. The main purpose of a review of related literature is to analyze scientific works by other researchers that you used for investigation critically. How to Write the Introduction of a Review of Related Literature In order to make the Introduction elaborately, take the following steps: 1. Identify the general topic of the sources under discussion. Thus, you will provide the context of your review of related literature; 2. Discuss what was already presented about the topic of your paper: conflicts in a theory, conclusions, gaps in research and scholarship, etc. 3. Explain why the literature used is worth reviewing. How to Write the Body of a Review of Related Literature When writing the Body, do the following: • Group the sources according to their common dominators (approaches, objectives or any specific chronologies); • Give the examples of how to sort out these groups. Use quotations, evidences, data, etc. They will make your review of related literature more valid.
  14. 14. How to Write the Conclusion of a Review of Related Literature To make the Conclusion, do the following: • Summarize the contributions of the literature sources made to the area of study you investigate. Maintain the central focus in the Introduction; • Give a kind of insight into the relationship between the topic of your review and a larger study area (e.g. a discipline, a scientific endeavour, etc.)CitationIt is a way of strengthening or concretizing one’s idea by citing the similar or relevant ideas orfindings of other researchers and authorities. Documentation was done through footnoting orparenthetical reference citation. Modern writers is now using parenthetical reference style. Thestyle is called “American Psychological Association style” or APA styleExamples of APA style of citationWorks by single author According to Flippo (1984) proper job performance is achieved only if employees are trained because they will improve their skills. from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945) Flippo (1984) stated the relationship or training and performance, thus: “After personnel have been obtained, they must be to some degree developed. Development has to do with the increase of skill through training, that is necessary for proper job performance.”Works by multiple authorsWhen a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. Inparenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&). as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and." as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstratedWhen a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) foundIn all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al."(Latin for "and others") and the year of publication. Kahneman et al. (1991) found
  15. 15. Writing the related literature In a report, the original information stated by the researcher are printed double space , while theborrowed information are encoded in single space if copied word for word from the source.Paraphrased information is stated also in double space (Bouing)Group activity: 1. Each member furnish a copy of foreign and local literature of their study. 2. Harmonize the information following the sequence of the question under Statement of the Problem 3. Lift, adopt, paraphrase or quote the essential substance of a written source. 4. Present the output to the class (Bouing)Theoretical / Conceptual FrameworkA conceptual framework is the researcher’s idea on how the research problem will have to beexplored. This is founded on the theoretical framework, which lies on a much broader scale ofresolution. The theoretical framework dwells on time tested theories that embody the findings ofnumerous investigations on how phenomena occur.The theoretical framework provides a general representation of relationships between things in agiven phenomenon. Theoretical framework cites the salient outcomes of the previous studiespresents the theories formulated by other writers, these will be used as bases in proving ordisapproving the applicability of such theories on present time.The conceptual framework, on the other hand, embodies the specific direction by which theresearch will have to be undertaken. Statistically speaking, the conceptual framework describes therelationship between specific variables identified in the study. It also outlines the input, processand output of the whole investigation. The conceptual framework is also called the researchparadigm.Research Paradigm Paradigm is a chart, diagram or illustration of the existence of the problem. It provides solutionsand the outcomes of the processes or intervention done.Definition of Terms This part simplifies the key words used in the study. It serves as the glossary of the research paper.Terms may be defined conceptually or operationally. Conceptual definition includes those lifted
  16. 16. from the dictionary or written resources. Operational definition refers to the definition constructedby the researcher as applied to the present study. (Bouing)Locale and Population of the study This part identifies the setting, venue, place or location of the study. It includes the population andthe sample taken from the population. The sampling method is also included here (Bouing)Activity: Present to the class your Theoretical Framework, and explain why you derived or how this theoryapplies to your study. Illustrate a Conceptual Paradigm of your study to the class and explain how the research problemwill have to be explored.ACTIVITY TEST: (Per Group) 1. Be ready to present once again your Chapters 1, 2 and 3 2. Prepare a short presentation without reading and simply explain each chapters. 3. Other groups should comment and ask questions for clarification. 4. Check the grammar of your study carefully before presenting your manuscript. Chapter III Research Design  refers to as a scheme or plan of action for meeting the objectives of the study. - Each research design has its own applicability factors to consider: • nature of problem • objectives of the study • attributes ad geographical dispersion of the subjects • Investigator’s capability • Availability of resources and time elementTypes of Research Design 1.Historical Research Design – is the systematic and objective location, evaluation and synthesis of evidence in order to establish the facts and draw conclusions about past events. Example :” A Tale of Two crises: The Belgian and Irish Dioxin Contamination Incidents” by Donald Casey 2.Descriptive Research Design - aims to find out what prevail in the present conditions or relationships, held opinions and beliefs, process and effects and developing trends
