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PREPARED BY :-
BHAUTIK MEHTA
B.PHARM LAST
YEAR STUDENT(2020/21)
JOINT WHATS GROUP
7984127911
ISOMERS
 MANY ORGENIC COMPOUND HAVE SAME
MOLECULAR FORMULA BUT THEY HAVE
DIFFERENT PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL
PROPERTIES IT’S KNOW AS ISOMERS.
 Isomerism = Greek ( ISOS=equal ; MEROS=parts).
Type Of Isomers
1. Structural Isomers 2. Stereomerism.
 Same molecular formula.
 Different in structure.
 Different in properties.
 It arises due to different
arrangement of atoms
around the carbon in
space.
 Same molecular formula
and also structural
formula.
 Different in optical
arrangement of atom.
There is 5 type of
structural isomers.
 1. Chain isomer.
 2. Position isomer.
 3. Function group isomer
 4. Metamerisam.
 5. Totamerisam.
There is two type of
stereoisomer.
 1. Conformation.
 2. Configuration.
Structural Isomers
 When the isomerism is simply due to different in the
arrangement of atoms within the molecule, with out
any reference to space, the phenomenon is termed
Structural Isomerism.
 Ex.
N BUTYL ALCOHOL AND ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL.
 CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2OH CH3-CH2-CHOH-CH3
1. CHAIN ISOMERS.
 1. No of atom is same.
 2. Functional group is same.
 3. carbon skeleton is different.
 4. Different in side chain of carbons.
Ex.
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 CH3-CH-(CH3)2
N Butane Iso butane
2. Positional Isomers
 1. No. of atom is same.
 2. Functional group is same but position of it is
different.
 3. carbon skeleton is also same.
Ex.
CH2(OH)-CH2-CH3 CH3-CH(OH)-CH3
1-propanol 2-propanol
3. Functional isomers
 Isomers which have different functional group but
same atom and same molecular weight.
Ex.
1. Alcohol and Ether.
2. Diene and Yne. (2doubble bond and 1 triple bond)
3. Aldehyde and Ketone (CnH2nO)
etc.
4. Metamers.
Isomers which have different carbon chain length
along a functional group with hetro atom.
 1. No. of atom same.
 2. Functional group same.
 3. Number of carbon differs along hetero atoms.
Ex.
CH3-O-CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2OCH2CH3
methoxypropane ethoxyethane
5. Tautomers
 A type of functional isomers which exit in rapid
equilibrium in solution are called tautomers.
 It is interconvertable in solution.
 It is differ in position of H atom at alpha carbon.
Ex.
Cyanicacid and isocyanic acid

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Stereochemistry functional isomers

  • 1. PREPARED BY :- BHAUTIK MEHTA B.PHARM LAST YEAR STUDENT(2020/21) JOINT WHATS GROUP 7984127911
  • 2. ISOMERS  MANY ORGENIC COMPOUND HAVE SAME MOLECULAR FORMULA BUT THEY HAVE DIFFERENT PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IT’S KNOW AS ISOMERS.  Isomerism = Greek ( ISOS=equal ; MEROS=parts).
  • 3. Type Of Isomers 1. Structural Isomers 2. Stereomerism.  Same molecular formula.  Different in structure.  Different in properties.  It arises due to different arrangement of atoms around the carbon in space.  Same molecular formula and also structural formula.  Different in optical arrangement of atom.
  • 4. There is 5 type of structural isomers.  1. Chain isomer.  2. Position isomer.  3. Function group isomer  4. Metamerisam.  5. Totamerisam. There is two type of stereoisomer.  1. Conformation.  2. Configuration.
  • 5. Structural Isomers  When the isomerism is simply due to different in the arrangement of atoms within the molecule, with out any reference to space, the phenomenon is termed Structural Isomerism.  Ex. N BUTYL ALCOHOL AND ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL.  CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2OH CH3-CH2-CHOH-CH3
  • 6. 1. CHAIN ISOMERS.  1. No of atom is same.  2. Functional group is same.  3. carbon skeleton is different.  4. Different in side chain of carbons. Ex. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 CH3-CH-(CH3)2 N Butane Iso butane
  • 7. 2. Positional Isomers  1. No. of atom is same.  2. Functional group is same but position of it is different.  3. carbon skeleton is also same. Ex. CH2(OH)-CH2-CH3 CH3-CH(OH)-CH3 1-propanol 2-propanol
  • 8. 3. Functional isomers  Isomers which have different functional group but same atom and same molecular weight. Ex. 1. Alcohol and Ether. 2. Diene and Yne. (2doubble bond and 1 triple bond) 3. Aldehyde and Ketone (CnH2nO) etc.
  • 9. 4. Metamers. Isomers which have different carbon chain length along a functional group with hetro atom.  1. No. of atom same.  2. Functional group same.  3. Number of carbon differs along hetero atoms. Ex. CH3-O-CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2OCH2CH3 methoxypropane ethoxyethane
  • 10. 5. Tautomers  A type of functional isomers which exit in rapid equilibrium in solution are called tautomers.  It is interconvertable in solution.  It is differ in position of H atom at alpha carbon. Ex. Cyanicacid and isocyanic acid