Guinea pigs eat in equador but kept as pets in UKIf we value privacy then we don’t open the mail of othersA norm in GB society is that we do not have noisy conversations in cinemas and we queue at supermarket checkouts
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GCSE Sociology Paper 1
Ambitious….a whole GCSE unit in a day! Key vocabulary Essential knowledge and content Examination questions
Paper 1 content Studying Society Family Education All questions are compulsory…you have NO CHOICE and only 90 minutes! This is also the short course paper – all examples used in the studying society section MUST come from either EDUCATION or the FAMILY
You will be given a topic from either the family or education June 2010 Educational achievement and gender June 2011 Truancy and social deprivation January 2011 Housework and the division of labour in the home
Responding to sources – graphs, charts, extracts from sociological studies 1 mark Identify a research method 1 mark Give one advantage and disadvantage of the method 2 marks Key concepts – gender, ethnicity, culture, social deprivation – 4 marks How research can be used linked to a given situation – 4 marks
Given a situation that they want you to imagine you are researching Secondary sources/sampling - 4 Ethics - 4 Research method or sampling methods you would use and why it is better than other methods – 6 Total 30 marks
Socio – societyOlogy – study ofStudying human life, groups and societiesInvestigating the social world and our behaviour in itHow society influences us and how it shapes our daily lives.EducationFamilyLegal system SocialisationPolitical Labellingsystem Discrimination ParentingSocial Use of power Education reformstratification Teenage crime Inequalities Participation
Ask important questions about society• What impact do riots have on local communities?• Why don’t more people vote in elections?• How do girls of South Asian heritage experience university?They use:• A range of specialised terms and concepts• A tool kit of research instruments such as questionnaires and interviews• Journalists ask similar questions to sociologists…but their approach is different!• Research is less systematic and detailed due to lack of time and pressure to publish• Journalists may side with one political party or use evidence that contains bias – sociologists aim to be balanced in their use of material• Sociological research is subject to peer review and criticism – this means that other sociologists check and evaluate their work
Sociologists and Psychologists both studypeople and their behaviourThey both use a wide range of researchtechniques and they both analyse dataBUT…psychology focuses on the behaviour and motivation ofindividuals and sociology looks at the behaviour of groups and thesocial processes and social structures that influence us.Example – genderA psychologist may look at the way that an individual interprets hisor her gender but a sociologist would look at the social structuresand processes to explain gender identity such as the family andsocialisation.
The whole way of life Ideas and beliefs General guidelinesof a society. that are desirable for conduct and areIncludes the values, and worth striving more specific thannorms , beliefs and for. values. Norms telllanguage of a society. • Respect for us what isNot universal – can human life appropriatechange according to • Privacy behaviour inplace and time. Values give us different contexts. general guidelines They provide order for conduct. for society and help it to run smoothly. Norms are enforced by positive and negative sanctions and they can vary depending on place and time.
Culture is based on learning NOT instinct – it is not inborn or natural.We are born into a particular culture BUT we have to learn how thatculture works and how we fit in and become a member of that culture.Sociologists call this learning process SOCIALIZATONLearning in early childhood Begins in later childhood and continues for the rest of our lives.We learn the basic behaviour We learn societies norms andpatterns and language skills values for certain contexts.that we need in later life Agencies of secondaryAgency of primary socialization socializationThe family • The mass media • Education • Peer groups • Workplace • Religion
Develop aims and hypothesis – what they plan to do and what they think they will find out Pilot study – small scale trial run to overcome any problems Select their sample – decide how they will reach their target audience Data collection – by using their chosen research methods Data analysis – interpret their findings and results Evaluation – present their findings so they can be assessed by others before publishing
Identify who you want to Too expensive or timestudy – this is called the consuming to question thepopulation. whole population so you need a sample of the population. You need a sampling frame from which to select your If the sampling frame is sample – for example school inaccurate it might make the registers, post code addresses sample unrepresentative and or people registered at a it would be difficult for the doctor’s surgery. sociologist to generalize from the findings. Sociologists can use different methods to select the sample. These methods can be divided into two groups: • Probability • Non-probability
Each member of the sampling frame has an equal chance of being selected. More likely People chosen at random to be representative. like drawing names out of a hat. Researchers use computer programmes to select simple randomTakes every nth item from samples.the sampling frame. Forexample every 10th name Used if the researcher wants the samplefrom a school register. If the to reflect the age and genderframe is 1000 and theresearcher needs 100 then a characteristics of the sample. Stratifiednumber between 1 -10 is sampling involved dividing the populationselected at random. For into strata (layers or subgroups) and thenexample if the random a random sample is drawn from each subnumber is 6 then every 6th group.person would be selected.
