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  • 1. 25.3 Isomerism
  • 2. Structural Isomers
    • Compounds that have the same molecular formula , but different molecular structures , are called structural isomers
    • Butane and 2-methylpropane (make by breaking Carbon off the end, and making a branch in the middle), both are C 4 H 10 but built differently
    • Also have different properties, such as b.p., m.p., and reactivity
  • 3. Structural Isomers of Butane, C 4 H 10
  • 4. Stereoisomers
    • Don’t forget that these structures are really 3-dimensional
    • stereoisomers- molecules of the same molecular structure that differ only in the arrangement of the atoms in space. Two types are a) geometric and b) optical
  • 5. Geometric Isomers
    • There is a lack of rotation around a carbon to carbon multiple bond
      • has an important structural implication
      • Two possible arrangements:
        • 1. trans configuration - substituted groups on opposite sides of double bond
        • 2. cis configuration - same side
  • 6. Substituted groups are on opposite sides of the double bond (in this case, one is above, the other is below) Substituted groups are on the same side of the double bond (in this case, both are above) Geometric Isomers Trans -2-butene Cis -2-butene
  • 7. Geometric Isomers
    • Trans -2-butene and Cis -2-butene shown on page 754
    • differ in the geometry of the substituted groups (to double bond)
    • like other structural isomers, have different physical and chemical properties
  • 8. Optical Isomers
    • Asymmetric carbon? C with 4 different groups attached. Conceptual Problem 25.4, p.756
    • Molecules containing asymmetric carbons have “handedness”, and exist as stereoisomers.
      • Figure 25.12, page 755