  17. 17. Types of Descriptive Research:a. Case Study - – is an empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident. Example :” Rural Women in Rice Enterprise : A Case Study” by D.D. Torretab. Trend Study - predicts on the basis of available data, the direction and future status of certain phenomenon like population size, school, population size, school enrolment, business growth, household expenditures and residential location.Example: “Trends in Breastfeeding Prevalence and Duration” by Zeldac. Survey - detailed and quantified description of a population of a population – precise map or precise measurement of potential.Example: “Customer Satisfaction of ABC Travel and Tour” by D.C Castrod. Content Analysis/ Document Analysis – to find out the type and the quality of message found in current documents deals with communication, processes.Example : “Rhetorical Patterns of Speeches of Pres. Benigno Aquino III”e. Feasibility study – scheme use when the objective of the study is to find out the viability of starting a business venture, implementing a development program,establishing an institution, forming organization, putting up a television network or constructing a commercial building. Components: market, technical, financial and management aspects of the desired undertaking. Example : “Establishment of Food Service Business in Antipolo City” by A.M Somorayf. Development study – a scheme to find out how and to what extent individuals grow or develop in terms of physical, intellectual, emotional and social dimension. Types: longitudinal (years to finish) and cross section (one point in time) Example : “The Development of Social Awareness Among Filipino Children” by PNC Research Centerg. Follow-up study – is conducted with the goal of finding out what happened to individuals who completed a program a program, a treatment or a course of study. Example: OLFU Student Monitoring Program : A Follow up Studyh. Evaluation study – to find out whether or not a given program is working or an institution is successful. Example: “An Evaluation of the National Tuberculosis Program in Western Visayas” by V.B. Ardalesi. Ethnographic study – is a field method study and uses the techniques of observation and integration to the group and conservation and interviews with informants. Observes beliefs, attitudes, fears and hopes of cultural or ethnic groups, real life setting.
  18. 18. Example: “Belief sand Customs of Farmers in Gapan, Nueva Ecija” j. Relational study – to find out the direction and extent of relationship between two Or more paired variables or two or more sets of data. Example:” Relationship Between Economic Status and Academic Performance and Career Preference of Senior High School Students in the Iloilo City” k. Ex Post Facto Studies/Casual Comparative Design – is a method wherein the investigator studies the problem by analyzing past events or existing conditions to determine the influence. To find out the existing differences in the status behaviour, attitude and belief of groups of individuals. Example: “Some Factors in Job Satisfaction Among Employees in a Five Star Hotel In Metro Manila” by A.M Lopez l. Replication and Secondary Analysis – repetition of a research work but in a different set of participants, setting and time. Challenging and verifying the conclusions of previous studies. Example: “Social Change in Mindanao : A Review of the Research of the Decade” By M.A Costello 3. Experimental Research Design - is a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable(s) under very controlled conditions and examines whether changes occur in a second variable(s). Independent & Dependent Variables The manipulated variable is called the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (presumed "cause." ) The variable that is expected to change as a result of the manipulation of the independent variable is called the DEPENDENT VARIABLE. (presumed "effect.")4.Factorial Research Design - design is often used by scientists wishing to understand the effect oftwo or more independent variables upon a single dependent variable.5. Action Research Design - learning by doing” - a group of people identify a problem, do somethingto resolve it, see how successful their efforts were, and if not satisfied, try again. While this is theessence of the approach, there are other key attributes of action research that differentiate it fromcommon problem-solving activities that we all engage in every day.6.Participatory Research Design - Is an arranged effort by the researcher and the people to conducta study the result of which is relevant to actions for transforming or improving people’s a recognized form of experimental research that focuses on the effects of the researchers directactions of practice within a participatory community with the goal of improving the performancequality of the community or an area of concern.
