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  1. 1. 26.4 Polymerization
  2. 2. Polymers from Monomers                                                 
  3. 3. Addition Polymers <ul><li>Polymers are giant molecules, not small like the ones studied earlier in this chapter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>examples are plastics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polymer - large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of smaller molecules called monomers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Addition Polymers <ul><li>An addition polymer forms when unsaturated monomers react to form a polymer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ethene will form polyethylene , shown on page 795 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polyethylene is easy to clean, chemically resistant- milk bottles, plastic wrap, refrigerator dishes </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. High Density Polyethylene
  6. 6. Addition Polymers <ul><li>Polypropylene is a stiffer polymer, used in utensils and containers </li></ul><ul><li>Polystyrene is formed from styrene (phenylethene), and is a poor heat conductor (styrofoam ® Dow Chemical) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>molded coffee cups and picnic coolers, insulates homes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used for pipes in plumbing </li></ul>
  7. 7. Addition Polymers <ul><li>Polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE, or teflon ® DuPont ) is very resistant to heat and chemical corrosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>found on nonstick cookware; coating on bearings and bushings used in chemical reactors </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Condensation Polymers <ul><li>Condensation polymers are formed by the head-to-tail joining of monomer units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually accompanied by the loss of water from the reacting monomers, and forming water as a product </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Condensation Polymers <ul><li>Ex: polyethylene terephthalate (PET) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dacron ( ® DuPont) , Fortrel ( ® Wellman) , Polyesters: permanent press clothing, tire cords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheets of polyester called Mylar ( ® DuPont) , used as magnetic tape in tape recorders and computers, as well as balloons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nylon: carpet, fishing line, hosiery </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Condensation Polymers <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aromatic rings form Nomex ( ® DuPont) , which is a poor electrical conductor; makes parts for electrical fixtures; flame resistant clothing for race car drivers; flame resistant building materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kevlar ( ® DuPont) : strong and flame resistant </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Plastic container code system. CODE MATERIAL PERCENT OF TOTAL        Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) 20-30 percent        High Density Polyethylene 50-60 percent        Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 5-10 percent        Low Density Polyethylene 5-10 percent        Polypropylene 5-10 percent        Polystyrene 5-10 percent        All other resins 5-10 percent
  12. 12. What Do the Numbers Mean? <ul><li>1 -- PETE (Polyethylene terephthalate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PET (or PETE) is used in the production of soft drink bottles, peanut butter jars... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PET can be recycled into fiberfill for sleeping bags, carpet fibers, rope, pillows... </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What Do the Numbers Mean? <ul><li>2 -- HDPE (High-density polyethylene) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HDPE is found in milk jugs, butter tubs, detergent bottles, motor oil bottles... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDPE can be recycled into flower pots, trash cans, traffic barrier cones, detergent bottles... </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What Do the Numbers Mean? <ul><li>3 -- V (Polyvinyl chloride) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PVC is used in shampoo bottles, cooking oil bottles, fast food service items... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PVC can be recycled into drainage and irrigation pipes... </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. What Do the Numbers Mean? <ul><li>4 -- LDPE (Low-density polyethylene) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDPE is found in grocery bags, bread bags, shrink wrap, margarine tub tops... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LDPE can be recycled into new grocery bags... </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. What Do the Numbers Mean? <ul><li>5 -- PP (Polypropylene) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PP is used in most yogurt containers, straws, pancake syrup bottles, bottle caps.... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PP can be recycled into plastic lumber, car battery cases, manhole steps... </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. What Do the Numbers Mean? <ul><li>6 -- PS (Polystyrene) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PS is found in disposable hot cups, packaging materials (peanuts), and meat trays... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PS can be recycled into plastic lumber, cassette tape boxes, flower pots... </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. What Do the Numbers Mean? <ul><li>7 -- Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is usually a mixture of various plastics, like squeeze ketchup bottles, &quot;microwaveable&quot; dishes... </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Timeline of Plastics 1862 – First man-made plastic 1866 – Celluloid makes it’s debut 1891 – Rayon is discovered 1907 – Bakelite is invented 1913 – Cellophane causes the plastics craze
  20. 20. Timeline of Plastics 1926 – PVC is invented 1933 – Polyethylene is discovered 1933 – Saran makes it’s debut 1938 – Teflon is discovered 1939 – Nylon stockings hit market 1957 – Here comes velcro