Lesson 2 Philadelphia Convention
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Lesson 2 Philadelphia Convention






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Lesson 2 Philadelphia Convention Lesson 2 Philadelphia Convention Presentation Transcript

  • Lesson 2 Philadelphia Convention Bellringer: What were the problems with the Articles of Confederation?
  • “These things happened. They were glorious and they changed the world... and then we screwed up the endgame.” 55 “Framers” at the Philadelphia Convention. Who is missing?
  • Guiding Questions What was included in the Virginia Plan? How did the goals of the Convention change?
  • Philadelphia Convention Philadelphia Convention May 14 – September 17, 1787  Address problems in governing the US The US had independence, but was not a nation  Rebellions  Anarchy
  • Call for Change Many felt the Confederation needed to be changed James Madison called for a meeting to revise or improve the Articles  Madison is referred to as the “Father of the Constitution”  The Convention ended up creating a new constitution and a stronger national government
  • Call for Change 55 delegates came to Philadelphia; Washington was chosen as the presiding officer  Starting goal was to improve and advise, but the goal quickly changed  “Framers”; framed or shaped the constitution  Decided to change the constitution and keep the meeting secret  Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry did not attend  No women, African Americans, or Native Americans
  • Post-War Problems 13 very different states made up the US Each state had their own constitution  May 1176, the Continental Congress requested all the states draft their own constitutions  All made different constitutions
  • State Constitutions The states were very wary of one party having too much power  Drafted constitution to limit power in the hands of a single ruler  Pennsylvania set up a council of 12  States divided power between the governor (or executive leader) and the legislature (i.e. the Congress)  Hosted frequent elections
  • Studying the Past Madison studied and prepared for the convention  Look at past governments  Came up with the Virginia Plan Republics vs. Democracies  Republics; elected officials  Democracies; power to the people  “Representative Democracy”; power derived
  • Rome Rome  2000 years ago  Elected representatives  No king  All classes had a say in government  Representatives worked for the “common good”
  • Republics Benefits  Worked towards a common good  People had a say  Representatives were responsible to the people Disadvantages  Worked best in small communities  Hard to utilize in diverse groups  Naturally divides people into factions which would only fight, not work for common
  • Madison Madison  Madison determined republics were weaker than monarchs because Kings and Queens could make decisions quickly  US needed a strong national government  Needed some type of leadership without the misuse of power  Checks and balances
  • Virginia Plan Virginia Plan  Strong national government  2 governments (state and national)  National government could make and enforce laws  National government could tax  3 branches  2 houses; one proportional to state size and the other equal representation  Madison had a coalition backing him  Those who opposed the Virginia Plan came up with the New Jersey Plan
  • New Jersey Plan New Jersey Plan  Weak national government  1 house with equal representation  National government could tax and regulate trade  2 branches  Created by small states
  • Convention Continues Convention agreed it must go beyond amending the Articles and instead produce a new constitution  The new national government would have the powers of the Confederation, as well as the power over the state  Next step was choosing a plan
  • Making Decisions Delegates voted in the Virginia Plan and began to modify it INTENSE debate  State representation; equal or proportional?  Slaves; property to be taxed or people who counted towards the state’s population  Would the executive be 1 person or more
  • Making Decisions Compromise  Great Compromise; 2 houses in legislative branch  Senate; equal representation  House of Representatives; proportional  3/5 Compromise; slaves counted as 3/5 of a person  3/5 as productive as a free person Other decisions  Bicameral; 2 houses  Elections; electoral
  • Making Decisions Agreed the government should . . .  Be a constitutional government with limited powers  Serve to protect the fundamental rights of the people and the common good  Be stronger to protect rights  Be a republican form of government  Have a series of checks and balances  Have a separation of power Adjourned to let the Committee of Detail work on the first draft of the Constitution
  • Civic Virtue “Civic Virtue”; citizens and leaders put aside private interests for the common good  Is this happening today?  How virtuous are our current politicians?  Are we working towards a common good? Read article “Continuing Deadlock in Congress May Boost State Power”  Are we following the Framers plan?  How can we fix this?
  • Exit Card(s) What is “common good”? What is “civic virtue”?
  • Building a Country Create your own country with your group Decide what type of country you would have  Constitution  Type of Government  Taxes  Laws Write a basic outline like the Virginia Plan