  19. 19. 7.Operations Research Design - Is the application of analytic methods that help decision makerschoose among various options to accomplish specified goals. It is useful in solving problems thatare related to the conduct and coordination of operations of organizations. Sampling Procedure Sampling refers to taking a representative subsection of the population. Contacting,questioning, and obtaining information from a large population, such as the 370,000 householdsresiding in Antipolo City, is extremely expensive, difficult, and time consuming. A properlydesigned probability sample, however, provides a reliable means of inferring information about apopulation without examining every member or element.Two General Types of Sampling:A. Probability sampling - is taking a sample from the population. It ensures that there is apossibility for each person in a sample population to be selected. A probability sample tends to bemore difficult and costly to conduct. However, probability samples are the only type of sampleswhere the results can be generalized from the sample to the population. Inaddition, probability samples allow the researcher to calculate the precision of the estimatesobtained from the sample and to specifythe sampling error. Types of Probability Sampling: 5. Random Sampling – This is similar to lottery method that provides everyone in the population the equal chance to be picked as sample. 6. Systematic Sampling – This is used if a high density of a population is at stake. The researcher may find a record of the population, list the name alphabetically at any desired order, identify the sample size, then proceed to a system of selection. Say the population is 1000 and he preferred sample is 20%, the researcher needs 200, so he picks every 5th name from the list. (Bouing) 7. Stratified Random Sampling - dividing up the population into smaller groups, and randomly sampling from each group. Example: To get a sample from the City of Antipolo. To obtain more precise estimates of the population, the researcher may want to stratify the sample by geographic region or baranggay. 4. Cluster Sampling - is similar to stratified sampling because the population to be sampled is subdivided into mutually exclusive groups. However, in cluster sampling the groups are defined so as to maintain the heterogeneity of the population. Example: Female members of Baranggay San Isidro.
  20. 20. B. Non-Probability Sampling - in contrast, do not allow the studys findings to be generalizedfrom the sample to the population. When discussing the results of a non probability sample, theresearcher must limit his/her findings to the persons or elements sampled. This procedure alsodoes not allow the researcher to calculate sampling statistics that provide information about theprecision of the results. The advantage of non probability sampling is the ease in which it can beadministered. Non probability samples tend to be less complicated and less time consuming thanprobability samples. If the researcher has no intention of generalizing beyond the sample, one ofthe non probability sampling methodologies will provide the desired information.Types of Non-Probability Sampling 1. Network sampling – “referral sampling” that stems from one or few identified samples who after being involved in the study will lead the researcher to other samples who possess the same attributes. (Bouing) 2. Accidental Sampling - A sampling by opportunity in which the researcher takes the respondents from those he meets unexpectedly. 3. Purposive Sampling – “Judgemental sampling”. A deliberate selection of individuals by the researcher based on predefined criteria. Example, if the researcher wants to know about childbirth problems, the respondents may be obstetrician, gynecologist. 4. Convenience Sampling – Selecting respondents in the easiest way. The respondents may be the nearest people, friends, relatives, accessible organization, available person. 5. Quota Sampling - a population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub- groups, just as in stratified sampling. Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion. For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60. This means that individuals can put a demand on who they want to sample (targeting).Determining the Sample Determining sample size is a very important issue because samples that are toolarge may waste time, resources and money, while samples that are too small may lead toinaccurate results. There is no general rule regarding the sample size. However, we can say that thehigher the percentage, the higher the validity. It is natural to say that the bigger the population, thelesser percentage of the sample is taken. Some statisticians suggest the Slovin formula in computing the sample size. n = N 1+Ne2Where: n = number of sample