Used when there isno sampling A good examples of their beingframe. no sample frame are benefit fraud, football hooligans, members of youth sub-cultures or the homeless.Used by market Using this technique theresearchers – they researcher contacts onehave to interview a member of the group and bygiven number from a gaining their confidence in thecategory. hope that they will introduce them to others in the group.The sample is selected by known characteristics – for example byprofession.
Collection of information from a large group of people Questionnaires or structured interviews Standardized – everyone receives the same questions in the same order Three main ways: Postal questionnaires Hand delivered questionnaires Formal/structured interviews
Closed questions – respondents choose between a fixed range of answers they are easy to convert into charts and statistics THIS IS QUANTATATIVE DATA Open questions – respondents can put forward their own answers and give their own opinions THE IS QUALITATIVE DATA
Cheap, quick, and efficient way of getting large amounts of data from large numbers of people Researcher not present – people may be more open and more willing to answer questions about personal issues Provides quantitative data which makes it possible to look for patterns between different factors e.g. age and gender It can be repeated by another researcher to check that the research findings are reliable
Researcher not present can not explain questions so they could be answered incorrectly The response rate is very low and may not be representative of the general population No guarantee that the questionnaire was answered by the right person Excludes the homeless and those with literacy problems Gives the respondent no chance to explain their answers, the answers have been chosen for them
Everyone answers the same questions, patterns between factors can examined as it provides statistical data The interviewers are trained and can clarify the meanings of the questions The interviewer can make sure that all the questions are answered The questions are standardized so other researchers could repeat the interviews and check for reliability
Interview effect – respondents may give the answers that they think are socially acceptable or they may lie, try to shock or impress the interviewer The interviewer effect – the age, gender, ethnicity, accent, appearance of the interviewer may affect how the respondent answers the questions, also known as interviewer bias The pre set questions limit the responses, the responses have already been decided and people can not express their own opinions Time consuming and expensive
Informal, guided conversation, no two will be the same Much more flexible, questions can be explained and rephrased and other questions can be asked in response to what the interviewer has been told Provided much more depth as people can talk at length and develop their answers fully and the researcher can explore more complex issues
Time consuming and very expensive Highly trained interviewer to keep the conversation flowing Interview and interviewer effect Difficult to replicate and check for reliability Few can be carried out in time available so sample size is small, generalisations make more difficult
Advantages Access a wide range of opinions People may feel more comfortable putting their ideas across when they are supported by other members of a group Disadvantages Interviews may influence each other – some may dominate discussion so everyone’s voice may not be heard Some people may be less open in a group setting and prefer one to one Confidentiality can not be assured
Studies conducted with the same group of people over a long period of time. 1970 – babies born in April have been followed up at 5, 10, 16, 26,and 34 to monitor their health and physical development – British Cohort Survey Millennium cohort survey 2001 babies at 9 months, 2003 and 2006 (University of London) Look how society changes over time
Expensive May affect behaviour, they may behave differently if they had never been involved in the study Maintaining contact over a long period of time, some people may be lost through change of address etc. People may change their minds and decided not to be involved in the study
Watching and listening top a group of people to study their attitudes, values and how they may change over time. The researcher joins the group and participates in the daily activities of the group. Overt Participant observation – the researcher COMES CLEAN and the group is aware that the researcher is studying them – there is o problems with this – the observer effect, being observed may change their behaviour. Covert participation – the researchers hide the fact that they are studying the group, they keep their real reasons for being with the group a secret.
