How did the Constitution strengthen the US Government?We the people of theUnited States, in orderto form a more perfectunion, establish justice,insure domestictranquility, provide forthe common defense,promote the generalwelfare, and secure theblessings of liberty toourselves and ourposterity, do ordain andestablish thisConstitution for theUnited States ofAmerica.
Constitutional ConventionShay’s Rebellion of 1787(1786) caused theframers to believe thatthe Articles ofConfederation wereineffective & needed tobe replacedDelegates gathered inPhiladelphia (1787) towrite a newConstitutionJames Madison leadsthe movement to writethe Constitution
Conflict at the Constitutional ConventionDelegates disagreed on THREE key issues:– Representation– Slavery– Trade
Conflict @ the Convention: Representation in the new CongressBig States vs. SmallStatesVirginia Plan– Representation based upon a states population (favored more populated states)New Jersey Plan– Each state had equal votes
Compromise: RepresentationThe Great Compromise– Settled the representation conflict– Delegates created a 2 house (bicameral) legislature One house based upon population (House of Reps) A second house based upon equal votes per state (the United States Senate)
Conflict: The Slavery Issue Southern states supported slavery – Wanted slaves to count for representation, but not for taxation Northern states – wanted slaves to count for taxation, not representation
Compromise: The Slavery IssueThe Three Fifths Compromise:settles the Slavery Issue– 3 out of 5 slaves would be counted for both representation and taxation
Conflict: The Trade Issue Southern delegates did not want an export or import tax (tariff). Northern delegates favored a tax on imports to help northern industries grow. This could hurt the South Compromise: Congress was given the power to tax imports, but not exportsThe South needed slavery for plantation labor. The North feared slave populations would be to high.Compromise- The importation of slaves would end 20 years from the ratification of the Constitution
DEBATE ON RATIFICATIONFederalists argue for astrong federal system toreplace the Articles of Confederation(Madison/Hamilton/Jay)Anti-federalists believethat the new constitutionwould be too strong andcrush the Peoples rights(Henry & S. Adams)
Compromise: Federalists vs. Anti-federalistsFederalists agree to add a Bill of Rights to thenew ConstitutionThe Addition of the BOR allowed Anti-Feds toagree to ratify the new ConstitutionThe Constitution was ratified in 1789
The 1st Chief Executive George Washington was chosen to be the first President The BOR, System of Checks & Balances/Written Constitution all help create Limited Government Electing officials to act as Representatives creates Representative Government
The U.S. ConstitutionThe New Constitution: allowed for a separateexecutive branch (the President), a separatejudicial branch (the Supreme Court), and atwo-house legislative branch (the Congress).
The Federal System/Division of PowerPower was divided between Stategovernments and the FederalGovernment
Powers RESERVED for Both State &Federal Powers: states: Federal:•Armed Forces •Building roads •Health & Safety matters•Coining money •Borrowing money •Marriage/divorce•Regulated trade •Collecting taxes laws•Making treaties •Operating courts •Business regulation •Licensing of professions
15th Amendment--gave voting rights to freed slaves after the civil war.19th Amendment--gave women the right to vote.Example: The Necessary & Proper clause has been used to regulate industries that were unseen in 1789:auto industry, telecommunications, airline safety ECT...Brown v Board of Ed. allowing for the desegregation of schools
Th U r C tion e nwitten onstitu The Unwritten Constitution refers to traditions that have become part of our political system.
The Unwritten Constitution -Political Parties are not written into the Constitution -The Primary responsibility for political parties is to nominate candidates for office -George Washington warned against the formation of political parties.
The Unwritten ConstitutionPresident Washingtonappointed Cabinetmembers to help himrun the government.All presidents havefollowed this traditionThe presidentialcabinet is NOT writtenin the Constitution
Unwritten ConstitutionPresident Washingtonserved 2 terms andretiredThe 2 term traditionbecame part of theUnwritten ConstitutionFDR broke with tradition,2 terms has since beenwritten into theConstitution through theamendment process.
How did the U.S. Constitution Strengthen the U.S. Government? It created a strong national/federal government that allowed the newnation to function as one independent country, created a three branch government (which included a Chief Executive) & preserved the Enlightenment principles of representative government & limited government