  21. 21. N = number of population E = margin of errorThe margin of error may be .01 to .05. But the lower the margin of error, the higher the accuracy ofthe result.Activity : Compute the sample size. Where the number of population is 1,200 and the margin oferror is 3% n = N 1+Ne2N = 1,200E = .03n=?n = 1,200 1 + 1,200 (.03)2n = 1,200 1 + 1,200 (.0009)n= 1,200 1+ 1.0800n= 1,200 2.0800n= 575.92 or 580 Validity and ReliabilityValidity and Reliability are two important characteristics of both the research process and researchoutput.Validity refers to the degree of appropriateness, correctness, truthfulness and accuracy of thestudy. In other words, the procedure shall measure what is intended to measure. (Bouing)Types of Validity 1. Content Validity - pertains to the degree to which the instrument fully assesses or measures the construct of interest. For example, an educational test with strong content validity will represent the subjects actually taught to students, rather than asking unrelated questions.
  22. 22. 2. Face Validity - is a component of content validity and is established when an individual reviewing the instrument concludes that it measures the characteristic or trait of interest. It requires a personal judgment, such as asking participants whether they thought that a test was well constructed and useful.3. Criterion Validity - assesses whether a test reflects a certain set of abilities. To measure the criterion validity of a test, researchers must calibrate it against a known standard or against itself. Example: For market researchers, criterion validity is crucial, and can make or break a product. One famous example is when Coca-Cola decided to change the flavor of their trademark drink. Diligently, they researched whether people liked the new flavor, performing taste tests and giving out questionnaires. People loved the new flavor, so Coca-Cola rushed New Coke into production, where it was a titanic flop. The mistake that Coke made was that they forgot about criterion validity, and omitted one important question from the survey. People were not asked if they preferred the new flavor to the old, a failure to establish concurrent validity. The Old Coke, known to be popular, was the perfect benchmark, but it was never used. A simple blind taste test, asking people which flavor they preferred out of the two, would have saved Coca Cola millions of dollars.Reliability - The degree of consistency between two measures of the same thing. (Mehrens andLehman, 1987).• The measure of how stable, dependable, trustworthy, and consistent a test is in measuring thesame thing each time (Worthen et al., 1993)Example 1 : If we wish to measure a persons weight, we would hope that the scale would registerthe same measure each time the person stepped on the scale.Example 2 : If we wanted to measure the length of a piece of wood, the tape used better yield thesame measure each time. Even if you had someone else re measure the wood, the result should beconsistent.Example 3: Assume that you gave a student a history test yesterday and then gave the test againtoday. You found that the student scored very high the first day and very low the second day. Itcould have been that the student had an off day or that the test is simply unreliable.Statistical Treatment of Data
  23. 23. Scientists frequently use statistics to analyze their results. Why do researchers usestatistics? Statistics can help understand a phenomenon by confirming or rejecting a hypothesis. Itis vital to how we acquire knowledge to most scientific theories.Statistical treatment of data also involves describing the data. The best way to do this is throughthe measures of central tendencies like mean, median and mode. These help the researcher explainin short how the data are concentrated. Range, uncertainty and standard deviation help tounderstand the distribution of the data. Therefore two distributions with the same mean can havewildly different standard deviation, which shows how well the data points are concentrated aroundthe mean.Statistical treatment of data is an important aspect of all experimentation today and a thoroughunderstanding is necessary to conduct the right experiments with the right inferences from thedata obtained.Chapter IV : PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATAChapter V : SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSSummary of findingsConclusionsRecommendationsBIBLIOGRAPHYAPPENDICESCURRICULUM VITAE