Allows the researcher to observe a group in their natural everyday settings Researchers can see things from the groups point of view/perspective The researcher can develop a deeper understanding of how the groups works Some groups may not agree to be interviewed so covert observation may be the only way to gain access to the group – violent football fans, religious cults etc.
The observer effect – the presence of the interviewer may change the behaviour of the group It may be difficult to gain entry to the group and hard to gain their trust and acceptance It may be difficult to write notes and make records – have to rely on memory, especially if the research is covert The activities of the group may put the researcher in danger Time consuming, could be out of date before it is published Researcher could become too involved with the group and become biased Impossible to repeat and check for reliability Ethical issues, is it right to research a group without their consent
The researcher is a fly on the wall observing a group’s activities On the plus side….. Researcher less likely to become involved with the group and produce a biased report More objective, less influenced by the feelings or opinions of the group On the negative side…. More difficult for the researcher to see the world through the eyes of the group Observer effect – the presence of the researcher could change the behaviour of the group
Ethical research involved protecting the rights of the research participants and ensuring that they are not harmed in any way by the research The main issued are… CONSENT ANONIMITY PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY
Participants need to agree to be part of the study, this is giving their permission or their consent The sociologist should explain the purpose of the study The participants must be made aware of their right to refuse to participate AND the right to leave the study at any time for any reason
Privacyshould be respected Personal information should be kept confidential You should not be able to identify people from the research
Making of a Moonie – Eileen Barker (1984)– Participant observation Street Corner Society – William Foote Whyte (1943)– participant observation A Glasgow Gang Observed – James Patrick (1973)– covet The Tearoom Trade – Laud Humphreys (1970) - covert
Collected by other people Not collected by the researcher – it is second hand information Can be quantitative – birth rates, death rates, suicide rates, crime rates, census Can be qualitative – diaries, letters, autobiographies, photograph s, novels, mass media products, studies carried out by other sociologists
Cheap, readily available and cover many aspects of social life May be the only source of data on a topic Allow sociologists to do before and after studies E.g. impact of the Divorce Act 1969 Allows the study of trends over a long period of time - crime, abortion, unemployment Can be used as part of research design
Handle with caution!!! Collected by officials so may use definitions which are not acceptable to sociologists Not possible to check their validity – the record of births may be accurate but what about crime statistics? Are all crimes recorded? They are socially constructed – they are the outcomes of a set of decisions made by the people recording them or reporting them.
Can help to build a picture of a situation in the present and the past Documents such as school prospectuses, OFSTED reports and newsletters can help to build up a picture of a school’s ethos They may be the only source of information available, especially when looking at historical documents Provide high validity
May be forged – letters, diaries Even if they are not forgeries they may not give an accurate representation of the events – think about autobiographies! Misinterpretation – do they mean the same thing today as at the time they were written?
Can sociology contribute to social policy?Can sociology address social problems in contemporary British society? Social policies are plans and actions put into place by governments or local authorities to address social problems such as poverty, discrimination and racism. Sociological research is useful to governments when designing and implementing social policy – research can make suggestions for change and these changes could be implemented by government
Stephen Lawrence MurderStephen was killed in 1993 by a group of white men in South London1997 – public enquiry on police handling of the investigation1999 – Macphereson Report published – the investigation washindered by INSTITUTIONAL RACISM – sociologists played a key rolein the reportSociologists submitted work in such areas as policing, race andcommunity relations and they were also key in defining the termINSTITUTIONAL RACISMEducation debates – Bagguley and Hussain 2007Explored the experience of South Asian women’s experience ofgoing to university and their barriers to higher education. A keyfinding was that in order to improve their experience unacceptablebehaviour from staff and students needs to be challenged.